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2TJ)e  i&opl  Historical  anti  arcfj&ologtcal  Association 


FOUNDED,  IN  1849,  AS 

Efje  Ifcilfcernijj  Srdjaeological  Societg 








THE  COUNCIL  wish  it  to  be  distinctly  understood  that  they  do 
not  hold  themselves  responsible  for  the  statements  and  opinions 
contained  in  the  Papers  read  at  the  Meetings  of  the  Society, 
and  here  printed,  except  as  far  as  No.  26  of  the  Greneral  Rules 
of  the  Society  extends. 


AS  in  many  recent  Volumes  of  the  Society's  Journal, 
most  of  the  more  important  Papers  published  in 
1897  belong  to  the  domain  of  Prehistoric  Archaeology 
Mr.  Coffey  concludes  the  series  of  Papers  in  which  he 
deduces  the  origin  of  the  earliest  designs  in  Irish 
Ornament  from  the  East;  by  way  of  Scandinavia,  at  a 
period  many  centuries  before  our  era  (pp.  28—52).  He 
answers  some  objections  to  details  of  his  argument  at 
p.  248.  Connected  with  this  subject  may  be  noted  a 
recently  found  Inscribed-stone  from  Slieve-na-Caillighe 
(p.  427). 

Early  Stone  Weapons  are  ably  dealt  with  in  Mr. 
Knowles'  Paper  on  "  Survivals  from  the  Palaeolithic 
Age  among  Irish  Neolithic  Implements,"  with  which 
the  Volume  commences. 

A  recently  found  Bronze  Dagger,  of  exceptional 
interest  from  its  retaining  the  original  bone-handle,  is 
shown  at  p.  423.  A  Bronze  Pot,  of  unusual  form,  and 
very  perfect,  is  figured  on  p.  437. 

Mr.  Westropp's  important  survey  of  the  strangely 
numerous  Stone  Forts  of  Northern  Clare  is  completed 
(p.  116).  A  number  of  prehistoric  fortified  islands  in 
lakes  in  Connemara  are  described  by  Mr.  Layard 
(p.  373  J.  In  connexion  with  the  June  Excursion  is 
a  description  of  the  prehistoric  "  City  of  Fahan " 


(page  300),  which,  though  happily  well  studied  by 
Du  Noyer  forty  years  ago,  has  attracted  much  less 
attention  than  it  deserved,  until  it  fell  into  the  hands 
of  those  employed  by  the  Superintendent  of  Ancient 
Monuments,  with  doubtful  results  for  the  value  of  the 
remains.  At  p.  316  is  an  account  of  the  celebrated 
Staigue  Fort. 

The  kindred  subject  of  Crannoges  is  well  represented 
by  a  careful  study,  by  Dr.  D'Arcy,  of  one  found  at 
Killyvilla,  near  Clones  (pp.  206  and  389).  There  is 
also  a  brief  notice  of  a  Crannoge  found  near  Currin, 
Co.  Tyrone  (p.  254).  Mr.  Rotheram  gives  plan  and 
elevation  of  a  Souterrain  (p.  428). 

Dr.  Frazer's  Papers  on  Gold  Lunulce  and  other 
ornaments  (pages  53  and  359)  might  naturally  find  a 
place  here,  did  not  the  author's  argument,  that  they 
have  been  formed  from  the  gold  of  Roman  coins, 
appear  to  remove  them  from  the  category  of  pre- 
historic objects. 

The  subject  of  Ogham  Inscriptions  is  represented 
by  a  report,  by  the  Rev.  E.  Barry,  on  newly-found 
specimens  in  Co.  Cork  (p.  79);  also  by  a  contribution 
by  Mr.  Macalister  (p.  223),  in  which  he  re-  discusses 
the  Kilkenny  County  Oghams,  dissenting  from  some 
of  the  readings  proposed  by  Father  Barry  in  his  learned 
Paper  in  a  former  Volume. 

The  Papers  on  Ecclesiastical  Antiquities  are  less 
numerous  than  usual.  General  Stubbs  describes  the 
church  remains  at  Dromiskin  (p.  101)  ;  Rev.  S.  Williams 
those  of  Durrow  (p.  128);  and  Mr.  Macnamara  iden- 
tifies a  forgotten  Co.  Clare  church,  Cill-mic-ui-Donain 
(p.  77).  There  is,  however,  no  lack  of  descriptions  of 
church  remains  in  the  accounts  of  the  Society's  Excur- 


sions,  where  there  are  notices  or  accounts  of  churches 
at  Drogheda  (p.  98) ;  Scattery  (p.  273);  Canons'  Island 
(p.  286)  ;  Kilmalkedar  (p.  291)  ;  Gallerus  (p.  298)  ; 
Skellig  (p.  307);  Cloyne  (p.  334);  Lismore  (p.  356); 
Finglas  (p.  452);  St.  Doulough's  (p.  457). 

Many  Castles,  too,  are  noticed  in  connexion  with 
tiie  Excursions,  particularly :  Rathbarry,  Monkstown, 
Co.  Cork ;  Reginald's  Tower,  Waterford ;  and  Lismore 
Castle  (pp.  324-349)  ;  Dunsoghly,  Robs  wall,  and  Mala- 
hide  (pp.  448-456). 

In  the  province  of  Folk-lore,  Mr.  Macalister  notes 
a  Kerry  legend  of  Siobhan-na-Geela  (p.  177).  Mr. 
Westropp  sounds  a  warning  note  against  the  danger  of 
false  or  newly-born  legends,  borrowed  from  modern 
sources,  or  coined  for  tourist  use  (p.  253) — a  warning 
which  may  well  be  a  call  to  preserve  what  yet  remains 
pure  among  the  Folk-tales  rapidly  dying,  or  becoming 

Among  Historical  subjects,  Miss  Hickson  traces  the 
origin  of  the  noble  family  of  Fitzmaurice.  The  Very 
Rev.  J.  Fahey  narrates  the  circumstances  attending 
the  migration  of  the  O'Flahertys  to  lar-Connacht  in 
the  thirteenth  century. 

Dr.  Stokes  has  supplied  an  important  contribution 
to  Irish  mediaeval  history  in  the  completion  of  his 
Synopsis  of  the  "  Black  Book  of  Archbishop  Alan" 
(pp.  164  and  404). 

Recent  finds  of  Coins  are  reported  on  pages  80 
and  432. 

Mr.  Knowles  illustrates  (p.  114)  an  interesting  find 
of  part  of  an  ancient  Harp  obtained  in  connexion  with 

crannoge  remains. 

Mr.  Kinahan  (p.   184)  offers  suggestions  as  to  the 


supposed  u  Otter-traps"  of  which  so  remarkable  a  find 
was  recorded  in  the  Volume  for  last  year. 

Mr.  Kelly  describes  the  Islands  of  Lough  Corrib. 

Colonel  Vigors  supplies  a  resume  of  the  discussion 
carried  on  in  reference  to  the  similar  inscriptions  at 
Carew  Castle,  in  South  Wales,  and  at  Fethard  Castle 
and  Baginbun,  in  Co.  Wexford.  Mr.  Macalister  and 
Miss  Hickson  (pp.  246—247)  add  notes  on  points  which 
arise  in  this  connexion. 

Accounts  of  the  Summer  Excursions  of  the  Society 
occupy  a  considerable  part  of  the  Volume.  The  Sea- 
trip  in  June  included  some  of  the  most  interesting 
places  on  the  west  and  south  coasts  of  Ireland  (pp.  267- 
358).  The  places  in  the  North  County  Dublin,  visited 
in  September,  are  described  at  pp.  445  seq. 

The  section  "  Miscellanea "  records  several  finds  of 
interest,  some  of  which  are  noticed  above.  Much  room 
still  remains  for  increasing  the  value  of  the  Journal  by 
a  more,  general  practice  of  reporting  new  discoveries. 
At  page  82  is  printed  a  Circular  to  Local  Secretaries, 
urging  the  importance  of  this  course.  When  the 
recommendations  of  the  Circular  are  fully  carried  out, 
the  Volumes  of  the  Journal  will  include,  not  only  narra- 
tives of  many  minor  antiquarian  investigations,  but  a 
full  record  of  the  discoveries  made  during  the  year, 
and  a  lasting  repository  of  those  scraps  of  Tradition 
and  Folk-lore  which  the  conditions  of  modern  life  are 
rapidly  leaving  behind  in  a  forgotten  past. 




PART    I. 



Survivals  from  the  Palaeolithic  Age  among  Irish   Neolithic  Implements.     By 

W.  J.  Knowles,  M.R.I.A.,  Vice- President  (Illustrated),  . .  . .         1 

The  Flight  of  the  O'Flahertys,  Lords  of  Moy  Soela,  to  lar-Connaught.     By  the 

Very  Rev.  J.  Fahey,  P.P.,  V.G.,  Local  Secretary,  South  Galway,  ..       19 

Origins    of    Prehistoric    Ornament  in   Ireland.      By    George    CofFey,    A.I.B., 

M. R.I. A.,  Fellow  (Twenty-two  Illustrations),  ..  ..  ..28 

On  Gold  Lunulae,  with  "Descriptions  of  those  contained  in  the  Royal  Irish 
Academy's  Museum,  and  other  Collections  ;  and  on  the  Source  of  the 
Gold  employed  to  make  Irish  Gold  Ornaments.  By  William  Frazer, 
F.R.C. S.I. ,  Vice- President  (Four  Illustrations),  ..  ..  ..53 

Notices  of  Books,          . .  . .  . .  . .  . ,  . .  67 

Miscellanea — Monument  at  Clonkeen,  Co.  Galway — Proposed  Destruction  of 
Kilmallock  Castle — Inismurray — Notes  on  the  Irish  Monasticons — Principal 
Gateway,  Merrion- square — Marhle  Box — Monumental  Inscriptions  from 
the  Cathedral,  Jamaica — Old  Latin  Poem— Identification  of  "  The  As- 
cetic's Church,"  Leana,  Co.  Clare  (Two  Illustrations) — Ogham  Inscription 
in  Co.  Cork — Recent  Find  of  Early  Silver  Coins,  Co.  Mayo — Irish  Church 
Plate — The  Finner  Cairn — Archaeology  in  Limerick,  ..  ..  ..  71 


Annual  General  Meeting,  Duhlin,  12th  January,  1897,  ..  ..  ..84 

Report  of  Council  for  1896,         . .              . .              . .  . .  . .  86 

Evening  Meeting,         . .             . .             . .             . .  . .  . .  92 

Excursion  to  Drogheda,               . .             . .             . .  . .  . .  . .       98 

viii  CONTENTS. 

PART    II. 



Early  Monastic  History  of  Dromiskin,  in  the  County  of  Louth.     By  Major- 

General  Francis  William  Stubbs,  Fellow  (Map  and  Five  Illustrations),       . .      101 

Portion  of  a  Harp  and  other  Objects  found  in  the  Crannoge  of  Carncroagh,  Co. 

Antrim.     By  W.  J.  Knowles,  M.R.I. A.,  Fellow  (Three  Illustrations),       ..      114 

Prehistoric   Stone  Forts  of  Northern  Clare.      By  Thomas  J.  Westropp,  M.A., 

M.B.I. A.,  Fellow  (Ten  Illustrations),  ..  ..  ..  ..116 

The  Old  Graveyards  in  Durrow  Parish.     By  Rev.  Sterling  de  Courcy  Williams, 

M.A.  (Ten  Illustrations),     ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..128 

Notes  on  Three  Inscribed-stones.  (1)  At  Baginbun  Bay,  Co.  Wexford.  (2)  At 
Fethard  Castle,  Co.  Wexford.  (3)  At  Carew  Castle,  Pembrokeshire.  By 
Colonel  Philip  D.  Vigors  (Five  Illustrations),  ..  ..  ..150 

Calendar  of  the  "  Liber  Niger  Alani."     By  the  Rev.  G.   T.   Stokes,   D.D., 

M.R.I. A.     Part  II.,  ..  ..  164 

Miscellanea — Siobhan  na  "  Geela" — Cup-and-Rtng  Sculptured  Stones  from  the 
County  Donegal — Primitive  Burial  at  Rylane,  Co.  Clare  —The  Stolen 
Fountain  and  Rutland  Monument  of  Merrion-square,  Dublin — The  Foun- 
tain at  Merrion- square — Prussia- street,  Dublin— Mr.  Samuel  Guilbride  — 
Wooden  Vessel  found  at  "Doon,"  near  Athlone — The  Duke  of  Tetuan — 
Kenagh  (Co.  Longford)  Old  Church — The  Currans  Ogham — Ancient  Otter- 
traps — Inscribed  Pillar-stones,  Co.  Mayo  (Two  Illustrations)  —  Holed 
Stones  found  in  France — "The  Kilkenny  Museum" — Celtic  Crosses- 
Prehistoric  Burial,  Co.  Wicklow — Cams  in  Co.  Tyrone—"  Spanish  Armada 
Chests" — Interesting  Find  in  Moyntaghs,  Co.  Armagh — An  Old  School  in 
Galway— St.  Patrick's  Bells— Milk  Adulteration— An  Irish  Easter  Legend,  177 

Notices  of  Books,  195 


Second  General  Meeting,  Kilkenny,  19th  April,  1897,  ..  ..  ..198 

Auditors' Report  for  1896,          ..             ..             ..  ..  i  ..  .,200 

Evening  Meeting,          . .             . .             . .             . .  . .  . .  . .     203 

Excursion  to  Kells,  Co.  Kilkenny,             . .  . .  . .  . .     204 





A  Crannoge  near  Clones.     By  Dr.  S.  A.  D'Arcy  (Two  Illustrations),  . .     205 

Notes  on  some  of  the  Kilkenny  Oghams.     By  R.  A.  S.  Macalister,  M.A.,         . .     221 

Ardfert  Friary  and  the   Fitzmaurices,   Lords  of  Kerry  (concluded}.     By  Miss 

Hickson,  Hon..  Local  Secretary,  Kerry,  . .  . .  . .  . .     232 

Miscellanea — Observations  on  the  History  of  Holed  Stones  in  France  and 
Ireland — Monumental  Inscriptions  in  Jamaica — High  Cross,  Downpatrick 
— The  Baginbun  Stone — The  Dolmens  of  Ireland— Note  on  the  Derivation 
of  the  New  Grange  Spirals— Battle  of  Dysert  O'Dea—  Gurrin  Crannoge— 
Baginbun  Inscribed-stone — Kilkenny  Museum,  Shee's  Alms  House,  . .  243 

Notices  of  Books,         . .  256 


Third  General  Meeting,  Lismore,;  12th  June,  1897,  . .  . .  . .     261 

Account  of  Summer  Excursion  (Four  Illustrations),  . .  . .  . .     265 

Description  of  places  visited : — 

Clare  Coast,  Scattery  and  Canons'  Island  (Six  Illustrations),       . .  . .     273 

Kerry  Coast,  Kilmalkedar,  Gallerus,  and  Fahan  (Ten  Illustrations),  . .     290 

Skellig  Michael  (Six  Illustrations),        .             ....  ..  ..  ..307 

Staigue  Fort  (Two  Illustrations)         ..              ..  ..  ..  ..316 

Co.  Cork  Coast,     ..              ..              ..              ..  ..  ..  ..318 

Cork  Harbour  (Three  Illustrations),                  . .  . .  . .  . .     321 

Cloyne  (Four  Illustrations),                 . .              . .  . .  . .  . .     334 

Waterford  Coast  (Two  Illustrations),                 ..  ..  ..  ..343 

Lismore  (Five  Illustrations),               . .              . .  . .  . .  . .     349 


PART    IV. 



On  Irish  Gold  Ornaments — Whence  came  the  Gold  and  When  ? — Article  No.  2. 

By  William  Frazer,  F.R.C.S.L,  Vice -President  (Two  Illustrations),         ..     359 

The  Rangers  of  the  Curragh  of  Kildare.     By  Lord  Walter  Fitz  Gerald,  Fellow, 

Vice- President,      . .  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..371 

Fortified   Stone  Lake-Dwellings  on  Islands  in   Lough    Skannive,  Connemara. 

Communicated  hy  Edgar  L.  Layard,  C.  M.  G.  (Three  Illustrations),  . .     373 

The  Islands  of  the  Corrih.     By  Richard  J.  Kelly,  B.L.,  Hon.   Secretarij  for 

North  Galway,      ..  "..  ...  ..  ..  ..  ..      379 

A  Crannoge  near  Clones  (Part  II.).     By  Dr.  S.  A.  D'Arcy  (Two  Illustrations),      389 

Calendar  of  the  "  Liber  .Niger  Alani."     Part  III.     By  the  Rev.  G.  T.  Stokes, 

D.D.,  M.R.I.A.,  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..404 

Miscellanea — Bronze  Dagger,  with  Original  Handle,  found  near  Castleisland, 
Co.  Kerry  (One  Plate) — Ironstone  Chopper  ,(0ne  Illustration) — Find  of 
Scrapers— Slieve-na-Caillighe  (Two  Illustrations) — On  a  Cave  recently 
discovered  near  Oldcastle  (Two  Illustrations)  —  Irish  Harvestmen  in 
England — The  Fountain  in  Merrion- square — Note  on  the  Dolmen  at 
Ballina,  in  the  County  of  Mayo — Canoe  Find,  Co.  Cork — Canoe  Find, 
Co.  Roscommon— Colpoys  of  Ballycarr — Find  of  Coins  in  Co.  Longford — 
Prioiy,  Kilcolman,  Co.  Kerry — The  Rocking-stone,  Dalkey  Island — The 
Abbey  of  Shrule,  Co.  Longford — A  Refutation — Fethard  Castle,  in  Wex- 
ford — Interesting  "  Find"  in  the  Montiaghs,  Co.  Armagh  (One  Illustration) 
— Stone  Crannog  in  Lough  Bola,  . .  . .  . .  . .  . .  423 

Notices  of  Books,          . .  . .  . .  . .  . .  . .  . .     439 


Fourth  Quarterly  Meeting,  Dublin,  28th  September,  1897,  . .  . .     443 

Excursions  in  connexion  with  September  Meeting,  . .  . .  . .     445 

Descriptive  Sketch  of  places  visited  :— 

Finglas  Wood  (Two  Illustrations),    . .  . .  . .  . .  , .  446 

Mulhuddart,           ......  . .  447 

Dunsoghly  (Two  Illustrations),         . .  . .  . .  . .  448 

Finglas  (One  Illustration),                  . .  . .  . .  . .  . .  451 

Kilbarrack,            ..             ..              ..  //  t>  ,  t  mm  455 

Malahide  (One  Illustration),                . .  . .  . .  . .  . .  456 

St.  Doulough's  (Two  Illustrations),  . .  . .  . .  . .  458 

Evening  Meetings,        . .  . .  460 


An  asterisk  prefixed  indicates  a  Plate. 

"  Survivals  from  Palaeolithic  Age  among  Irish  Neolithic  Implements"  : 


1-  6.   Irish  Neolithic  Implements  compared  with  those  of  Palaeolithic  Age 

(Scale,  one-half  linear),                      ..             ..             ..  ..         3 

7—14.    Irish  Neolithic  Implements  of  Moustier  type  (Scale,  half  linear),    . .         5 

15-25.                   „                „                      „              „                       „  ..7 

26-32.                  ,,                ,,                 Solutrien     „         „            „  ..9 

33-40.                  ,,                 „                           „             (Scale,  f  linear),  ..       11 

41-49.  Arrow-heads  from  Co.  Antrim,                               ,,            ,,  ..       13 

50.          Irish  Spear-head,  partly  polished  (full  size),       . .              . .  . .        15 

"  Origins  of  Prehistoric  Ornament"  : 


87.  Stone  on  King's  Mountain,  Meath,    . .             . .             . .  34 

88.  Scribings  from  Mevagh,  Donegal,      . .              . .              . .  36 

89—  90.  Inscribed-stone  near  Loughcrew,       ..              ..              ..  38,39 

91-  93.  Examples  of  Double  Spirals,               ..             ..             ..  ..41 

94.  Map  showing  Distribution  of  the  Spiral  Ornament  in  Great  Britain 

and  Ireland,       . .              . .              . .              . .              . .  . .       42 

95.  Details  of  Carvings  from  Sweden,      . .             . .             . .  46 

96.  ,,                „            Fiinen,           ..             ..             ..  . .      ib. 

97-101.          „                „                   ..  ..48 

102-105.  Ornamented  Celts,                . .             . .             . .             . .  . .      ib. 

106.            Sun  Symbols,         ..              ..              ..              ..              ..  ..49 

107,108.            „            Loughcrew,                   ..             ..             ..  ..50 

Portion  of  Gold  Lunula  belonging  to  Sir  M.  Chapman,       . .             . .  . .       54 

Gold  Lunula,  Royal  Irish  Academy  Collection,                    . .             . .  . .       55 

Denarii  of  Julia  Mammsea  and  Marcia  Otacilia  Severa,       . .              . .  . .       ib. 

Facsimile  of  Monumental  Inscription  of  Bishop  Edmond  Kelly,        . .  . .       71 

Jamb  of  Door,  Church  of  Cill-mic-Ui-Donain,     ..             ..             ..  ..78 

Double  Bullaun,       „                  ,,              ,,             ..             ..             ..  ..79 

St.  Mary's  Church  and  Millmount,  Drogheda,      ..              ..              ..  ..99 

St.  Mochta's  Oratory  at  Louth,               ..             ..             ..             ..  ..104 



Map  of  Parish  of  Dromiskin  and  places  adjoining,  . .  . .  ...     106 

Round  Tower,  Dromiskin,  Co.  Louth,    . .             . .  . ,  . .  . .     107 

„                „                Doorway,  ..  ..  ..108 

Cross  at  Dromiskin,  Front  and  Back  Views,          . .  . .  . .  . .     109 

Portion  of  Harp  found  in  Crannoge  of  Carncoagh,  . .  . .  L14 

Handle  of  Spear,  with  Bronze  Butt,      *•.,'' :         ..  ..  ..  ..     115 

"  Prehistoric  Stone  Forts  of  Northern  Clare  "  : 

1.  Plan  of  Noughaval  and  Ballyganner,           ..  ..  ..  ..116 

2.  Cahercuttine,                   ..              ..             ..  ..  ..  ..117 

3.  ,,           Plan  of  Entrance,      ..             ..  ..  ..  ib. 

4.  „          Steps  and  Gate,         ..             ..  ..  ..  ..118 

5.  Plans  of  Forts  near  Noughaval,    ..             ..  ..  ..  ..119 

6.  Caheraneden,    ..             ..              ..             ..  ..  ..  ..     120 

7.  Plans  of  Cahermacnaughten,  Ballykinvarga,  &c.,      . .  . .  . .     122 

8.  Ballykinvarga  Caher,       ..             ..             ..  ..  ..  ..123 

91            ,','             ,Y        Gateway,     ..             ..  ..  ..  ..124 

10.             „          Pillar-stone  and  chewux-de-frise,  ..  ..  ..125 

"  Old  Graveyard  of  Durrow  Parish  "  : 


1.  Cross  at  Tihilly,           ..              ..             ..  ..  ..  ..131 

2-           ,,             „                 ..              ..             ..  ..  ..  ..132 

2.  Tombstones  at  Tihilly,               . .              . .  . .  . .  ib. 

3.  Cross  on  gable,  Durrow  Church,               . .  . .  . .  . .     134 

4.  De  Renci  Arms,           ..              ..              ..  ..  ..  ..     137 

5.  Tombstone,  Durrow  Church,                    . .  . .  . .  . .     138 

6.  Aigide's  Tombstone,    . .             . .             . .  . .  . .  . .     140 

7.  Cathalan's        „          . ;             ..             ..  ..  ..  ..141 

8-9.  High  Cross  of  Durrow  and  Details,          ..  ..  ..  144-5 

10.       Interlaced  Work,         ..              ..             ..  ..  ..  ..146 

Baginbun  Inscription,                ..             ..             ..  ..  ..  ..151 

,,         Inscribed-stone,        ..             ..              ..  ..  ..  ..     154 

Fethard  Castle  Inscription,        ..             ..              ..  ..  , .  ..156 

»                »                   from  Drawing  by  Du  Noyer,    ..  ..  ..     158 

Carew  Castle  Inscription,          ..             ..             ..  ..  ..  ..161 

Inscribed  Pillar-stones,  Co.  Mayo,          ..             ;;  ..  ..  ..186 

Plan  of  Killy villa  Crannoge,  near  Clones,               . .  . .  . .  . .     207 

Objects  found  in  Killyvilla  Crannoge,  near  Clones,  . .  . .  . .     214 

Shaft  of  Killeany  Cross,  Aranmore  Island,  Co.  Galway,  . .  . .     267 

Crosses  and  Windows,  Skellig  Rock,  Co.  Kerry  : 
1,  2.  Crosses  at  Larger  Oratory, 

3.  High  Cross  near         do.' 

4.  East  Window  of  Smaller  Oratory, 

6-  ,,  St.  Michael's  Church,; 

Plan  of  Souterrain,  Cluttahina,  Co.  Waterford,  ..  ..  ..271 



Lismore  Fort,  Co.  Waterford  (Plan),       . .  . .     272 

Plan  of  Hums,  Scattery  Island,  Co.  Clare,             . .             . .             . .  . .     277 

Silver  Brooches,            „               „                          ..             ..             ..  ..281 

Bound  Tower,  Oratory,  and  Cathedral,  Scattery  Island,  Co.  Clare,  . .     283 
Tombstone  near.  Temple  Senan  (Celtic),    op    bo   TTloenach,    &c.,    Scattery 

Island,  Co.  Clare,                  ..              ..              ..              ..              ..  .,285 

Plan  of  Canons' Jsland  Abbey,  Co.  Clare,             ..             ..             ..  ..     287 

Canons'  Island  Abbey  from  North,          . .              . .              . .              . .  . .     288 

Arcade  Column,  Kilmalkedar,  Co.  Kerry,              . .              . .              . .  . .     292 

Chancel  Arch  aj\d  Plan,         ,,           „                     ..              ..              ..  ..293 

Arcade  and  Window,              ,,           ,,                      ..              . .              ..  ..     295 

Alphabet  Stone,                      „           ,,                     ..             ..             ..  ..296 

Oratory,  Gallerus,  Co.  Kerry,                  . .             . .             . .  298,  299 

General  Plan  of  Forts,  Fahan,  Co.  Kerry,             ..             ..             ..  ..301 

Plans  of  Forts  at  Fahan  and  Ballyheabought,  Co.  Kerry,                   . .  . .     303 

Plans  of  Cloghauns,  Fahan,      . .              . .              . .              . .              . .  . .     305 

St.  Michael's  Church  and  Monastic  Cells,  Skellig  Rock,  Co.  Kerry,  . .     307 

Plan,  Skellig  Rock,  Co.  Kerry,                             ,,                  ,,           ..  ..310 

The  Smaller  and  Greater  Oratories,                       ,,                  ,,           ..  ..     312 

General  View  of  Monastic  Cells  from  East,  Skellig  Rock  (by  T.  J.  Westropp),      314 

Gateway,  Staigue  Fort,  Co.  Kerry,         ..              ..              ..              ..  ..     315 

General  View           ,,             ,,                    ..              .,              ..              ..  ..316 

Rathbarry  Castle,  Co.  Cork  (Four  Views),             ..              ..              ..  ..324 

Monkstown  Castle,  Co.  Cork,                   . .              . .              . .              . .  . .     330 

Old  Lighthouse,  Kinsale  (taken  down  in  1848),    . .              . .              . .  . .      333 

Plan  of  Cathedral,  Cloyne,  Co.  Cork  (after  A.  Hill),           . .             . .  . .     336 

Cathedral  and  Round  Tower  from  N.E.,  Cloyne,  Co.  Cork,               . .  . .     337 

Round  Tower  from  Street,  Cloyne,  Co.  Cork  (by  W.  F.  Wakeman),  . .     340 

,,             Details  of  Door  and  Windows,            ,,             ,,           ..  ..     342 

Dunbrody  Abbey,  Co.  Wexford,  from  S.E.,           ..              ..              ..  ..3-16 

Reginald's  Tower,  Waterford,                 . .              . .              . .              . .  . .     347 

Lismore  Castle  and  Bridge,  Co.  Waterford,            ..              ..              ..  ..     349 

,,            the  Gateway,                    ..             ..             ..             ..  ..     352 

„             the  Banqueting  Hall,       . .             . .             . .             . .  . .     353 

Plan,                   ..              ..              ..              ..              ..  ..354 

Lismore  Cathedral,  Tombstones  (Celtic),                ..             ..             ..  ..     357 

Gold  Rings,                 ..             ..             ..             ..             ..             ..  ..362 

Ornamental  Penannular  Ring  of  Gold,                    . .              . .              . .  . .     366 

Lake-Dwellings,  Lough  Skannive,          . .              . .              . .              . .  . .     374 


,•     376 

Crannoge  of  Killyvilla,  near  Clones : 

Fragments  of  Pottery  found,               ..              ..              .                ..  ..     391 


*Bronze  Daggers,  with  Original  Handles,  ..  ..  ..       to  face     423 



Chopper  made  from  Fragment  of  Polished  Celt,     . .  . .  . .  ...     425 

Chopper  and  Disc  from  Slieve-na-Caillighe,          ..  ..  ..  ..     426 

Inscribed-stone  from  Slieve-na-Caillighe,              ..  ..  ,"£"*•  4          ••     4>27 

Cave  near  Oldcastle,  Plan,        ..             ..'             ..  ..  ..  ..428 

„            ,,          Vertical  Section,     ..              ..  ..  ..  ..429 

Bronze  Pot  found  in  the  Montiaghs,  Co.  Armagh,  . .  . .  . .     437 

Finglas  Wood  House,  Doorway,              ..              ..  ..  . .  ..     447 

,,                 „             Plan  of  Entrance,                ..  ..  ..  ib. 

Dunsoghly  Castle,  Co.  Dublin,                ..             ..  ..  ..  ..449 

St.  Margaret's  Church,  Dunsoghly,         ..             ..  ..  ..  ..450 

Finglas,  Church  of  St.  Canice,                 . .              . .  . .  . .  . .     453 

Malahide  Castle,         ..             ..             ..              ..  ..  ..  ..457 

St.  Doulough's  Church,             . .             . .             . .  . .  . .  . .     458 

Well,  ..  ..  459 


Pages  3,  5,  7,  and  9,  in  description  of  Plates  I.,  II.,  III.,  and  IV.,  for  "  one-fourth 
size/'  read  "  half  linear." 

Pages  11  and  13,  in  Plates  V.  and  VI.,  for  "two-fifths  natural  size,"  read  "three- 
fourths  linear." 

Page  15,  for  "  one-fourth  size,"  under  figure  50,  read  "  natural  size." 

Page  192,  for  "  Trellan's  Dublin  Journal,"  fourth  line  from  foot,  read  "Faulkner's 
Dublin  Journal" 




AS  REVISED,  81st  DECEMBER,  1897. 






THIS  Society,  instituted  to  preserve,  examine,  and  illustrate  all 
Ancient  Monuments  of  the  History,  Language,  Arts,  Manners,  and 
Customs  of  the  past,  as  connected  with  Ireland,  was  founded  as 
THE  KILKENNY  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  in  1849.  Her  Majesty  the 
Queen,  on  December  27th,  1869,  was  graciously  pleased  to  order 
CIATION OF  IRELAND,  and  was  further  pleased  to  sanction  the  adoption 
of  the  title  of  THE  EOYAL  SOCIETY  OF  ANTIQUARIES  OF  IRELAND  on 
25th  March,  1890. 

The  Society  holds  four  General  Meetings  in  each  year,  in  Dublin 
and  in  the  several  Provinces  of  Ireland,  when  Papers  on  Historical 
and  Archaeological  subjects  are  read,  Fellows  and  Members  elected, 
Objects  of  Antiquity  exhibited,  and  Excursions  made  to  places  of 
Antiquarian  interest.  The  Council  meets  monthly,  except  in  August, 
at  7,  St.  Stephen's-green,  Dublin.  Evening  Meetings  of  the  Society 
are  also  held  monthly  in  Dublin  during  the  Winter.  Honorary 
Provincial  and  Local  Secretaries  are  appointed,  whose  duty  it  is  to 
inform  the  Hon.  Secretary  of  all  Antiquarian  Eemains  discovered  in 
their  Districts,  to  investigate  Local  History  and  Traditions,  and  to 
give  notice  of  all  injury  likely  to  be  inflicted  on  Monuments  of 
Antiquity,  and  Ancient  Memorials  of  the  Dead,  in  order  that  the 
influence  of  the  Society  may  be  exerted  to  preserve  them. 

The  PUBLICATIONS  of  the  Society  comprise  the  Journal  and  the 
"  Extra  Volume  "  Series.  The  "Antiquarian  Handbook"  Series  was 
commenced  in  1895. 

The  Journal,  now  issued  Quarterly,  from  the  year  1849  to  1897, 
inclusive,  forming  twenty-seven  Volumes  (royal  8vo),  with  more  than 
2000  Illustrations,  contains  a  great  mass  of  information  on  the 
History  and  Antiquities  of  Ireland. 

(     3    .) 

The  following  Volumes  are  now  out  of  print: — First  Series,  Vols.  I. 
(1849-51)  and  III.  (1854-55);  New  Series,  Vols.  I.  (1856-57)  and 
III.  (1860-61) ;  Fourth  Series,  Vols.  IV.  (1876-78),  VIII.  (1887-88), 
and  IX.  (1889).  Of  the  remaining  Volumes,  those  for  1870-1885 
can  be  supplied  to  Members  at  the  average  rate  of  10s.  each.  Odd 
Parts,  including  some  for  the  Volumes  out  of  print,  can  be  supplied 
at  an  average  of  2s.  Qd.  each.  Part  I.  of  the  Fifth  Series  (1890)  is 
out  of  print ;  the  other  Parts  of  this,  the  present  Series,  can  be  had 
for  3s.  each. 

The  Extra  Volumes  are  supplied  to  all  Fellows,  on  the  roll  at  date 
of  issue,  free,  and  may  be  obtained  by  Members,  at  the  prices  fixed 
by  the  Council. 

The  Extra  Volume  Series  consists  of  the  following  Works  :— 

1853. — "  Vita  S.  Kannechi,  a  codice  in  bibliotheca  Burgundiana  extante  Bruxellis 
transcripta,  et  cum  codice  in  bibliotheca  Marsiana  Dublinii  adservato  collata."  Edited 
by  the  Most  Hon.  John,  second  Mai-quis  of  Ormonde.  100  copies  presented  by  him 
to  the  Members  of  the  Society.  (Out  of  print.} 

1855  and  1858.— Parts  I.  and  II.  of  "  Social  State  of  S.E.  Counties"  as  below. 

1865-7. — "  Observations  in  a  Voyage  through  the  Kingdom  of  Ireland:  being  a 
collection  of  several  Monuments,  Inscriptions,  Draughts  of  Towns,  Castles,  &c.  By 
Thomas  Dineley  (or  Dingley),  Gent.,  in  the  Year  1681."  From  the  original  MS.  in 
the  possession  of  Sir  T.  E.  Winnington,  Bart.,  Stanford  Court.  Profusely  illustrated 
by  fac-simile  engravings  of  the  original  drawings  of  Castles,  Churches,  Abbeys, 
Monuments,  &c.  Price  of  issue,  £1  10s.  (Out  of  print.) 

1868-9.—"  Social  State  of  the  Southern  and  Eastern  Counties  of  Ireland  in  the 
Sixteenth  Century :  being  the  Presentments  of  the  Gentlemen,  Commonalty,  and 
Citizens  of  Carlow,  Cork,  Kilkenny,  Tipperary,  Waterford,  and  Wexford,  made  in  the 
Reigns  of  Henry  VIII.  and  Elizabeth."  From  the  originals  in  the  Public  Record 
Office,  London.  Edited  by  Herbert  F.  Hore  and  Rev.  James  Graves,  M.R.I. A.  Price 
of  issue,  £1.  (Part  I.  out  of  print.)  A  few  copies  of  Parts  II.  and  III.  still  in  stock. 
Reduced  price  to  Members,  3s.  each  Part. 

1870—7. — "Christian  Inscriptions  in  the  Iiish  Language."  From  the  earliest 
known  to  the  end  of  the  twelfth  century.  Chiefly  collected  and  drawn  by  George 
Petrie,  Esq.  With  Topographical,  Historical,  and  Descriptive  Letterpress.  Illus- 
trated by  107  plates  and  numerous  woodcuts.  Edited,  with  an  Introductory  Essay,  by 
M.  Stokes  ;  revised  by  the  Rev.  "William  Reeves,  D.D.  7  Parts  in  2  Vols.  Price  of 
issue,  £3.  (Out  of  print)  except  Part  IV.,  containing  13  Illustrations  and  23  Plates. 
Reduced  price  to  Members,  5s. 

1888-9. — "  Rude  Stone  Monuments  of  the  County  Sligo  and  the  Island  of  Achill." 
With  209  Illustrations.  By  Colonel  Wood-Martin.  Reduced  price  to  Members,  7s.  Qd. 

1890-1.— "Account  Roll  of  the  Priory  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  Dublin,  1337-46, 
with  the  Middle  English  Moral  Play,  The  Pride  of  Life."  From  the  original  in  the 
Christ  Church  Collection  in  the  Public  Record  Office,  Dublin.  With  fac-simile  of 
the  MS.  Edited,  with  Translation,  Notes,  and  Introduction,  by  James  Mills,  M.R.I. A. 
Reduced  price  to  Members,  7s.  6d. 

1892. — "  Survey  of  the  Antiquarian  Remains  on  the  Island  of  Inismurray."  By 
W.  F.  Wakeman,  Hon.  Fellow  of  the  Society;  Author  of  "A  Handbook  of  Irish 
Antiquities,"  &c.  With  a  Preface  by  James  Mills,  M.K.I.A.  84  Illustrations.  Price 
7s.  6d. 

1893—5. — "  The  Annals  of  Clonmacnoise"  :  being  Annals  of  Ireland  from  the  ear- 
liest period  to  A.D.  1408,  translated  into  English  A.D.  1627,  by  Connell  Mageoghagan, 
and  now  for  the  first  time  printed.  Edited  by  the  Rev.  Denis  Murphy,  s.j.,  LL.D., 
M.R.I. A.,  Vice-President  of  the  Society.  Price  10s. 

1896-7. — "The  Register  of  the  Diocese  of  Dublin  in  the  times  of  Archbishops  Tre 
gury  and  Walton,  1467-1483."    Edited  by  Henry  F.  Berry,  M.A.    (In  the  Press.)    10s. 

(     4     ) 

The  following  are  in  course  of  preparation  as  Extra  Volumes  : — 

"The  Journal  and  Accounts  of  Peter  Lewys,  1564,  Proctor  of  Christ  Church 
Cathedral,  A.D.  1564."  Edited  by  James  Mills,  M.R.I. A. 

"A  Collection  of  Original  Irish  Music."     By  P.  W.  Joyce,  LL.D.,  M.R.I. A. 

The  foregoing  may  be  had  from  the  Publishers,  Messrs.  HODGES, 
FIGGIS,  &  Co.  (Ltd.),  104,  Grafton-street,  Dublin,  or  Messrs.  WILLIAMS 
&  NOBGATE,  London  and  Edinburgh,  including  the  "Antiquarian 
Handbook  Series,"  of  which  No.  1,  "  Tara  and  Glendalough,"  price 
6d.,  has  been  issued ;  and  No.  2,  "The  Western  Islands"  (Illustrated). 

All  who  are  interested  in  antiquarian  research  are  invited  to  join 
the  Society;  and  may  notify  their  intentions  either  to  the  Hon. 
Secretary,  7,  St.  Stephen's-green,  Dublin,  to  the  Hon.  Provincial  and 
Local  Secretaries,  or  any  Member  of  the  Society. 

Subscriptions  to  be  paid  to  the  Honorary  General  Secretary  and 
Treasurer,  7,  St.  Stephen's-green,  Dublin,  by  Crossed  Cheque  or 
Postal  Order. 

Annual  Subscription  of  Fellows,  .  .£100 

Entrance  Fee  of  Fellows,  .  .  .  /-  2  0  0 

Annual  Subscription  of  Members,  ,  .  .*  0  10  0 

Entrance  Fee  of  Members,  .  .  0  10  0 
Life  Composition — Fellows,  including 

Entrance  Fee,  .  ...  14  0  0 

Life  Composition  —  Fellows  of  Ten 

years'  standing,  .  .  •  ,  V,  •  .  8  0  0 
Life  Composition — Members,  including 

Entrance  Fee,  .  ...  .  700 
Life  Composition — Members  of  Ten 

years'  standing,       ..      -/        .        ,  ,     .        500 

FELLOWS  wishing  to  designate  their  connexion  with  the  Society 
may  use  the  initials — F.R. S.A.I. 

(By  order  of  Council), 

31st  December,  1897. 


Hon.  Gen.  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 





f  ainw  in  CJief* 




THE     RIGHT    HON.    O'CONOR   DON,    LIEUT.    AND    CUSTOS     ROT.    OF    Co. 



fmcrmg  fmitet  f0*  1897* 

ittsitetti,  1897-4899, 






THOMAS  DREW,  R.H.A.,  F.R.I.  B.A.,  P.R.I.A.I. 













WILLIAM  FRAZER,  F.R.C.S.I.,  M.R.I.A.,  Hon.  F.S.A.  (Scot.). 

(     6     ) 

JKW.  taeral  Stetarg  aidr 

17,  HIGH  FIELD  -no  AD,  DUBLIN. 









THE  REV.  GEORGE  T.  STOKES,  D.D.,  M.R.I.A.  - 

WILLIAM  R.  J.  MOLLOY,  J.P.,  M.R.I.A. 

J.  J.  DIGGES  LATOUCHE,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  M.R.I.A. 


G.  D.  BURTCHAELL,  M.A.,  M.R.I.A., 


j|0»+  famxttw  auto  Jiteriaw,  SwWm. 









THOMAS  J.  WESTROPP,  M.A.,  M.R.I.A.,  Dublin. 


SEATON  F.  MILLIGAN,  M.R.I.A.,  Belfast. 
THE  REV.  H.  W.  LETT,  M.A.,  M.R.I.A.,  Loughbrickland. 


P.  J.  LYNCH,  C.E.,  M.R.I.A.  I.,  Architect,  Limerick. 
THE  REV.  CANON  C.  MOORE,  M.A.,  Mitchelstown. 


RBV.  C.  LAWRENCE,  M.A.,  Lawrencetown,  Co.  Galway. 
EDWARD  MARTYN,  D.L.,  Tillyra  Castle,  Ardrahan. 

Antrim,  Middle, 

„       North, 

,,       South, 



Belfast,  City, 



Clare,  South, 

„    North, 

Cork,  South, 

,,     North, 

,,     East, 

„      West, 

,,     City, 


Down,  North, 

,,       South, 

Dublin,  South, 

„      North, 

„      City, 


Galway,  North, 

„       South, 

,,        Town, 

Kerry,     South,  .. 

,,       North,  . . 

Kildare,  South,   . . 

,,       North,  . . 


,,  City,  .. 
King's  County,  . . 

Limerick,  East,  . . 
„        West,   .. 
„        City,    .. 
Londonderry,  North, 
,,  South; 


Mayo,  South, 
,,      North, 
Meath,  South,     . . 
„      North,     . . 
Monaghan,  , , 

Queen's  Co., 

Tipper ary,  South, 
, ,         North, 

Tyrone,  West,     .. 
„       East,      . . 

IFaterford,  East, 
„  West, 

„          City, . . 

Westmeath,  North, 
,,  South, 

Wexford,  North, 
, ,       South, 

Wicklow,  South, . . 
,,       North,.. 

W.  A.  TKAILL,  M.A. 

THE  REV.  S.  A.  BRENAN,  M.A. 

W.  J.  KNOWLES,  M.R.I. A. 



R.  M.  YOUNG,  J.P.,  B.A.,  M.R.I.A. 




THE  O'DoNOVAN,  M.A.,  J.P. 




W.  H.  HILL,  F.R.I. B.A. 




W.  F.  WAKEMAN  (Hon.  Fellow}. 

WILLIAM  C.  STUBBS}  M.A.,  Barrister-at-Law. 



RICHARD  J.  KELLY,  Barrister-at-Law,  J.P. 

VERY  REV.  J.  FAHEY,  P.P.,  V.G. 






M.  M.  MURPHY,  M.R.I.A.,  Solicitor. 

P.  M.  EGAN,  J.P. 


H.  J.  B.  CLEMENTS,  J.P.,  D.L. 


G.  J.  HEWSON,  M.A. 





J.  M.  WILSON,  M.A.,  J.P. 

J.  R.  GARSTIN,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  M.R.I.A. 

W.  E.  KELLY,  C.E.,  J.P. 


J.  H.  MOORE,  M.A.,  M.INST.  C.E.I. 


D.  CAROLAN  RUSHE,  B.A.,  Solicitor. 
B.  P.  J.  MAHONY,  M.R.C.V.S. 

GEORGE  A.  P.  KELLY,  M.A.,  Barrister-at-Law. 


CHARLES  MULLIN,  Solicitor. 

M.  J.  HURLEY. 



DR.  G.  E.  J.  GREENE,  M.R.I.A.,  F.L.S.,  J.P. 


THE  REV.  J.  F.  M.  FFRENCH,  M.R.I.A. 



31st  December,  1897.) 

The  Names  of  those  who  have  paid  the  Life  Composition,  and  are  Life  Fellows,  are 
printed  in  heavy-faced  type.     (See  Rules  3  and  7,  page  40.) 

























Ahercorn,  His  Grace  the  Duke  of,  M.A.  (Oxon.),  K.G.,  C.B. 

Earonscourt,  Newtownstewart.  (Honorary  President,  1896.) 
Agnew,  Hon.  Sir  James  Wilson,  K.C.M.G.  Hobart,  Tasmania. 
Allen,  J.  Eomilly,  F.S.A.  28,  Great  Ormond-street,  London, 

ARMSTRONG,  Robert  Bruce,  F.S.A.  (Scot.),  6,  Randolph  Cliff, 


Bagnall-Oakeley,  Rev.  William,  M.A.  (Oxon.).    Newland,  Cole- 
ford,  Gloucestershire. 
BARTER,    Rev.    John    Berkeley,    M.R.I.  A.,    F.  R.  G.S.I., 

F.R.Z.S.I.     23,  Corso  Oporto,  Turin,  Italy. 
Barry,     Rev.    Edmond,    P.P.,    M.R.I.A.       Rathcormac,    Co. 


Beattie,  Rev.  A.  Hamilton.     Portglenone,  Co.  Antrim.    • 
Bigger,  Francis  Joseph,  M.R.I.A.     Ardrie,  Belfast. 
Browne,  Most  Rev.  James,  D.D.,  Bishop  of  Ferns.    St.  Peter's 

College,  Wexford. 

Browne,  John  Blair.     Brownstown  House,  Kilkenny. 
Browne,  William  James,  M.A.  (Lond.),  M.R.I.A.,  Inspector  of 

Schools.     5,  Crawford-square,  Londonderry. 
Brownrigg,   Most    Rev.    Abraham,    D.D.,    Bishop   of   Ossory. 

St.  Kieran's,  Kilkenny.     (Vice-President,  1896.) 
Buiek,   Rev.    Geo.   Raphael,   M.A.,    LL.D.,   M.R.I.A.       The 

Manse,  CuUyhackey.     (Vice  President,  1892-98.) 
BURTCHAELL,  Geo.  Dames,  M.A.,  LL.B.  (Dubl.),  M.R.I.A., 

Barrister-at-Law.     7,  St.  Stephen' s-green,  Dublin. 

Carlingford,  Right  Hon.  Lord,  K.P.,  M.R.I.A.,  peril.  C.  Tisdnll, 
J.P.  Ravensdale,  Co.  Louth.  (Vice-president,  1888- 

Castletown,  Right  Hon.  Lord,  J.P.,  D.L.  Grantston  Manor, 
Abbeyleix.  (Vice-President,  1885-89.) 

Cane,  Major  R.  Claude,  J.P.   St.  Wolstan's,  Celbridge. 

Clark,  Stewart,  J.P.     Kilnside,  Paisley. 

Clarke,  William  Usher,  Bridge  House,  Teddington,  Middlesex. 

CLOSE,  Rev.  Maxwell  H.,  M.A.',  M.R.I.A.,  F.G.S.  38,  Lower 
Baggot-strect,  Dublin. 

Cochrane,  Sir  Henry,  J.P.,  D.L.     Nassau-place,  Dublin. 

COCHRANE,  Robert,  F.S.A.,  F.R.I. B.A.,  M.R.I.A.,  Fellow 
Societe  Royale  des  Antiquaires  du  Nord.  17,  Highneld- 
road,  Dublin.  (Hon,  Gen.  Secretary,  1888.) 































Coffey,  George,  B.A.I.,  M.R.I.A.,  Barrister-at-Law.     5,  Har- 

court-terrace,  Dublin. 

Colles,  Ramsay,  M.R.I.A.,  J.P.     1,  Wilton-terrace,  Dublin. 
COLLES,  Richard,  B.A.,  J.P.     Millmount,  Kilkenny. 
Colvill,    Robert    Frederick    Stewart,    J.  P.      Killester  Abbey, 


Cooke,  John,  M.A.     66,  Morehampton-road,  Dublin. 
Cooper,    Lieut. -Colonel   Edward   Henry,    M.R.I.A.,  H.M.L., 

Co.  Sligo.     Markree  Castle,  Co.  Sligo ;   and  42,  Portman- 

square,  London.     (Vice-President,  1896.) 
Copinger,     Walter    Arthur,    LL.D.,     F.S.A.       The    Priory, 


Costly,  Thomas.     300,  Lower  Broughton,  Manchester. 
Corn-town,   Right   Hon.  the  Earl  of,   J.P.,   D.L.      Courtown 

House,  Gorey,     (Vice-President,  1886-87.) 
COWAN,  Samuel  Wm.  Percy,  M.A.,  M.R.I.A.      Craigavad, 

Co.  Down. 
Crawley,  W.  J.  Chetwode,  LL.D.,  D.C.L.,  F.R.G.S.,  F.G.S., 

F.R.  Hist.  S.     3,  Ely-place,  Dublin. 
Crozier,  Rigbt  Rev.  John  Baptist,  D.D.,  Bishop  of  Ossory,  Ferns, 

and  Leighlin.     The  Palace,  Kilkenny. 
Cullinan,    Henry    Cooke,    LL.B.,    Barrister-at-Law.      7,    St. 

Stephen' s-green,  Dublin. 

Dagg,  Geo.  A.  de  M.  E.,  M.A.,  LL.B.,  D.I.R.I.C.     Raphoe. 
•Dames,  Robert  Staples  Longworth,  B.A.  (Dubl.),  M.R.I.A.,  J.P., 

Barrister-at-Law.     21,  Herbert-street,  Dublin. 
Day,  Robert,  F.S.A.,  M.R.I.A.,  J.P.     Myrtle  Hill  House,  Cork. 

(Vice-President,  1887-97.) 
Dease,  Edmund,  M.A.,  J.P.,  D.L.    Rath,  Ballybrittas,  Queen's 

Desart,  Rt.  Hon.  the  Earl  of,  J.P.,  D.L.    75,  South  Audley-st., 

Devonshire,  His  Grace  the  Duke  of,  M.A.  (Cantab.),  D.C.L., 

K.G.     Devonshire  House,  Piccadilly,  London,  W.    (Hon. 

President,  1897). 
Dixon,  Sir  Daniel,  J.P.,  D.L.     Ballymenoch  House,  Holywood, 

Co.  Down. 
Donnelly,   Most    Rev.  Nicholas,   D.D.,   M.R.I.A.,    Bishop   of 

Canea.     St.  Cronans,  Bray. 
DONNELLY,  Patrick  J.     136,  Capel-street. 
Doyle,  Charles  F.,  M.A.,  F.R. U.I.     19,  Kildare- street. 
Drew,  Thomas,  R.H.A.,  F.R.I.B.A.,  P.R.I. A.I.     Gortnadrew, 

Alma-road,    Monkstown,    Co.    Dublin.       (Vice-President, 

1889-94,1897;    President,  1894-97.) 
Duignan,  William  Henry.     Gorway,  Walsall. 

Eden,   Rev.   Arthur,    M.A.   (Oxon.)       Ticehurst,    Hawkhurst, 


Egan,  Patrick  M.,  J.P.     High-street,  Kilkenny. 
EVANS,  Sir  John,   K.C.B.,  D.C.L.  (Oxon.),  LL.D.  (Dublin), 

D.Sc.,  F.R.S.,  F.S.A.,  Hon.  M.R.I.A.    Nash  Mills,  Hemel 

EWART,    Lavens    Mathewson,    M.R.I.A.,    J.P.       Glenbank 

House,  Belfast.     (Vice- President,  1892-97.) 
EWABT,  Sir  William  Quartus,  Bart.,  M.A.,  J.P.     Schomberg, 

Strandtown,  Belfast. 






FFRENCH,  Rev.  James  F.  M.,  M.R.I.  A.    Ballyredmond  House, 

Clonegal.     (Vice  -President,  1897). 

1894         Finlay,   Ven.    George,    D.D.,   Archdeacon   of    Clogher.       The 

Rectory,  Clones. 

1889         FITZGERALD,  Lord  Frederick.     Carton,  Maynooth. 


FITZGERALD,  Lord  Walter,  M.R.I.  A.,  J.P.     Kilkea  Castle, 



Mageney.     (Vice-  President,  1895.) 
Frazer,  William,  F.R.C.S.I.,  M.R.I.A.,  Hon.  F.S.A.  (Scot.), 

F.R.G.S.I.     20,  Harcourt-street,  Dublin.     (Vice-  President, 




Frost,  James,  M.R.I.  A.,  J.P.     54,  George  -street,  Limerick. 



GARSTIN,  JohnRibton,  LL.B.,  M.A.,  B.D.,F.S.A.,  M.R.I.A., 
F.R.H.S.,  J.P.,  D.L.      Bragganstown,  Castlebellingham. 

(Vice-  President,  1885-95,) 



Geoghegan,  Charles,  Assoc.  INST.  C.E.I.     89,  Pembroke-road, 



Gillman,  Herbert  Webb,  B.A.,  Barrister-at-Law,  J.P.     Clon- 

teadmore,  Coachford,  Co.  Cork. 


Goff,  William  G.  D.,  J.P.     Glenville,  Waterford. 


Gordon,  John  W.     Mullingar. 



Graves,  Right  Rev.  Charles,  D.D.,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S.,  M.R.I.  A., 

Lord  Bishop   of   Limerick,    Ardfert,   and   Aghadoe.      The 

Palace,  Limerick.     (  Vice-President,  1894-98.) 



Gray,  William,  M.R.I.  A.    Auburn  Villa,  Glenburn  Park,  Belfast. 

(Vice-President,  1889-96.) 



Greene,   George  E.    J.,  M.A.  D.Sc.   M.R.I.A.,  F.L.S.,   J  P. 



Greer,  Thomas,  M.R.I.  A.,  F.R.G.S.,  J.P.     Sea  Park,  Belfast, 

and  Grove  House,  Regent's  Park,  London,  N.W. 



Handcock,  Gustavus  F.     Public  Record  Office,  Chancery-lane, 

London,  W.C.     -. 



Hasse,  Rev.  Leonard.     Fairfield  College,  Manchester. 



Healy,  Most  Rev.  John,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  M.R.I.  A.,  Coadjutor 

Bishop  of  Clonfert.     Mount   St.   Bernard,    Ballymacward, 

Ballinasloe.     (Vice-President,  1890-98.) 



HEWSON,  George  James,  M.A.     Hollywood,  Adare. 



Hickey,   Rev.  Michael  P.,  M.R.I.  A.,  Professor  of  Gaelic  and 

Lecturer  on   Irish   Archseology.        St.    Patrick's   College, 




Hill,  Right  Hon.  Lord  Arthur  Wm.,  M.P.     22,  Chester-  street, 

London,  S.W.  ;  and  Bigshotte,  Rayles,  Wokingham,  Berks. 

(Vice-  President,  1888-95.) 



Holmes,  Emra,  F.R.H.S.     Bon  Accord  Crescent,  Aberdeen. 


Houston,   Thomas   G.,    M.A.      Academical    Institution,    Cole- 



HOWDEN,  Charles.     Invermore,  Larue. 



Humphreys,  Very  Rev.  Robert,  M.A.,  Dean  of  Killaloe.     The 

Glebe,  Ballinaclough,  Nenagh. 



Hurley,  M.  J.     Abbeylands,  Waterford. 


Johnson,  Edmond,  M.R.I.  A.,  J.P.     Nullamore,  Milltown,  Co. 




































KANE,  His  Honor  Robert  Romney,  LL.D.,  M.E.I. A.,  County 

Court  Judge.     4,  Fitzwilliam-plaee,  Dublin. 
KELLY,  Edward  Festus.     15,  Palace-court,  London,  "W. 
Kelly,  George  A.   P.,   M.A.,   Barrister-at-Law.      129,   Lower 

Baggot- street,  Dublin ;  and  Cloonglasnymore,  Strokestown. 
Kelly,  William  Edward,  C.E.,  J.P.     St.  Helen's,  Westport. 
Kelly,  William  P.,  Solicitor.     Shannonview  Park,  Athlone. 
Kinahan,  George  Henry,  M.R.I.A.     Woodlands,  Fairview. 
Kirker,  Samuel  Kerr,  C.E.    Board  of  Works,  Belfast. 
KNILL,  Sir  Stuart,  Bart,  LL.D.     The  Crosslets  in  the  Grove, 

Blackheath,  London. 
Knowles,  William  James,  M.R.I.A.     Flixton-place,  Ballymena. 

(Vice- President,  1897). 
Knox,    Hubert    Thomas,     M.R.I.A.       Beechen,     Lyndhurst, 


Langrishe,  Richard,  F.R. I.A.I.,  J.P.     Noremount,   Kilkenny. 

(Vice-president,  1879-95.) 
Latimer,   Rev.  William  Thomas,    B.A.      The  Manse,   Eglish, 

La  Touche,   J.   J.   Digges,   M.A.,   LL.D.,   M.R.I.A.     Public 

'  Record  Office,  Dublin. 
Lawrence,  Rev.  Charles,  M.A.    Lisreaghan,  Lawrencetown,  Co. 

LEWIS  CROSBY,  Rev.  Ernest  H.  C.,  B.D.     36,  Rutland-square, 


Lillis,  T.  Barry.     Janeville,  Ballintemple,  Cork. 
Linn,  Richard.     229,  Hereford- st.,  Christchurch,  New  Zealand. 
LOWRY,  Robert  William,  B.A.  (Oxon.),  M.R.I.A.,  J.P.,  D.L. 

Pomeroy  House,  Pomeroy,  Co.  Tyrone. 
Lynch,  Patrick  J.,  C.E.,  M.R.I. A.I.     8,  Upper  Mallow-street, 


Mac  Ritchie,  David,  F.S.A.  (Scot.)  4,  Archibald-place,  Edin- 

Mains,  John,  J.P.     Eastbourne,  Coleraine. 

Malone,  Yery  Rev.  Sylvester,  P.P.,  V.G.,  M.R.I.A.     Kilrush. 

Marsh,  Frank  S.,  LL.B.     35,  Holies-street,  Dublin. 

Martyn,  Edward,  J.P.,  D.L.  Tillyra  Castle,  Ardrahan.  ( Vice- 
President,  1897). 

Mayhew,  Rev.  Samuel  Martin,  F.S.A.  (Scot.).  St.  Paul's 
Vicarage,  83,  New  Kent-road,  London.  V.-P.  Archceological 
Assoc.  of  Great  Britain,  &c. 

Mayler,  James  Ennis.    Harristown,  Ballymitty,  Co.  Wexford. 

M'Cahan,  Robert.     Ballycastle,  Co.  Antrim. 

McChesney,  Joseph,  Holy  wood,  Co.  Down. 

McCREA,  Rev.  Daniel  F.,  M.R.I.A.     Maghera,  Co.  Derry. 

M'DONNELL,  Daniel,  M.A.,  M.D.  17,  Cherrymount,  Crumlin- 
road,  Belfast. 

McGeeney,  Very  Rev.  Patrick,  Canon,  P.P.     Crossmaglen. 

Mellon,  Thomas  J.    Rydal  Mount,  Milltown,  Co.  Dublin. 

Milligan,  Seaton  Forrest,  M.R.I.A.  1,  Malone-road,  Belfast. 
(Vice- President,  1895.) 

Mills,  James,  M.R.I.A.     Public  Record  Office,  Dublin. 

MOLLOY,  William  Robert,  J.P.,  M.R.I.A.  17,  Brookfield- 
terrace,  Donnybrook.  T^t. 

Moran,  His  Eminence  Cardinal,  D.D.,  M.R.I.A.  Archbishop 
of  Sydney,  New  South  Wales.  ( Vice- President,  1888-96. ) 

Moran,  John,  M.A.,  LL.D.     Imperial  Hotel,  Belfast. 


























Mullen,   Ben.  H.,  M.A.,    Curator,  &c.,  Royal  Museum.    Peel 

Park,  Salford. 
Murphy,  J.  H.  Burke.     The  Agency,   Cultra,   Holywood,  Co. 

MUBPHY,  Michael  M.,  M.E.I.A.     Troyes  Wood,  Kilkenny. 

Norman,  George,  M.D.,  F.R.M.S.     12,  Brock-street.  Bath. 

O'Brien,  William,  M.A.,  LL.D.     4,  Kildare- street,  Dublin. 
O'Connell,  John  Robert,  M.A.,  LL.D.    10,  Mountjoy-square, 


O'Connor,  Very  Rev.  Daniel,  P.P.,  Canon.    Newtown  Butler. 
O'Conor  Don,  The  Right  Hon.  The,  LL.D.,  M.R.I.A.,  J.P., 

D.L.       Clonalis,     Castlerea.       (Vice-  President,    1886-97; 

President,  1897-99.) 

O'Donoghue,  Charles,  J.P.     Ballynahown  Court,  Athlone. 
O'Donovan,  The,  M.A.  (Oxon.),  J.P.     Liss  Ard,  Skibbereen. 

(Vice- President,  1890-94.) 
O'Laverty,  Rev.  James,  P.P.,  M.R.I.A.    Holywood,  Co.  Down. 

(Vice- President,  1896.) 
O'Loughlin,    Rev.    Robert    Stuart,    M.A.,    D.D.       Rectory, 

O'Meagher,  Joseph  Casimir,   M.R.I.A.      17,  Wellington-road, 

O'Neill,  Jorge  (Grand  Officier  de  la  maison  du  Roi).    Pair  du 

Royaume,  Lisbon. 
O'NEILL,   Hon.   Robert  Torrens,  M.A.  (Oxon.),  J.P.,  D.L. 

M.P.     Tullymore  Lodge,  Ballymena,  Co.  Antrim. 
O'EEILLY,  The  Rev.  Hugh,  M.R.I.A.     St.  Colman's  Seminary, 


O'Rorke,  Very  Rev.   Terence,   D.D.,  M.R.I.A.,  .P.P.,  Arch- 
deacon of  Achonry.     Church  of  the  Assumption,  Collooney. 
OBMSBY,    Charles  C.,   A.I.C.E.I.     Ballinamore  House,   Kil- 

timagb,  Co.  Mayo. 
0' Shaughnessy,  Richard,  B.A.,  Barrister-at-Law,  Commissioner 

of  Public  Works.     3,  Wilton-place,  Dublin. 
OWEN,  Edward.     India  Office,  Whitehall,  London,  S.W. 

Palmer,  Charles  Colley,  J.P.,  D.L.     Rahan,  Edenderry. 

Perceval,  John  James.     Slaney  View,  Wexford. 

Perceval -Max  well,  Robert,  J.P.,  D.L      Finnebrogue,  Down- 

Phene,  John  S.,  LL.D.,  F.S.A.,    F.G.S.     5,    Carlton- terrace, 

Oakley-street,  London,  S.W. 
Plunkett,    George  Noble,  Count,  M.R.I.A.,  Barrister -at -Law. 

26,  Upper  Fitzwilliam-street,  Dublin. 

Plunkett,  the  Countess.  26,  Upper  Fitzwilliam-street,  Dublin. 
Poison,  Thomas  R.  J.,  M.R.I.A .  Wellington-place,  Enniskillen. 
Pope,  Peter  A.  New  Ross. 

Power,  Rev.  Patrick.     St.  John's  College,  Waterford. 
Prichard,  Rev.  Hugh,  M.A.,  F.S.A.  (Scot.)     Dinam,  Gaerwen, 


Robinson,  Andrew,  C.E.,  Board  of  Works.  116,  St.  Laurence- 
road,  Clontarf. 

Robinson,  Rev.  Stanford  F.  H.,  M.A.  2,  Trevelyan-terrace. 
Bath  gar. 






























Rushe,  Denis  Carolan,  B.A.,  Solicitor.  Church-square, 

RYLANDS,  Thomas  Glazebrook,  F.S.A.,  F.R.A.S.,  F.C.S., 
M.R.I. A.  Highfields,  Thelwall,  Warrington. 

Scott,  William  Robert,  M.A.  (Dubl.).  25,  Charleville-road, 
Rath  gar. 

Shaw,  Sir  Frederick  W.,  Bart.,  J.P.,  D.L.  Bushy  Park, 

Sheehan,  Most  Rev.  Richard  Alphonsus,  D.D.,  Bishop  of  Water- 
ford  and  Lismore.  Bishop's  House,  John's  Hill,  Waterford. 
(Vice-President,  1896.) 

Smiley,  Hugh  Houston,  J.P.     Drumalis,  Larne. 

SMITH-BARRY,  the  Right  Hon.  Arthur  H,,  J.P.,  D.L.,  M.P. 
Fota  Island,  Cork,  and  Carlton  Club,  London.  ( Vice- 
President,  1897.) 

Smith,  Joseph,  M.B.I. A.  Rose  Villa,  Latchford,  near  War- 

Smith,  Worthington  G.,  F.L.S.,  M.A.I.  121,  High-street, 
Dunstable,  Beds. 

Stevenson,  George  A.,  Commissioner  of  Public  Works,  Dublin. 

Stoney,  Rev.  Robert  Baker, M. A.,  D.D.,  Canon.  St.  Matthew's, 

Stubbs,  Major- General  Francis  William,  J.P.  2,  Clarence- 
terrace,  St.  Luke's,  Cork. 

Stubbs,  Henry,  M.A.,  J.P.,  D.L.     Danby,  Ballyshannon. 

Swan,  Joseph  Percival.     22,  Charleville-road,  N.C.R.,  Dublin. 

Taylor,  Rev.  John  Wallace,  LL.D.     Errigal  Glebe,  Emyvale. 
Tenison,    Charles  Mac  Carthy,    M.R.I.A.      Barrister-at-Law, 

J.P.     Hobart,  Tasmania. 
Tighe,    Edward    Kenrick  Bunbury,   J.P.,   D.L.      Woodstock, 


Trench,  Thomas  F.  Cooke,  J.P.,  D.L.     MiUicent,  Naas. 
Thynne,  Henry,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  C.B.,  Deputy  Inspector-General 

R.I.C.,  Dublin. 

Uniacke,  R.  G.  Fitz  Gerald,  B.A.  (Oxon.).     Chelsham  Lodge, 

Whyteleafe,  Surrey. 
Upton,  William  H.,  M.A.,  LL.M.     Walla  Walla,  Washington, 


Vigors,  Colonel  Philip  Doyne,  J.P.     Holloden,  Bagenalstown. 
(Vice-President,  1895.) 

Vinycomb,  John,  M.R.I.A.    Riverside,  Holywood,  Co.  Down. 

WALES,   H.R.  H.  the  Prince  of,   K.G.,  K.P.,  &c.      Sand- 

Walsh,  Right  Rev.  William  Pakenham,  P.D.,   Bishop    (Vice- 

President,  1889-97.)     Montebello,  Killiney. 
WARD,  Francis  Davis,  M.R.I.A.,  J.P.     Wyncroft,  Adelaide 

Park,  Belfast. 

Ward,  John,  F.S.A.,  J.P.     Lenox  Vale,  Belfast. 
Ward,  Robert  Edward,   J.P.,  D.L.      Bangor  Cattle,  Bangor, 
















Warren,  the  Rev.  Thomas.     Belmont,  29,  Gipsey  Hill,  London, 


Watson,  Thomas.     Ship  Quay  Gate,  Londonderry. 
WESTROPP,  Thomas  Johnson,  M.A.,  M.R.I. A.      77,  Lower 

Leeson-street,  Dublin. 

Wigham,   John  R.,  M.R.I. A.,  J.P.     Albany  House,  Monks- 
WILSON,  William  W.,  M.R.I.A.,  M.  INST.  C.E.     St.  James's- 

gate,  Dublin. 
Windle,  Bertram  C.  A.,  M.A.,  M.D.,  D.Sc.  (Dubl.).      Dean  of 

the  Medical  Faculty,  Mason  College,  Birmingham. 
Wools,  Cecil  Crawford.     7,  Dyke-parade,  Cork. 
WOOLLCOMBE,  Robert  Lloyd,  M.A.,  LL.D.  (Dubl.)  ;  LL.D. 

(Royal  Univ.);   F.I.Inst.,  F.S.S.,  M.R.I. A.,  Barrister- 

at-Law.     14,  Waterloo -road,  Dublin. 
WRIGHT,    Edward    Perceval,    M.D.,    M.A.    (Dubl.)  ;    M.A. 

(Oxon.)  ;  M.R.I.A.,    F.L.S.,   F.R.C.S.I.,    J.P.,  Professor 

of  Botany.     5,  Trinity  College,  Dublin. 

Young,  Robert  Magill,  B.A.,  C.E.,  M.R.I.A.,  J.P.     Rathvaraa 
















D'Arbois  de  Jubainville,  EL,  Editor  of  Revue  Celtique.  84, 
Boulevard  Mont  Parnasse,  Paris. 

Gilbert,  Sir  John  T.,  LL.D.,  F.S.A.,  M.R.I.A.,  R.H.A.  Villa 
Nova,  Blackrock,  Co.  Dublin. 

Hoffman,  William  J.,  M.D.,  Consulate  of  the  United  States, 
Mannheim,  Germany. 

Lubbock,  Right  Hon.  Sir  John,  Bart.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D., 
F.R.S.,  M.P.  High  Elms,  Farnborough,  Kent. 

Meade,  Right  Hon.  Joseph  M.,  LL.D.,  J.P.  St.  Michael's, 
AUesbury-road,  Dublin.. 

Munro,  Robert,  M.A.,  M.D.  (Hon.  M.R.I. A.),  Secretary  of 
the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland.  48,  Manor-place, 

Pigorini,  Professor  Luigi,  Director  of  the  Museo  Preistorico- 
Etnografico  Kircheriano,  Rome. 

Rhys,  John,  M.A.,  Professor  of  Celtic,  Principal  of  Jesus 
College,  Oxford. 

Roberts,  S.  Ussher,  C.B.     6,  Clyde-road,  Dublin. 

Robertson,  James  George,  Architect.    36,  Sandford-road,  Dublin. 

Soderberg,  Professor  Sven,  Ph.  D.,  Director  of  the  Museum  of 
Antiquities,  University  of  Lund,  Sweden. 

Stokes,  Miss  Margaret,  Hon.  M.R.I. A.  Carrigbreac,  Howth, 
Co.  Dublin. 

Wakeman,  William  Frederick.    Knightsville,  Blackrock,  Dublin. 

Total  number  of  Fellows  : — 

Life,  38  \ 

Honorary  (under  old  Rules,  3  ;  new  Rules,  10),          ..  13  V    200 

Annual,       ..  ....  149  / 


(Revised  31st  December,  1897.) 

The  Names  of  those  who  have  paid  the  Life  Composition,  and  are  Life  Members,  are 
printed  in  heavy-faced  type.     (See  Rules  4,  8,  and  9,  pages  40,  41.) 























Abbott,  Rev.  Canon,  M.A.     The  Rectory,  Tullow,  Co.  Carlow. 

Acheson,  John,  J.P.     Dunavon,  Portadown. 

Agnew,  Alexander.     Queen's  Bridge  Saw  Mills,  Belfast. 

Agnew,  Rev.  J.  Tweedie.     The  Manse,  Tullamore. 

Alcorn,  James  Gunning,  Barrister-at-La\v,  J.P.     2,  Kildare- place,  Dublin. 

Alexander,  Major  Henry  G-eo.  Samuel,  J.P.     Gosford-place,  Armagh. 

Alexander,  Thomas  John,  M.A.     1,  Bellevue  Park,  Military- road,  Cork. 

Allen,  James  A.     Cathedral  Hill,  Armagh. 

Ailing-ham,  Hugh,  M.R.I.A.     The  Mall,  Ballyshannon. 

Airworthy,  Edward.     117,  Royal-avenue,  Belfast. 

Alment,  Rev.  William  F.,  B.D.     Castletown  Rectory,  Navan. 

Alton,  J.  Poe  (Felloiv,  Inst.  of  Bankers}.     Elim,  Grosvenor-road,  Dublin. 

Anderson,  Very  Rev.  James  A.,  O.S.A.     Limerick. 

Anderson,  Robert  Hall,  J.P.     Sixmile- Cross,  Co.  Tyrone. 

Anderson,  William,  J.P.     Glenarvon,  Merrion,  Co.  Dublin. 

Andrews,  James  Thomas,  M.A.,  Barrister-at-Law.     36,  St.  Stephen's-green, 


Annaly,  The  Lady.     Sion,  Navan. 
Archdall,  Right  Rev.  Mervyn,  D.D.,  Bishop  of  Killaloe,  &c.     Claresford, 

Archer,  Rev.  James  Edward,  B.D.     2,  Gyrene  Villas,  Clifton  Park-avenue, 


Archer,  Mrs.     St.  Mary's  Vicarage,  Drogheda. 
Ardagh,  Rev.  Arthur  W.,  M.A.     The  Vicarage,  Finglas. 
Ardilaun,  Rt.  Hon.  Lord,  M.A.,  M.R.I.A.    St.  Anne's,  Clontarf. 
Ashbourne,  Right  Hon.  Lord,  LL.D.     12,  Merrion-square,  Dublin. 
Ashby,  Newton  B.,  United  States  Consul.     6,  Sandycove,  Kingstown. 
Atkins,   W.    Ringrose.      39  South  Mall,  Cork. 

Atkinson,  Rev.  E.  Dupre,  LL.B.  (Cantab.)     Donaghcloney,  Waringstown. 
Atkinson,   George    Mounsey,    M.R.I.A.       28,    St.   Oswald's-road,    West 

Brompton,  London,  S.W. 
Atkinson,  Miss.     Meadowbrook,  Dundrum,  Co.  Dublin. 

Babington,  Rev.  Richard,  M.A.     Omagh,  Co.  Tyrone. 
Badham,  Miss.     St.  Margaret's  Hall,  Mespil-road,  Dublin. 
Bagwell,  Richard,  M.A.  (Oxon.),  J.P.,  D.L.     Marlfield,  Clonmel. 
Baile,  Robert,  M.A.     Ranelagh  School,  Athlone. 

Bailey,  William  F.,  M.A.,  Barrister-at-Law.     62,  Harcourt-street,  Dublin. 
Baillie,  Captain  John  R.     St.  Patrick's,  Dunfanaghy. 
Baillie,   Ven..   Richard  JE.,   M.A.,    Archdeacon  of   Raphoe.     Glendooen, 



1897  Bain,  Andrew,  D.I.,  R.I.C.     Newcastle  West,  Co.  Limerick. 

1885  Baker,  Henry  F.    Hillview,  Dalkey. 

1897  Baker,  Samuel.     The  Knowle,  Howth. 

1885  Balfour,  Blayney  ReyneU  Townley,  M.A.  (Cantab.),  M.R.I.A.,  J.P.,  D.L. 

Townley  Hall,  Drogheda. 

1896  BALL,  Francis  Elrington,  M.R.I.A.,  J.P.     Taney  House,  Dundrum. 

1885  Ballard,  Rev.  John  Woods.     Kilbrogan  Hill,  Bandon. 

1888  Ballintine,  Joseph,  J.P.     Strand,  Londonderry. 
1890  Banim,  Miss  Mary.     Greenfield,  Dalkey. 

1896         Bannan,  E.  J.,   B.A.,  District  Inspector  of   Schools.      Education  Office, 

Marlborough-street,  Dublin. 
1890         Bardan,  Patrick.     Coralstown,  Killucan. 

Barnewall,  Thomas.     Bloomsberry,  Kells,  Co.  Meath. 
1896          Barr,  John,  Tyrone  Constitution.     Omagh. 

1893  Barrett,  John,  B.A.     Mount  Massey  House,  Macroom. 

1889  Barrington,  Sir  Charles  Burton,  Bart.,  M.A.  (Dubl.),  J.P.,  D.L.     Glenstal 

Castle,  Co.  Limerick. 

1889  Barrington,  William,  C.E.     Riverside,  Limerick. 

1868         Barrington- Ward,  Mark  James,   M.A.,  S.C.L.  (Oxon.),  F.R.G.S.,  F.L.S. 
Thorneloe  Lodge,  Worcester. 

1890  Barry,  Rev.  Michael,  P.P.     Ballylanders,  Knocklong,  Co.  Limerick. 
1877          Barry,  James  Grene,  J.P.     90,  George- street,  Limerick. 

1894  Battley,  Colonel  D'Oyly,  J.P.     Belvedere  Hall,  Bray,  Co.  Wicklow. 

1891  Beard  wood,  Right  Rev.  J.  Camillus,  Abbot  of  Mount  St.  Joseph,  Roscrea. 
1894          Beattie,  Rev.  Michael.     6,  Belvoir- terrace,  University-street,  Belfast. 

1883  BEATTY,  Samuel,  MA.,  M.B.,  M.Ch.    Craigatin,  Pitlochrie,  N.B 

1888  Beaumont,  Thos.,  M.D.,  Dep.  Surg.-Gen.      Palmerston  House,  Palmerston 

Park,  Upper  Rathmines. 

1892  Beazley,  Rev.  James,  P.P.     Tuosist,  Kenmare. 

1892  Beckley,  F.  J.,  B.A.  (Cantab.).     Secretary's  Office,  G.  P.  0.,  London. 
1891  Beere,  D.  M.,  M.  INST.  C.E.     Auckland,  New  Zealand. 

1893  Begley,  Rev.  John,  C.C.     Tournafulla,  Newcastle  West,  Co.  Limerick. 
1891  Bence-Jones,  Reginald,  J.P.     Liselan,  Clonakilty. 

1896  Bennet,  Mrs.     Northern  Bank,  Kilrea. 

1890  Bennett,  Joseph  Henry.     Blair  Castle,  Cork. 

1889  Beresford,  Denis  R.  Pack,  J.P.,  D.L.     Fenagh  House,  Bagenalstown. 

1884  Beresford,  George  De  La  Poer,  J.P.,  D.L.    Ovenden,   Sundridge,  Seven- 

1895  Beresford,  Rev.  Canon,  M.A.     Inistioge  Rectory,  Co.  Kilkenny. 

1895  Bergin,  William,  M.A.,  Professor  of  Natural  Philosophy.     Queen's  College, 


1897  Bermingham,    Patrick      Thomas.       Glengariff     House,     Adelaide-road, 


1889  Bernal,  John,  T.C.     Albert  Lodge,  Limerick. 

1888  Bernard,  Walter,  F.R.C.P.     14,  Queen-street,  Deny. 

1889  Berry,  Henry  F.,  M.A.,  Barrister-at-Law.     Public  Record  Office,  Dublin. 
1897  Berry,  Rev.  Hugh  F.,  B.D.     Fermoy. 

1896  Berry,  R.  G.  J.  J.,  Army  Service  Corps.     Stanhope  Lines,  Aldershot. 

1897  Bestick,  Robert.     5,  Frankfort-avenue,  Rathgar. 

1890  Bewley,  Joseph.     8,  Anglesea- street,  Dublin. 

1897  Biddulph,  Colonel  Middleton  W.,  J.P.     Aunaghmore,  Tullamore. 

1896  Bigger,  Frederic  Charles.     Ardrie,  Antrim-road,  Belfast. 

1896  Blake,  Mrs.     Temple  Hill,  Blackrock,  Co.  Dublin. 

1891  Boland,  Charles  James.     6,  Ely-place,  Dublin. 
1896  Bolger,  Rev.  David,  C.C.     The  Manse,  Wexford. 

1893  Bellinger,  Jacob,  M.A.,  LL.D.     Wexford  School,  Wexford. 

1893  Bolton,  Charles  Perceval,    J.P.     Brook  Lodge,  Halfway  House,  Water- 


1894  Bourchier,  Henry  James,  R.M.     Eversleigh,  Bandon. 
1889  Bourke,  Rev.  John  Hamilton,  M.A.    Elm  Ville,  Kilkenny. 
1896  Bowen,  Chetwood  H.     Bangor,  Co.  Down. 

1894  Bowen,  Miss  A.  M.  Cole.     Bowen's  Court,  Mallow. 

1889  Bowen,  Henry  Cole,  M.A.,  J.P.,  Barrister-at-Law.  Bowen's  Court,  Mallow. 











Bowers,  Thomas.     Cloncunny  House,  Piltown. 

Bowman,  Davys.     14,  Chichester-street,  Belfast. 

Boyd,  J.  St.  Clair,  M.D.     27,  Victoria-place,  Belfast. 

Boyle,  Kev.  Joseph,  C.C.     Rossnakill,  Letterkenny. 

Braddell,  Octavius  H.     Sarnia,  Eglinton-road,  Donnybrook. 

Brady,  Rev.  John  Westropp,  M.A.     Rectory,  Slane,  Co.  Meath. 

Bray,  John  B.  Cassin.     72,  Eccles- street,  Dublin. 

Brenan,  James,  R.H.A.,  M.R.I.A.,  School  of  Art.    Leinster  House,  Kildare- 

street,  Dublin. 

Brenan,  Rev.  Samuel  Arthur,  B.A.     Knocknacarry,  Co.  Antrim. 
Brereton,  Fleet- Surgeon  R.  W.     St.  Nicholas'  Rectory,  Carrickfergus. 
Brett,  Henry  Charles,  B.E.     Rosemary- square,  Roscrea. 
Brew,  Thomas  Foley,  F.R.C.S.I.     The  Cottage,  Ennistymon. 
Bridge,  William,  M.A.     Solicitor,  Roscrea. 
Brien,  Mrs.  C.  H.     4,  Palmerston  Park,  Upper  Rathmines. 
Briscoe,  Algernon  Fetherstonhaugh,  J.P.     Curristown,  Killucan. 
BRODIGAN,  Mrs.     Piltown  House,  Drogheda. 
Brophy,  Michael  M.     48,  Gordon-square,  London,  "W.C. 
Brophy,  Nicholas  A.     6,  Alphonsus-terrace,  Limerick. 
Bros,  W.  Law.     Camera  Club,  Charing  Cross-road,  London,  "W.C. 
Brougham,  Very  Rev.  Henry,  D.D.,  Dean  of  Lismore.     Lismore. 
Brown,  Charles,  J.P.     The  Folly,  Chester. 
Brown,  Miss.     5,  Connaught-place,  Kingstown. 

Browne,  Daniel  F.,  B.A.,  Bavrister-at-Law.     28,  CTpper  Mount-st.,  Dublin. 
Browne,  Geo.  Burrowes.     Beechville,  Knockbreda  Park,  Belfast. 
Browne,  James  J.  F.,  C.E.,  Architect.     23,  Glentworth- street,  Limerick. 
Browne,  Very  Rev.  R.  L.,  O.S.F.      Franciscan  Convent,  Liberty -street, 


Brownlow,  Rev.  Duncan  John,  M.A.     Donoghpatrick  Rectory,  Navan. 
Brunskill,  Rev.  K.  C.,  M.A.     Carrickrnore,  Co.  Tyrone. 
Brunskill,  Rev.  North  Richardson,  M.A.     Kenure  Vicarage,  Rush. 
Buckley,  James.     Primrose  Club,  St.  James',  London,  S.W. 
Buckley,  Michael  J.  C.     10,  St.  John's-quay,  Kilkenny. 
Budds,  William  Frederick,  J.P.     Courtstown,  Tullaroan,  Freshford. 
Buggy,  Michael,  Solicitor.     Parliament-street,  Kilkenny. 
Burden,  Alexander  Mitchell,  C.E.,  County  Surveyor.     Kilkenny. 
Burgess,   Rev.    Henry   W.,    M.A.,   LL.D.       16,    Prince  Edward-terrace, 


Burgess,  John,  J.P.     Oldcourt,  Athlone. 
Burke,  John,  J.P.,  Consul  for  Mexico  and  Uruguay.     Corporation -street, 


Burke,  Very  Rev.  Edward  W.,  P.P.,  V.F.     Bagenalstown. 
Burke,  E.  W.     Heathview,  Abbeyleix. 

Burke,  Rev.  Thomas,  P.P.     Ballindereen,  Kilcolgan,  Co.  Galway. 
Burke,  Rev.  W.  P.     Catherine- street,  Waterford. 
Burnell,  William.     Dean's  Grange,  Monkstown. 

Burnett,  Rev.  Richard  A.,  M.A.     Rectory,  Graignamanagh,  Co.  Kilkenny. 
Butler,  Cecil,  M.A.,  Barrister -at-Law.     Milestown,  Castle  Bellingham. 
Byrne,  Edmund  Alen,  J.P.     Rosemount,  New  Ross. 
Byrne,  Edward  A.     21,  Lower  Water- street,  Newry. 
Byrne,  James.     Wallstown  Castle,  Castletownroche,  Co.  Cork. 
Byrne,  Miss.     19,  Main-street,  Blackrock. 

Cadic  de  la  Champignonnerie,  M.  Edward,  F.R.U.I.     765,  Upper  Leeson- 

street,  Dublin. 

Caffrey,  James.     146,  Rathgar-road,  Dublin. 
Caldwell,  Charles  Sproule,  Solicitor.     Castle-street,  Londonderry. 
Caldwell,  William  Hamilton,  M.D.     Coleraine. 
Callary,  Very  Rev.  Philip,  P.P.,  V.F.     Trim,  Co.  Meath. 
Cameron,  Sir  Charles  A.,  M.D.,  Hon.  R.H.A.    51,  Pembroke-road,  Dublin. 
Campbell,  A.  Albert,  Solicitor.     6,  Lawrence -street,  Belfast. 
Campbell,  Frederick  Ogle.     Main-street,  Bangor,  Co.  Down. 



1891  Campbell,     Eev.    Joseph    W.    R.,  M.A.       14,    Prince    Edward-terrace, 


1890  Campbell,  Eev  Richard  S.  D.,  M.A.,  D.D.     The  Rectory,  Athlone. 

1890  Campbell,  Rev.  William  W.,  M.A.,  R.N.     Maplebmy,  Monkstown. 

1895  Campbell,  William  Marshall.      12,  Bedford- street,  Belfast. 

1893  Carey,  William,  Solicitor.     47,  Grosvenor-square,  Dublin. 

1895  Carlisle,  David.     Home  Avenue,  Passaie,  New  Jersey,  U.S.A. 

1893  Carmody,  Rev.  William  P.,  B.A.     Cushendall,  Co.  Antrim. 
1895  Carney,  Thomas.     Hibernian  Bank,  Cork. 

1894  Carolan,  John,  J.P.     77,  North  King-street,  Dublin. 
1893  Carre,  Fenwick,  F.R.C.S.I.    Letterkenny. 

1888  Carrigan,  Rev.  William,  C.C.     Durrow,  Queen's  County. 
1893  Carrigan,  William,  Solicitor.     Thurles. 

1889  Carroll,  Anthony  R.,  Solicitor.     47,  North  Great  George' s-street,  Dublin. 

1893  Carroll,  Rev.  James,  C.C.     Howth. 

1890  Carroll,  William,  C.E.,  M.R.I.A.I.     Orchardleigh,  West  Wickham,  Kent. 

1894  Carter,  Frederick.     44,  Dame-street,  Dublin. 

1897  Caruth,  Norman  CM  Solicitor.     Flixton-place,  Ballymena. 

1895  Casson,  George  W.,  J.P.     25,  Clyde-road,  Dublin. 

1893  Castle  Stuart,  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of,  J.P.,  D.L.     Drum  Manor,  Cookstown. 

1894  Chambers,  Sir  R.  Newman.     15,  Queen-street,  Londonderry. 
1893  Chapman,  Maria,  Lady.     Carrig  Brae,  Bray,  Co.  Wicklow. 
1890  Chapman,  Wellesley  Pole.     7,  Mountjoy- square,  Dublin. 

1890  Charles,  James,  M.I.J.     42,  Dawson-street,  Dublin. 

1891  Chatterton,  Abraham  T.     10,  Clyde-road,  Dublin. 

1890  Chaytor,  Joshua  David,  B.A.     Marino,  Killiney. 

1893  Chearnley,  Miss  Mary.     Cappoquin,  Co.  Waterford. 

1891  Chestnutt,   John,  B.A.,    L.R.C.S.,    L.R.C.P.   (Edin.)     Derwent   House, 

Howden,  East  "Yorks. 

1895  Christie,  Robert  William,  F.I.B.     21,  Elgin-road,  Dublin. 

1894  Clark,     George  W.   O'Flaherty-,    L.R.C.S.E.      Down    Asylum,    Down- 


1896  Clark,  Miss  Jane.     The  Villas,  Kilrea,  Co.  Londonderry. 

1889  Clarke,  Mrs.     Athgoe  Park,  Hazelhatch. 

1896  Cleary,  Rev.  Robert,  M.A.     Galbally  Rectory,  Tipperary. 

1890  Clements.  Henry  John  Beresford,  J.P.,  D.L.     Lough  Rynn,  Leitrim. 

1892  Clements^  William  T.,  Asst.  D.I.N.S.    1,  Agincourt-terrace,  Rugby-road, 


1859  Clifden,  Right  Hon.  Viscount,  J.P.,  D.L.     19,  Wilton-street,  London. 

1874  Clonbrock,  Right  Hon.  Lord,  B.A.  (Oxon.),  H.M.L.     (Vice- President,  1885- 

1896.)     Clonbrock,  Aghascragh. 

1892  Coates,  William  Trelford,  J.P.     7,  Fountain- street,  Belfast. 

1893  Coddington,  Lieut. -Colonel  John  N.,  J.P.,  D.L.     Oldbridge,  Drogheda. 

1892  Coffey,  Denis  J.,  B.A.,  M.B.,  M.Ch.  (R.U.I.),  Assistant  Professor  of  Physi- 

ology, School  of  Medicine,  Cecilia-street,  Dublin. 

1885  Coffey,  Most  Rev.  John,  D.D.,  Bishop  of  Kerry.     The  Palace,  Killarney. 

1888  Coleman,  James.     Custom-house,  Southampton. 

1893  Colgan,  Nathaniel,  M.R.I.A.     1,  Belgrave-road,  Rathmines. 

1895  Colgan,  Rev.  P.,  P.P.     St.  Endas,  Aran  Islands,  Galway. 

1888  Colhoun,  Joseph.     62,  Strand-road,  Londonderry. 

1894  Colles,  Alexander.     3,  Elgin-road,  Dublin. 

1891  Collins,  E.  Tenison,  Barrister -at -Law.     35,  Palmer  ston-road,  Dublin. 

1897  Commins,  John.     Desart  N.  S.,  Cuffe's  Grange,  Kilkenny. 
1897  CONAN,  Alexander.     Mount  Alverno,  Dalkey. 

1876  Condon,  Very  Kev.  C.  H.,  Provincial,  O.P.     St.  Saviour's,  Dublin. 

1893  Condon,  Frederick  William,  L.R.C.P. I.,  &c.     Ballyshannon. 

1894  Condon,  James  E.  S.,  LL.D.,  Barrister -at -Law.     21,  Royal  Canal  Bank 


1896  Condon,  Very  Rev.  John,  O.S.A.     New  Ross. 

1892  Conlan,  Very  Rev.  Robert  F.,  P.P.,  Canon.     St.  Michan's,  Dublin. 

1893  Connell,  Rev.  John,  M.A.     3,  Palace-terrace,  Drumcondra. 

1889  Connellan,  Major  James  H.,  J.P.,  D.L.     Coolmore,  Thomastown. 
1896  Connolly,  Rev.  Richard,  O.S.A.     New  Ross. 











Conway,  M.  Edward.     Knightville,  Seafi  eld -avenue,  Monkstown. 

Cookman,  William,  M.D.,  J.P.     Kiltrea  House,  Enniscorthy. 

Cooper,  Anderson,  J.P.     Weston,  Queenstown. 

Cooper,  Austin  Darner,  J.P.     Drumnigh,  Baldoyle,  Co.  Dublin. 

Coote,  Rev.  Maxwell  H.,  M.A.     Ross,  Tullamore. 

CORBALLIS,  Richard  J.,  M.A.,  J.P.     Rosemount,  Roebuck,  Clonskeagh. 

Corcoran,  P.     Abbey  Gate-street,  Gaiway. 

Corish,  Rev.  John,  C.C.     Kilmyshall,  Newtownbarry. 

Corker,  William  Henning,  Solicitor.     52,  Grand-parade,  Cork. 

Cosgrave,  E.  Mac  Dowel,  M.D.     5,  Gardiner' s-row,  Dublin. 

Cosgrave,  Henry  Alexander,  M.A.     100,  Pembroke-road,  Dublin. 

Costigan,  William.     Great  Victoria-street,  Belfast. 

Coulter,  Mrs.  G.  B.     21,  University-square,  Belfast. 

Coulter,  Rev.  George  W.  S.,  M.A.      9,  Upper  Garville-avenue,  Rathgar. 

Courtenay,  Henry.     Hughenden,  Grosvenor-road,  Rathmines. 

Courtney,  Charles  Marshall.     Mount  Minnitt,  Ballybrood,  Pallasgrean. 

Cowan,  P.  Chalmers,  B.Sc.,  M.!NST.  C.E.     9,  College  Gardens,  Belfast. 

Cowell,  Very  Rev.  George  Young,  M.A.,  Dean  of  Kildare.     Kildare. 

Cox,  Michael  Francis,  B.A.,  F.R.C.P.I.,  M.R.I.A.     45,  Stephen's-green, 


Coyne,  James  Aloysius,  B.  A. ,  District  Inspector  of  National  Schools.   Tralee. 
Craig,  Rev.  Graham,  M.A.     St.  Catherine's,  Tullamore. 
Crawford,  James  W.     Chlorine  House,  Malone-road,  Belfast. 
Crawford,  Robert  T.     Estate  Office,  Ballinrobe. 
Creagh,  Arthur  Gethin,  J.P.     Carrahane,  Quin,  Co.  Clare. 
Creaghe,  Philip  Crampton,  M.R.I.A.     Hugomont,  Ballymena. 
Cromie,  Edward  Stuart,  District  Inspector  of  Schools.     Killarney. 
Crone,  John  S.,  L.R.C.P.I.     Kensal  Lodge,  Kensal  Rise,  London,  N.W. 
Crossley,  Frederick  W.     24,  Nassau-street,  Dublin. 
Crosthwait,  Thomas  P.  Sherard,  B.A.,  M.!NST.  C.E.     38,  Pembroke -road, 


Cuffe,  Major  Otway  Wheeler.     Woodlands,  Waterford. 
Cullen,  T.  W.,  Manager,  National  Bank.     Dingle. 
Cullin,  John.      Templeshannnn,  Enniscorthy. 
Culverwell,  Edward  Parnall,  M.A.,  F.T.C.D.     The  Hut,  Howth. 
Cummins,  Rev.  Martin,  P.P.     Clare  Gaiway. 
Cunningham,  Miss  Mary  E.     Glencairn,  Belfast. 
Cunningham,  Miss  S.  C.     Glencairn,  Belfast. 
Cunningham,  Rev.  Robert,  B.A.     Ballyrashane,  Coleraine. 
Cunningham,  Samuel.     Glencairn,  Belfast. 

Curran,  James  P.,  Manager,  Munster  and  Leinster  Bank.     Maryborough. 
Cussen,  J.  S.,  B.A.,  D.I.N.S.     BaUymena. 

Dallow,  Rev.  Wilfred.     Upton  Hall,  Upton,  Birkenhead. 

Dalton,  John  P.,  M.A.,  D.I.N.S.  4,  Roseberry  Villas,  Chichester  Park, 

Daniell,  Robert  G.,  J.P.     Newforest,  Co.  Westmeath. 

D'Arcy,  S.  A.,  L.R.C.P.I.,  L.R.C.S.I.     Rosslea,  Co.  Fermanagh. 

Dargan,  Thomas.     9,  Clifton  Park-avenue,  Belfast. 

Davidson,  Rev.  John  Henry,  M.A.  Rathregan  Rectory,  Batterstown,  Co. 

DAVIDSON,  Rev.  Henry  W.,  B.A.     Templemichael  Glebe,  Youghal. 

Davidson-Houston,  Rev.  B.  C.,  M.A.     St.  John's  Vicarage,  Sydney-parade. 

Davies,  D.  Griffith,  B.A.     200,  High-street,  Bangor,  N.  Wales. 

Davis,  Thomas.     St.  Margaret's,  Foxrock,  Co.  Dublin. 

Davy,  Rev.  Humphry,  M.A.     Kimmage  Lodge,  Terenure. 

Dawkins,  Professor  W.  Boyd-,  F.S.A.,  F.K.S.,  F.G.S.,  &c.  Woodhurst, 
Fallowfield,  Manchester. 

Dawson,  Joseph  Francis,  Inspector.  Munster  and  Leinster  Bank,  Dame- 
street,  Dublin. 

Dawson,  Very  Rev.  Abraham,  M.A.,  Dean  of  Dromore.  Seagoe  Rectory, 










Deady,  James  P.     Hibernian  Bank,  Navan. 

Deane,  Mrs.  J.  William.     Longraigue,  Foulksmill,  Co.  Wexford. 

Delany,    Eight  Rev.   John   Carthage,    Lord  Abbot  of  Mount  Melleray, 


DE  LA  POEB,  Edmond,  J.P.,  D.L.     Gurteen,  Glensheelan,  Clonmel. 
De  Moleyns,  The  Hon.  Edward  A.,  J.P.     Dingle,  Co.  Kerry. 
Denny,  Francis  Mac  Gilly  cuddy.     Denny-street,  Tralee. 
Denvir,  Patrick  J.     National  Bank,  Limerick. 
D'Evelyn,  Alexander,  M.D.  (Dubl.).     Ballymena. 
Devenish-Meares,    Major-General    W.   L.,    J.P.,    D.L.       Meares   Court, 

Ballinacargy,  Co.  Westmeath. 

Diamond,  Rev.  Patrick  J.     Port  Stanley,  Falkland  Islands. 
Dickinson,  James  A.     8,  Crosthwaite  Park,  Kingstown. 
Dickson,  Rev.  William  A.     Fahan  Rectory,  Londonderry. 
Digges,  Rev.  J.  Garven,  M.A.  (Dubl.).     Clooncahir,  Loughrynn,  Dromod. 

Dillon,  Edward  Maxwell,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  Barrister-at-Law,  Middle  Temple. 

19,  Albert -square,  Clapham,  London,  S.W. 
Dillon,  Sir  John  Fox,  Bart.,  J.P.,  D.L.     Lismullen,  Navan. 
Dix,  E.  Reginald  M'Clintock,  Solicitor.     61,  Upper  Sackville-st.,  Dublin. 
Dixon,  Henry,  Jun.    5,  Cabra-terrace,  Dublin. 

Dodge,  Mrs.     Saddle  Rock,  Great  Neck,  Long  Island,  New  York,  U.S. 
Doherty,  George,  J.P.     Dromore,  Co.  Tyrone. 

Donegan,  Lieutenant- Colonel  James  H.,  J.P.     Alexandra-place,  Cork. 
Donovan,  St.  John  Henry,  J.P.     Seafield,  The  Spa,  Tralee. 
Dorey,  Matthew.     8,  St.  Anne's-terrace,  Berkeley-road,  Dublin. 
Dougherty,  James  B.,  M.A.,  Assistant  Under- Secretary,  Dublin  Castle. 
Douglas,  M.  C.     Burren-street,  Carlo w. 
Dowd,  Rev.  James,  M.A.     7,  Swansea-terrace,  Limerick. 
Dowling,  Jeremiah,  Sen.,  M.D.     Nelson-street,  Tipperary. 
Downes,  Thomas.     Norton,  Skibbereen. 

Doyle,  Laurence,  Barrister-at-Law.     4,  Upper  Pembroke -street,  Dublin. 
Doyle,  Rev.  Luke,  P.P.     St.  Mary's,  Tagoat,  Wexford. 
Doyle,  M.  J.     N.  S.,  Windgap,  Co.  Kilkenny. 
Doyne,  Charles  Mervyn,  M.A.  (Cantab.),  J.P.,  D.L.     Wells,  Gorey. 
Drew,  Mrs.     Gortnadrew,  Alma-road,  Monkstown,  Co.  Dublin. 
Drought,  Rev.  Anthony,  M.A.     Kilrnessan  Rectory,  Navan. 
Dudgeon,  Robert  R.     Ballynahatty,  Omagh. 
Dugan,  Charles  Winston,  M.A.     Florence-ville,  Lurgan. 
Duke,  Robert  Alexander,  J.P.,  D.L.     Newpark,  Ballymote. 
Duncan,  George.     1,  Cope-street,  Dublin. 

Dunn,  Michael  J.,  B.A.,  Barrister-at-Law.     42,  Upper  Mount-st.,  Dublin. 
Dunn,  Valentine.     30,  Clarinda  Park,  E.,  Kingstown. 
Dunne,  Francis  Plunkett,  J.P.     Balivor,  Banagher. 

Dunne,  Very  Rev.  Martin  K.,  P.P.,  Canon.     Blackwater,  Enniscorthy. 
1893          Dunne,  Robert  H.  Plunkett,  J.P.     Brittas,  Clonaslie,  Queen's  Co. 

Dunsany,  Right  Hon.  Lord,  M.A.  (Cantab.),  J.P.,  D.L.     Dunsany  Castle, 


Durham,  Dean  and  Chapter  of,  per  C.  Rowlandson.    The  College,  Durham, 
Dwan,  Rev.  John  J.,  C.C.     The  Presbytery,  Thurles. 

Egan,  Michael.     3,  Pery-square,  Limerick. 

Elcock,  Charles.     Curator,  Museum,  Royal-avenue,  Belfast. 

.Elliott,  Rev.  Andrew.     The  Bar,  Trillick. 

Elliott,  Rev.  Anthony  L.,  M.A.     Killiney  Glebe,  Co.  Dublin. 

Elliott,  Charles.     223,  Amhurst-road,  Stoke-Newington,  London,  N.  E. 

Elliott,  Rev.  John.     Seven  Houses,  Armagh. 

Ennis,  Edward  H.,  Barrister-at-Law.     42,  Rutland-square,  Dublin. 

Ennis,  Michael  Andrew,  J.P.     Ardruadh,  Wexford. 

Entwistle,  Peter.     Free  Public  Museums,  Liverpool. 

Erne,  Right  Hon.  the  Countess  of,  care  of  Rev.  J.  H.  Steele,  Crom,Newtown 

Esmonde,  Sir  Thomas  Henry  Grattan,  Bart.,  M.P.     Ballynastragh,  Gorey. 











Eustace,    Captain  Henry  Montague,    1st   Battalion   Middlesex   Regiment. 

Sampford  Grange,  Braintree,  Essex. 

Evans,  Kev.  Henry,  D.D.,  M.R.I. A.     Howth,  Co.  Dublin. 
Evatt,  George  Foster,  J.P.     Mount  Louise,  Smithborough,  Co.  Monaghan. 
Everard,  Rev.  John,  C.C.     SS.  Peter  and  Paul,  Clonmel. 
Everard,  Major  Nugent  Talbot,  J.P.,  D.L.     Randlestown,  Navan. 

Fahey,  Very  Rev.  Jerome,  P.P.,  V.G.     St.  Colman's,  Gort. 

Fahy,  Rev.  "John  G.     Rectory,  Waterville,  Co.  Kerry. 

Fair,  Richard  B.     Rosetta  House,  Rosetta  Park,  Belfast. 

Fairholme,  Mrs.     Comragh,  Kilmacthomas. 

Falkiner,  C.  Litton,  M.A.,  Barrister-at-Law.     9,    Upper  Merrion-street, 

Falkiner,  Hon.  Sir  Frederick  R.,  M.A.,  Recorder  of  Dublin.     Inveruisk, 


Falkiner,  Rev.  T.  Doran.     4,  Marine -terrace,  Bray. 
Falkiner,  Rev.  William  F.  T.,  M.A.,  M.R.I.A.      Killucan  Rectory,  Co. 


Fallen,  Owen,  D.I.R.I.C.     Ardara,  Co.  Donegal. 
Faren,  William.     Mount  Charles,  Belfast. 
Fawcett,  George.     Montevideo,  Roscrea. 
Feeney,  P.  J.  C.     Hibernian  Bank,  Kilkenny. 
Fegan,  William  John,  Solicitor.     Market  Square,  Cavan. 
Fennell,  William  J.,  M.R.I.A.I.     11,  Chichester-street,  Belfast. 
Fennessy,  Edward.     Ardscradawn  House,  Kilkenny. 
Fenton,  Mrs.     St.  Peter's  Vicarage,  90,  Westbourne-road,  Birkenhead. 
Field,  William,  M.P.     Blackroek,  Co.  Dublin. 
Field,  Miss.     Blackroek,  Co.  Dublin. 

Fielding,  Patrick  J.,  M.P. S.I.     8,  St.  Joseph' s-place,  Cork. 
Fisher,  Rev.  John  Whyte,  M.A.,  Canon.     The  Rectory,  Mountrath. 
Fitz  Gerald,  William  J.,  Clerk  of  the  Crown  and  Peace,  Co.  Cork.   Bank-place, 


Fitz  Gibbon,  Gerald,  M.  INST.  C.E.    The  White  House,  Heysham,  Lancaster. 
Fitz  Patrick,  P.,  D.I.N.S.     Rathkeale. 
Fitzsimons,  John  Bingham,  M.D.     Owen-street,  Hereford. 
Flanagan,  James.     Central  Model  Schools,  Marlborough-street,  Dublin. 
Fleming,  Hervey  de  Montmorency,  J.P.     Barraghcore,  Goresbridge. 
Fleming,  James,  Jun.     Kilmory,  Skelmorlie,  Scotland. 
Fleming,  Very  Rev.  Horace  Townsend,  M.A.     The  Deanery,  Cloyne. 
Fletcher,  Rev.  Victor  J.,  M.A.     Malahide. 

Flood,  Rev.  James.     52,  Stirling-place,  Brooklyn,  New  York,  U.S.A. 
Flynn,  Very  Rev.  Patrick  F.,  P.P.     St.  Anne's  Presbytery,  Waterford. 
Fogerty,  Robert,  C.E.,  Architect.     Limerick. 
Fogerty,  William  A.,  M.A.,  M.D.     61,  George- street,  Limerick. 
Foley,  John  E.,  M.D.     Frances-street,  Kilrush. 
Foley,  J.  M.  Galwey,  C.I.,  R.I.C.     Ennis. 

Forster,  Sir  Robert,  Bart.,  D.L.     63,  Fitzwilliam-square,  Dublin. 
Fortescue,   Hon.   Dudley   F.,    J.P.,   D.L.     Summerville,   Dunmore   East, 


Foster,  Rev.  Frederick,  M.A.     Ballymacelligott  Glebe,  Tralee. 
Fox,  Captain  Maxwell,  R.N.,  J.P.,  D  L.     14,  Brock-street,  Bath. 
Franklin,  Frederick,  F.R.I. A. I.     Westbourne  House,  Terenure. 
Frazer,  Henry.     Lambeg  N.  S.,  Lisburn. 
Frazer,  Mrs.     Finvoy  Rectory,  Ballymoney. 
Frewen,  William,  Solicitor.     Nelson-street,  Tipperary. 
Frizelle,  Joseph.     S%o. 
Furlong,  Nicholas,  L.R. C.P.I.,  L.R. C.S.I.,  M.R.I.A.     Lymington,  Ennis- 


Gallagher,  Edward,  J.P.     Strabane. 

Gallagher,  William,  Solicitor.     English-street,  Armagh. 

Gamble,  Major  G.  F.     Mount  Jerome,  Harold's -cross. 









Garvey,  Toler  R.,  J.P.    Thorn  vale,  Moneygall. 
Gault-Gamble,  T.  E.,  D.I.,  R.I.C.    Adare,  Co.  Limerick. 
Geoghegan,  Michael.    P.  W.  Hotel,  Athlone. 
Geoghegan,  Thomas  F.     6,  Lower  Sackville-street,  Dublin. 

Geoghegan,  William  P.     Rockfield,  Blackrock. 

George,  William  E.     Downside,  Stoke  Bishop,  Clifton. 

Gerish,  W.  Blythe.     Ivy  Lodge,  Hoddesdon,  Herts. 

Gerrard,  Rev.  William  J.     The  Rectory,  Rathangan,  Co.  Kildare. 

Gibson,  Rev.  Thomas  B.,  M.A.     Ferns. 

Gilfoyle,  Anthony  Thomas,  M.A.,  J.P.     23,  Ailesbury-road,  Dublin;  and 
Carrowellen  House,  Skreen,  Co.  Sligo. 

Gill,  Michael  J.,  B.A.     Roebuck  House,  Clonskeagh. 

Gillespie,  James,  Surgeon.     The  Diamond,  Clones. 

GILLESPIE,  William,  M.R.I. A.     Racefield  House,  Kingstown. 

Gillman,  Herbert  Webb,  B.A.  (Dubl.),  Barrister-at-Law  (Lincoln's  Inn), 
J.P.     Clonteadmore,  Coachford,  Co.  Cork. 

Gleeson,  Gerald  W.  M.    Athlone. 

Gleeson,  Paul.     Kilcolman,  Kingstown. 

Gleeson,  Michael,  Crown  Solicitor.     Nenagh. 

Glenny,  James  Swanzy,  J.P.     Glenville,  Ardaragh,  Newry. 

Glynn,  Patrick  J.  O'Connor.     10,  Ulverton- place,  Dalkey. 

Glynn,  Thomas.     Meelick  Villa,  87,  Aden  Grove,  Clissold  Park,  London,  N. 

Glynn,  William,  J.P.     Kilrush. 

Godden,  George.     Phoenix  Park,  Dublin. 

Goff,  Rev.  Edward,  B.A.     Kentstown  Rectory,  Navan. 

Goldsmith,  Rev.  E.  J.,  M.A.     1,  De  Vesci-place,  Monkstown. 

Goodbody,  Henry  P.     Obelisk  Park,  Blackrock. 

Goodbody,  Miss.     Obelisk  Park,  Blackrock. 

Goodman,  Peter.     44,  Rutland -square,  Dublin. 

Goodwin,  Singleton,  B.A.,  M.IxsT.C.E.     Tralee. 

Goold,  Graham  Augustus,  Solicitor.     42,  Grand  Parade,  Cork. 

Gordon,  Samuel,  M.D.     13,  Hume-street,  Dublin. 

Gorman,  Venerable  VVm.  Chas.,  M.A.,  Archdeacon  of  Ossory.      Rectory, 
Thomastown,  Co.  Kilkenny. 

Gosselin,  Rev.  J.  H.  Prescott,  B.A.     Muff  Parsonage,  Londonderry. 

Gough,  Joseph.     88,  Grosvenor- square,  Rathmines. 

Grant,  Colonel  George  Fox,  J.P.     Hilton,  Callan,  Co.  Kilkenny. 

Gray,  Robert,  M.R.C.P.I.,  J.P.    4,  Charlemont-place,  Armagh. 
GRAYDON,  Thomas  W.,  M.D.    La  Fayette  Circle,  Clifton,  Cincinnati, 

Ohio,  U.S.A. 

Greaves,  Miss.     12,  Rathgar-road,  Dublin. 

Griffin,  J.  J.,  M.D.     Waterloo  Villa,  Greengate,  Plaistow,  London,  E. 
Greene,  Herbert  Wilson,  M.A.     Pembroke  College,  Oxford. 
Greene,  Mrs.  J.     Monte  Vista,  Ferns. 
Greene,  Mrs.  T.     Millbrook,  Mageney. 

Greene,  Surgeon-Lieut. -Col.  John  J.,  M.B.     23,  Herbert-place,  Dublin. 
Greene,  Thomas,  LL.B.,  J.P.     Millbrook,  Mageney. 
Greer,  Thomas  MacGregor,  Solicitor.     Ballymoney. 
Gribbon,  Rev.  John,  C.C.     Waterside,  Derry. 

Grierson,  Rev.  Frederick  J.,  B.A.     St.  Bride's,  Oldcastle,  Co.  Meath. 
Grubb,  J.  Ernest.    Carrick-on-Suir. 
Guilbride,  Francis,  J.P.     Newtownbarry. 
Guinness,  Howard.     Chesterfield,  Blackrock. 

HADDON,  Alfred  Cort,  M.A.,  F.Z.S.     Inisfail,  Hill's-road,  Cambridge. 

Hade,  Arthur,  C.E.     Carlow. 

Hales,  Mrs.  A.     Belvedere,  Crystal  Palace  Park,  Sydenham,  S.E. 

Hall,  Rev.  Alexander,  B.A.     Drogheda. 

Hall,  Thomas.     Derrynure  House,  Baillieborough. 

Hallinan,  Rev.  D.,  D.D.,  P.P.     St.  Mary's,  Limerick. 

Hamill,  Robert  H.     Bessbrooke  House,  Analore,  Clones. 

Hamilton,  Everard,  B.A.    30,  South  Frederick- street,  Dublin. 









Hamilton,  "Eev.  John  G.,  B.A.     Dromore,  Co.  Tyrone. 

Hamilton  S.,  M.B.     4,  Ehondda-road,  Ferndale,"  Glamorgan. 

Hanan,  Eev.  Denis,  D.D.     The  Eectory,  Tipperary. 

Handy,  Eev.  Leslie  Alexander,  M.A.     Skryne  Eectory,  Tara,  Co.  Meath. 

Hanna,  John  A.     Paradise- street,  Liverpool. 

Hannay,  Eev.  James  0.,  M.A.     Westport. 

Hannon,  P.  J.     Clifton  House,  Loughrea. 

Hardy,  William  J.,  LL.B.,  Barrister-at-Law,  D.I.E.I.C.     Dunfanaghy. 

Hare,  Very  Eev.  Thomas,  D.D.,  Dean  of  Ossory.     Deanery,  Kilkenny. 

Harman,  Miss  Marion.     Barrowmount,  Goresbridge. 

Harrington,  Edward.     46,  Nelson-street,  Tralee. 

Harris,  Henry  B.,  J.P.     Mill  view,  Ennis. 

Harrison,  Charles  William.     178,  Great  Brunswick-street,  Dublin. 

Hart,  Henry  Chichester,  B.A.,  M.E.I.A.,  F.L.S.,  J.P.     Carrabeagh,  Port- 
salon,  Letterkenny. 

Hartford,  John  P.,  Sessional  Crown  Solicitor,  Kilkenny.    55,  Lr.  Dominick- 
street,  Dublin. 

Hartigan,  P.     Castleconnell,  Limerick. 

Hartley,  Eev.  Frederic  J.,  B.A.,  B.A.I.     2,  Wellington-square,  Kilkenny. 

Harty,  Spencer,  M.  INST.  C.E.I.     City  Hall,  Dublin. 

Harvey,  Eev.  Alfred  Thomas,  M.A.     Eectory,  Athboy. 

Hastings,  Samuel.     Church- street,  Downpatrick. 

Hayes,  Eev.  Francis  Carlile,  M.A.     Eectory,  Eaheny. 

Hayes,  Eev.  William  A.,  M.A.     2,  Carlisle-terrace,  Omagh. 

Hayes,  Thomas,  C.I.,  E.I.C.     2,  Eden-terrace,  Limerick. 

Headen,  W.  P.,  B.A.  (Lond.),  D.I.N.S.     32,  Cabra-parade,  Phibsborough. 

Healy,  George,  J.P.     Glaslyn,  Clontarf. 

Healy,  Eev.  John,  LL.D.,  Canon.   St.  Columba's,  Kells,  Co.  Meath. 

Healy,  Eev.  William,  P.P.     Johnstown,  Co.  Kilkenny. 

Healy,  William,  J.P.     Donard  View,  Downpatrick. 

Hearne,  J.  B.     Chilcomb,  New  Eoss. 

HEMPHILL,  Rev.  Samuel,  D.D.     Birr  Eectory,  Parsonstown. 

Henderson,  William  A.     Belclare,  Leinster-road,  West,  Dublin. 

Hennessy,  Bryan.     21,  South-street,  New  Eoss. 

Henry,  James,  M.D.     Swanpark,  Monaghan. 

Heron,  James,  B.E.,  J.P.     Tullyvery  House,  Killyleagh,  Co.  Down. 

Heron,  James  Mathers,  M.D.     Downpatrick. 

Hewat,  S.  M.  F.,  M.A.  (Cantab).      Abbeylands,  Ballybrack,  Co.  Dublin. 

Hewson,  Eev.  Edward  F.,  B.A.,  Canon.     Eectory,  Gowran,  Co.  Kilkenny. 

Hibbert,  Eobert  Fiennes,  J.P.     Woodpark,  Scariff. 

Hickey,  Garrett  A.,  M.D.     Priory-street,  New  Eoss. 

Hickson,  Miss.     Mitchelstown. 

Higgins,  Eev.  Michael,  C.C.     Queenstown. 

Higgins,  Patrick.     Town  Clerk's  Office,  Waterford. 

Higinbotham,  Granby.     46,  Wellington  Park,  Belfast. 

Hill,  William  H.,  B.E.,  F.E.I.B.A.    Audley  House,  Cork. 

Hinch,  William  A.     77,  Long  Acre,  London,  W.C. 

Hinkspn,  Henry  A.,  M.A.     107,  Blenheim  Crescent,  London,  W. 

Hitchins,  Henry.     144,  Leinster-road,  Dublin. 

Hoare,  Most  Eev.  Joseph,  D.D.,  Bishop  of  Ardagh  and  Clonmacnois.    St. 
Mel's,  Longford. 

Hobson,  C.  J.     Benbury,  Moy,  Co.  Armagh. 

Hodges,   Professor   John  F.,  M.D.,  F.C.S.,  F.I.C.,  J.P.     Sandringham, 
Malone-road,  Belfast. 

Hodges,  Eev.  John  G.     Tesaran  Eectory,  Banagher. 

Hodgson,  Eev.  William,  M.A.     32,  Holford-square,  London,  W.C. 

Hogan,   Eev.  Henry,  B.D.,  Canon.     All  Saints'  Vicarage,  Phibsborough- 

road,  Dublin. 

Hogg,  Jonathan,  D.L.     12,  Cope-street,  Dublin. 
Hogg,  Thomas  P.     Craigmore,  Blackrock,  Co.  Dublin. 
Hoguet,  Mrs.  Henry  L.     48,  West  28th  Street,  New  York,  U.S.A. 
Holding,  T.  H.     7,  Maddox-street,  London,  W. 
Holland,  Joseph.    Holland  House,  Knock,  Co.  Down. 













Holmes,  George,  C.I.,  E.I.C.  Cromwell's  Fort,  Wexford. 
Hopkins,  Rev.  John  W.,  B.A.  Agherin  Vicarage,  Conna. 
Horan,  John,  M.E.,  M.  INST.  C.E.,  County  Surveyor.  8,  Victoria-terrace, 


Hore,  Philip  Herbert.     Imperial  Institute,  London,  S.W. 
Houston,  Eev.  J.  D.  Craig,  B.D.     Hydepark  Manse,  Belfast. 
Huband,  Eev.  Hugo  E.,  M.A.  (Cantab.).     Killiskey  Eectory,  Ashford,  Co. 


Hudson,  Eobert,  M.D.     Bridge  House,  Dingle. 
Huggard,  Stephen.     Clonmore,  Tralee. 
Hughes,  Benjamin.     Independent  Office,  Wexford. 
Hughes,  Miss  Helen.     185,  Eathgar-road,  Dublin. 
Hughes,  Eev.  John.     St.  Augustine's,  Coatbridge,  N.B. 
Humphreys,  Eev.  John,  B.A.     The  Manse,  Tullamore. 
Hunt,  Edmund  Langley.     67,  Pembroke-road,  Dublin  ;  and  64,  George-st., 


Hunter,  Thomas.     Post  Office,  Glenarm. 
Hurley,  Eev.  Patrick,  P.P.     Inchigeela,  Co.  Cork. 
Hyde,  Henry  Barry,  F.S.S.     5,  Eaton  Eise,  Ealing,  London,  W. 

Ireland,  William.     46,  Arthur-street,  Belfast, 
Irvine,  Charles  E.  E.  A.     Lisgoole  Abbey,  Enniskillen. 
Irwin,  Eev.  Alexander,  M.A.     2,  Beresford-place,  Armagh. 
Irwin,  William.     Annagh  House,  Aughnacloy. 

Isaac,  Very  Eev.  Abraham,  B.A.,  Dean  of  Ardfert.     Kilgobbin  Eectory, 
Camp,  E.S.O.,  Co.  Kerry. 

Jackman,  Eichard  H.     Alverno,  Thurles. 

Jackson,  J.  F.     Clifden  Lodge,  Strand-road,  Merrion. 

James,  Charles  Edward,  M.B.     Butler  House,  Kilkenny. 

Jameson,  Ven.  Archdeacon,  M.A.     Killeshin  Parsonage,  Carlow. 

Jeffares,  Eev.  Danby,  M.A.     Lusk,  Co.  Dublin. 

Jefferson,  Wood  Gibson,  M.A.,  LL.B.,  Barrister- at-Law.     3,  Mount-street 

Crescent,  Dublin. 
Jellett,  Very  Eev.  Henry,  D.D.,  Dean  of  St.  Patrick's.     The  Deanery, 

St.  Patrick's,  Dublin. 

Jellie,  Eev.  William,  B.A.     44,  Burlington-road,  Ipswich. 
Jennings,  Ignatius  E.  B.,  C.I. E.I.C.     Ballytruckle,  Waterford. 
Jephson-Norreys,  Mrs.  Atherton.     The  Castle,  Mallow. 
Johnston,  James  W.,  J.P.     Newtownbutler. 
Johnston,  John  W.     Eossmore  Agency  Office,  Monaghan. 
Jones,  Bryan  John.     1st  Leinster  Eegiment,  Lisnawilly,  Dundalk. 
Jones,  Eev.  David,  M.A.,  Canon  of  Bangor  Cathedral.   Llandegai,  N.  Wales. 
Jordan,    Eev.   William,    M.A.       St.    Augustine's    Moreland,  Melbourne, 

Joyce,  Patrick  Weston,  LL.D.,  M.E.I. A.     Lyre-na-Grena,  Leinster-road, 


Kane,  Eev.  Eichard  E.,  LL.D.     Christ  Church  Eectory,  Belfast. 

Kavanagh,  Very  Eev.  Michael,  D.D.,  P.P.     New  Eoss. 

Keane,  Lady.     Cappoquin  House,  Cappoquin.$ 

Keane,  Miss  Frances.     Glenshelane,  Cappoquin. 

Keane,  Marcus,  J.P.     Beech  Park,  Ennis. 

Keatinge,  Eev.  P.  A.,  O.S.F.     Franciscan  Convent,  Waterford. 

Keene,  Charles  Haines,  M.A.     19,  Stephen's-green,  and  University  Club> 


Keene,  Most  Eev.  James  Bennett,  D.D.,  Bishop  of  Meath.     Navan. 
Keith,  James,  Inspector  of  Schools.     The  Mall,  Westport. 
Kelly,  Edmund  Walshe.     Summerhill,  Tramore. 
Kelly,  Francis  James,  J.P.     Weston,  Duleek. 













Kelly,  Ignatius  S.     Provincial  Bank  House,  Cork. 

Kelly,  Very  Rev.  James  J".,  P.P.,  Canon.     St.  Peter's,  Athlone. 

Kelly,  Rev.  John,  C.C.     Dalkey. 

Kelly,   Richard    J.,    Barrister-at-Law,    J.P.      21,    Great    Charles- street, 


Kelly,  Thomas  Aliaga.     64,  Upper  Leeson-street,  Dublin. 
Kennan,  Williams  R.     Villa  Fragonaid,  Arcachon,  France. 
Kennedy,  John.     Ardbana  House,  Coleraine. 
Kenny,  Patrick.     Grace  Dieu,  Clontarf . 
Kenny,  Thomas  Hugh.     55,  George-street,  Limerick. 
Kenny,  William  F.,  M.A.,  Barrister-at-Law.     10,  Upper  Pembroke-street, 


Kermode,  P.  M.  C.,  F.S.A.  (Scot.).     Hillside,  Ramsey,  Isle  of  Man. 
Kernan,  George.     56,  Northumberland-road,  Dublin. 
Kernan,  Rev.  Richard  Arthurs,  B.D.     The  Rectory,  Hillsborough. 
Kerr,  Rev.  Win.  Jobn  B.    70,  Wharf-road,  Grantham,  Lincolnshire. 
Kiernan,  Mrs.     Leitrim  Lodge,  Dalkey. 
Kiernan,  Thomas.     Leitrim  Lodge,  Dalkey. 
Kilbride,  Rev.  William,  M.A.     Aran  Island,  Galway. 
Killeen,  John  W.,  Solicitor.     32,  Waterloo-road,  Dublin. 
KIMBERLEY,  Kt.  Hon.  the  Earl  of,  K.G.     Kimberley  House,  Wymond- 

ham,  Norfolk. 

King,  Miss  Kathleen  L.     52,  Lansdowne-road,  Dublin. 
King,   Lucas  White,   LL.D.,   F.S.A.,    M.R.I.A.       52,   Lansdowne-road, 


King-Edwards,  William,  J.P.     Dartans  House,  Castlederg. 
Kinnear,  Ernest  A.    Ballyheigue  Castle,  Co.  Kerry. 
Kirkpatrick,  Robert.     1,  Queen' s-square,  Strathbungo,  Glasgow. 
Kirker,  Gilbert,  M.D.,  c/o  S.  K.  Kirker.     Board  of  Works,  Belfast. 
Knox,  Miss  K.     Ennis,  Co.  Clare. 

Latfan,  P.  M.,  L.R. C.P.I.    Belper  Hill,  Tara,  Co.  Meath. 

Laffan,  Thomas,  M.D.     Cashel. 

Lalor,  M.  W.     Kilkenny  Moderator  Office,  Kilkenny. 

Langan,  Rev.  Thomas,  D.D.     St.  Mary's,  Athlone. 

Langrishe,  Mrs.     Knocktopher  Abbey,  Co.  Kilkenny. 

Latimer,  John.     11,  Denny-street,  Tralee. 

Lavell,  Rev.  Edward,  C.C.     Tully,  Letterfrack,  Co.  Galway. 

Lawlor,  Rev.  Hugh  Jackson,  M.A.,  D.D.  50,  Palmerston-place,  Edin- 

Lawson,  Thomas  Dillon.     Bank  of  Ireland,  Galway. 

Lecky,  Rev.  Alexander  Gourley,  B.A.     Feddyglass,  Raphoe. 

Ledger,  Rev.  William  Cripps,  M.A.     The  Rectory,  Lisnaskea. 

Ledger,  Z.  J.     27,  George -street,  Limerick. 

Lee,  Rev.  Timothy,  C.C.    St.  John's,  Limerick. 

Leech,  Henry  Brougham,  LL.D.,  Regius  Professor  of  Laws,  Dublin.  Yew 
Park,  Castle-avenue,  Clontarf. 

Leeson-Marshall,  M.  R.,  Barrister-at-Law.  6,  King's  Bench  Walk,  Temple, 
London,  E.G. 

LeFanu,  Thomas  Philip,  B.A.  (Cantab.).  Chief  Secretary's  Office,  Dublin 

Leonard,  John.     Lisahally,  Londonderry. 

Leonard,  Mrs.  T.     Warrenstown,  Dunsany,  Co.  Meath. 

Lepper,  Francis  Robert,  Director,  Ulster  Banking  Co.,  Belfast. 

L' Estrange,  Rev.  A.  G.     Gonna,  Co.  Cork. 

Lett,  B.  A.  W.,  J.P.     Ballyvergan,  Adamstown,  Co.  Wexford. 

Lett,  Rev.  Henry  Wm.,  M.A.,  M.R.I.A.  Aghaderg  Glebe,  Lough- 

Lewis,  Professor  Bunnell,  M.A.,  F.S.A.     Queen's  College,  Cork. 

Lewis,  Thomas  White,  M.D.    Kingscliffe,  Wansford,  Northamptonshire. 

Librarian.     Public  Library,  Armagh. 

Librarian.     Belfast  Library,  Linen  Hall,  Belfast. 


















Librarian.     Belfast  Free  Public  Library,  Belfast. 

Librarian.     Free  Public  Library,  Liverpool. 

Librarian.     Public  Library,  Boston,  U.  S. 

Librarian.      Detroit  Public  Library,  Micbigan,  U.  S.,  per  B.  F.  Stevens, 

4,  Trafalgar-square,  London. 
Librarian.    Astor  Library,  New  York,  U.S.,  per  B.  F.  Stevens,  4,  Trafalgar- 

square,  London. 

Librarian.     King's  Inns  Library,  Henrietta-street,  Dublin. 
Librarian.    Library  of  Advocates,  Edinburgh. 
Librarian,  Limerick  Institution.     99,  George  -street,  limerick. 
Librarian,  Limerick  Protestant  Young  Men's  Association.   97,  George-street, 

Librarian.     Public  Library,  Melbourne,  per  Agent-General  for  Victoria. 

15,  Victoria-street,  Westminster,  S.W. 
Librarian.     Queen's  College,  Belfast. 
Librarian.     Queen's  College,  Cork. 
Librarian.     Queen's  College,  Galway. 
Librarian.     Berlin  Koyal  Library,  per  Messrs.  Asher  &  Co.,  13,  Bedford-st., 

Covent  Garden,  London. 

Librarian.     Science  and  Art  Department,  London,  S.W. 
Lindesay,  Rev.  William  O'Neill,  M.A.     Baronscourt  Rectory,  Newtown- 

Lindsay,  Dr.  David  Moore,  L.R.  C.P.I.,  &c.     373,  Main-street,  Salt  Lake 

City;  Utah,  U.S.A. 

Lindsay,  James  A.,  M.D.,  M.Ch.     37,  Victoria-place,  Belfast. 
Lindsay,    Rev.   Jobn    Woodley,    D.D.      Athnowen  Rectory,    Ovens,    Co. 


Lindsay,  Rev.  Samuel,  B.A.     Prospect  House,  Dungarmon. 
Lipscombe,  W.  H.     Church-road,  Malahide. 
Listen,  George,  Solicitor.     Kilmallock. 

Little,  Philip  Francis,  jun.     6,  JS'ew  Brighton,  Monkstown,  Co.  Dublin. 
Livingstone,  Rev.  Robert  George,  M.A.     Brinkworth  Rectory,  Chippenham, 


Lloyd,  Mrs.     Bloomfield,  Mullingar. 
Lloyd,  William.     1,  Pery-square,  Limerick. 
Lockwood,  F.  W.,  C.E.,  Architect.     16,  Waring-  street,  Belfast. 
Long,  Mrs.     16,  Appian-way,  Dublin. 
Longfield,  Mrs.  R.     Curraglass  Rectory,  Tallow,  Co.  Cork. 
Longfield,  Thomas  H.,  F.S.  A.,  M.R.I.  A.    Science  and  Art  Museum,  Leinster 

House,  Dublin. 

Longford,  Right  Hon.  the  Countess  of.     Pakenham  Hall,  Castlepollard. 
Lopdell,  John.     Stamer  Park,  Ennis. 

Lough,  Thomas,  M.P.     5,  Newton  Grove,  Bedford  Park,  Chiswick. 
Loughnan,  Henry  James,  Barrister-at-Law.     39,  Belvidere-place,  Dublin. 
Love,  Hugh  Thomas.     Charleville-square,  Tullamore. 
Lovegrove,  E.  W.,  M.A.,  M.R.I.  A.     Friar's  Cottage,  Bangor,  North  Wales. 
Lowe,  William  Ross  Lewin.     Middlewych,  St.  Alban's,  Herts. 
Lowndes,  Thomas  F.,  D.  I.R.I.  C.     Woodford,  Co.  Galway. 
Lowry,  S.  C.  W.,  Manager,  Ulster  Bank,  Downpatrick. 
Lucas,  Rev.  Frederick  John,  D.D.     5,  Breffni-terrace,  Kingstown. 
Lunham,  Colonel  Thomas  Ainslie,  M.A.,  J.P.     Ardfallen,  Douglas,  Cork. 
Lyle,  Rev.  Thomas,  M.A.     89,  St.  Laurence  -road,  Clontarf  . 
Lynam,  F.  J.,  County  Surveyor.     Omagh. 

Lynch,  Rev.  J.  Fetherston,  B.A.     Cahirconlish  Rectory,  Pallasgrean. 
LYNCH,  J.  J.     Towanda,  Pa.,  U.S.A. 
Lynch,  Patrick.     Inland  Revenue  Office,  Ballyshannon. 
Lynch,  Rev.  Patrick.     St.  Wilfrid's,  Hulme,  Manchester. 
Lyster,  Rev.  H.  Cameron,  B.D.     Rectory,  Enniscorthy. 
Lyster,  Thomas  W.,  M.A.     10,  Harcourt-terrace,  Dublin. 

Macalister,  R.  Alexander  Stewart,  M.A.     2,  Gordon  -street,  London,  W.C. 
Macaulay,  John,  J.P.,  D.L.     Red  Hall,  Ballycary,  Belfast. 
























Macauley,  Joseph,  Solicitor,     Donegall  Chambers,  Royal-avenue,  Belfast. 

MacCartan,  Eev.  Owen,  P.P.     Larne. 

Mac  Dermott,  Miss  Margaret,  B.A.     College  Buildings,  Dungannon. 

MacDonnell,  Charles  R.  A.,  J.P.,  D.L.     Liscrona,  Kilkee,  Co.  Clare. 

Mac  Gillycuddy,  Daniel  de  Courcy,  Solicitor.     Day-place,  Tralee. 

Mac  Gillycuddy,  John,  J.  P.     Aghadoe  House,  Killarney. 

Mack,  Rev.  A.  "William  Bradshaw,  B.A.     St.  Finian's,  Swords. 

Mackenzie,  John,  C.E.     7,  Donegall-square,  E.,  Belfast. 

Mac  Laughlin,  Daniel,  Solicitor.     Coleraine. 

MacMahon-Creagh,  Mrs.     Dangan,  Kilkishen,  Co.  Clare. 

Macmillan,  Rev.  John,  M.A.     76,  South  Parade,  Belfast. 

Mac  Mullan,  Very  Rev.  Alexander,  P.P.,  V.G.     Ballymena. 

Macnamara,  George  Unthank,  L.R. C.S.I.     Bankyle  House,  Corofin. 

MacNeill,  John  Gordon  Swift,  M.A.  (Oxon.),  Q.C.,  M.P.     14,  Blackhall- 

street,  Dublin. 
Maconachie,    Rev.    James    H.,    B.A.        Erindale,    Cliftonville- avenue, 


Macray,  Rev.  Wm.  Dunn,  M.A.,  F.S.A.     Ducklington,  Witney,  Oxon. 
Mac  Sheehy,  Brian,  LL.D.     35,  Gardiner's-place,  Dublin. 
Mac  William,  Rev.  John  W.  A.     Belcoo,  Blacklion,  Co.  Cavan. 
M'Aleer,  H.  K.     Beragh,  Co.  Tyrone. 

M'Alister,  James,  B.A.,  D.I.N.S.     Scoby  House,  Enniscorthy. 
M'Arthur,  Alexander,  J.P.     Knox's- street,  Sligo. 
M'Bride,  Francis.     39,  Grovesnor-square,  Rathmines. 
M'Bride,  John.     Granville  House,  Belfast. 
M'Bride,  Joseph  M.     Harbour  Office,  Westport. 
M'Burney,  James.     Loughconnolly,  N.S.,  Broughshane. 
M'Call,  Patrick  J.,  T.C.     25,  Patrick-street,  Dublin. 
M'Cann,  David.     National  Bank,  Kilkenny. 
M'Carte,  James.     51,  St.  George's  Hill,  Everton,  Liverpool. 
McCarthy,  Alexander,  Solicitor.     Town  Clerk,  Cork. 
McCarthy,  Samuel  Trant,  J.P.     Srugrena,  Cahirciveen. 
McCarthy,  William  P.  Trant,  Solicitor.     Inch  House,  Killarney. 
M'Clelland,  William  John,  M.A.     Collegiate  School,  Portarlington. 
M'Clintock,   Rev.  Francis  G.  Le  Poer,  M.A.  (Cantab.),  Canon.     Drumcar 

Rectory,  Dunleer. 

M'Comiskey,  Arthur  W.  S.,  M.B.     Killough,  Co.  Down. 
M'Connell,  James.     Annadale  Hall,  Belfast. 
M'Connell,  James.     48,  Lower  Sackville-street,  Dublin. 
M'Cormick,  William,  M.A.     Ardnaree,  Monkstown,  Co.  Dublin. 
M'Cormick,   H.   M'Neile,   Clerk  of  the  Crown,  Co.  Antrim.     Oramnore, 

Craigavad,  Belfast. 

M'Creery,  Alexander  John.     John-street,  Kilkenny. 
M'Crum,  Robert  G.,  J.P.     Milford,  Armagh. 
M'Cully,  Rev.  William  J.,  B.A.     The  Manse,  Carlingford. 
M'Cutchan,  Rev.  George,  M.A.     Rectory,  Kenmare. 
M'Donnell,  Mrs.     68,  Rathgar-road,  Dublin. 
M'Donnell,  Rev.  Patrick,  P.P.     Graignamanagh,  Co.  Kilkenny. 
M'Elhatton,  Rev.  John,  C.C.     Strabane. 
M'Enery,  D.  T.,  M.A.,  D.I.N.S.     Salisbury  House,  Athy. 
M'Enery,  M.  J.,  B.A.     Public  Record  Office,  Dublin. 
M'Entire,  Alexander  Knox,  Barrister-at-Law.,  J.P.     75,  Merrion-square, 

M'Fadden,  Right  Rev.  Monsignor  Hugh,  P.P.,  V.G.      Parochial  House, 


M'Farlane,  James,  J.P.     Strabane. 
M'Gee,    Rev.    Samuel    Russell,     M.A.      The    Rectory,    Dunlavin,    Co. 


M'Gee,  William,  J.P.     18,  Nassau-street,  Dublin. 
M'Glone,  Rev.  Michael,  P.P.     Rosslea. 

M'llwaine,  Robert.     Grand  Jury  Secretary's  Office,  Downpatrick. 
M'Inerney,  Rev.  John,  P.P.     Shinrone,  King's  Co. 
M'Intosh,  Robert.     Drogheda  Brewery,  Drogheda. 














M'Keefry,  Rev.  Joseph,  C.C.,  M.R.I. A.  Waterside,  Deny. 
M'Kenna,  Rev.  James  E.,  C.C.  St.  Michael's  Presbytery,  Enniskillen. 
M'Kenna,  Very  Rev.  Edward  Win.,  P.P.,  V.F.   Cumber  Claudy,  Co. 


M'Kenna,  Very  Rev.  James,  P.P.,  Canon.    Brookeborough,  Co.  Fermanagh. 
M 'Knight,  John  P.     Nevara,  Chichester  Park,  Belfast. 
M'Larney,  Rev.  Robert,  B.A.,  Canon.     Banagher,  King's  Co. 
M'Laughlin,  John.     Cart  Hall,  Coleraine. 

M'Manus,  Very  Rev.  Canon,  P.P.     St.  Catherine's,  Meath-street,  Dublin. 
M'Nally,  Charles  F.,  J.P.     Grange,  Tullow,  Co.  Carlow. 
M'Neill,  Charles.     Hazelbrook,  Malahide. 
M'jSeill,  John.     Chancery  Accounting  Office,  Dublin. 
M'Nulty,  Robert.     Raphoe. 
M'Quaid,    Surgeon-Lieut-Colonel  P.   J.,  M.D.,  M.Ch.      Garrison   Station 

Hospital,  Hilsea,  near  Portsmouth. 
M'Redmond,  Most  Rev.  Thomas  J.,  D.D.,  Bishop  of  Killaloe.     Bishop's 

House,  Ashline,  Ennis. 
Madden,    Right  Rev.   James,    P.P.,  V.G.     St.    Lawrence,   Tynagh,   Co. 

Gal  way. 

Madden,  Rev.  John,  C.C.     Cashel. 

Maffett,  William  Hamilton,  Barrister-at-Law.     St.  Helena,  Finglas. 
Magrath,  Redmond.     53,  Clanbrassil- street,  Dundalk. 
Mahaffy,  William  Irwin,  Solicitor.     Ward  Villa  West,  Bangor,  Co.  Down. 
Mahon,  George  Arthur,  LL.B.     Local  Government  Board,  Dublin. 
Mahon,    Thomas   George  Stacpoole,  B.A.  (Oxon.),  J.P.,    D.L.     Corbally, 

Quin,  Co.  Clare. 

Mahony,  Bernard  P.  J.,  M.R.C.V.S.     Annefield,  Maryborough. 
Mahony,    Daniel,    M.A.,    Barrister-at-Law.      8,    Mount-street,    Crescent, 

Mahony,    Denis   M'Carthy,    B.A.,    Barrister-at-Law.      1,   Herbert-street. 


Mahony,  J.  J.     Fort  Villas,  Queenstown. 
Mahony,  Thomas  Henry.     Clonard,  Blackrock-road,  Cork. 
Malcomson,  John.     47,  Pembroke-road,  Dublin. 
Manders,  Miss  H.  G.     17,  Waterloo-road,  Dublin. 
Mangan,  Richard.     5,  Brighton  Villas,  Cork. 
Manning,  Rev.  James,  P.P.     Roundwood,  Co.  Wicklow. 
Mannion,  Rev.  Patrick,  P.P.,  Canon.     The  Presbytery,  Elphin,  Co.    Ros- 


Mara,  Bernard  S.     Tullamore,  King's  County. 

March,  Henry  Colley,  M.D.  (Lond).,  F.S.A.     Portesham,  Dorchester. 
Martin,  R.  T.     Rosemount,  Artane. 
Mason,  Thomas.     5,  Dame-street,  Dublin. 
Mathews,  Thomas.     2,  Windsor  Gardens,  Belfast. 
Mathewson,  Lavens.     Helen's  Bay,  Co.  Down. 
Matthews,  George.     Holly  mount,  Maguire's-bridge,  Co.  Fermanagh. 
Maturin,  Rev.  Albert  Henry,  M.A.     The  Rectory,  Maghera,  Co.  Deny. 
Maunsell,   William    Pryce,    B.A.,  Barrister-at-Law.     3,  Neptune-terrace, 

Sandy  cove. 

Mayne,  Thomas,  F.R.G.S.I.     9,  Lord  Edward-street,  Dublin. 
Mayo,    Right  Hon.  the   Earl  of,   J.P.,    D.L.       Palmerstown    House, 

Straff  an. 
Meade,  Right  Rev.  William  Edward,  D.D.,  Bishop  of  Cork,  Cloyne,  and 

Ross.     The  Palace,  Cork. 

Meagher,  Jeremiah  J.     116,  Lower  Baggot- street,  Dublin. 
Meagher,  Very  Rev.  William,  P.P.,  Canon.     Templemore. 
Meegan,  Right  Rev.  Monsignor  Peter,  P.P.     Lisnaskea. 
Meehan,  Rev.  Joseph,  C.C.     Belhavel,  Dromahaire. 
Meehan,  Patrick  A.     Maryborough. 

Melville,  Alexander  G.,  M.D.     Knockane  House,  Portlaw. 
Metcalfe,  George.     Johnstown  Cottage,  Rathdowney,  Queen's  County. 
Middleton,  Shireff.     11,  Lower  Dominick-street,  Dublin. 
Micks,  WiUiam  L.,  M.A.     23,  Rutland-square,  Dublin. 









MILLNER,  Capt.  Joshua  Kearney.  4,  Cross-avenue,  Blackrock,  Co. 


Mitchell,  William  M.,  E.H.A.,  F.R.I. A.I.     5,  Leinster- street,  Dublin. 
Moffatt,  Rev.  John  E.,  M.D.     1,  Palmerston  Villas,  Rathmines. 
Molloy,  Joseph,  J.P.     Main-street,  Thurles. 
Molony,  Alfred.     24,  Grey  Coat  Gardens,  Westminster,  S.W. 
Molony,  Henry  G.,  M.D.     Odelville,  Ballingarry,  Limerick. 
Molony,  James  Barry.     Bindon- street,  Ennis. 
Monahan,  Rev.  Daniel,  P.P.     Tubber,  Moate,  Co.  Westmeath. 
Monks,  Thomas  F.,  LL.D.,  Solicitor.     1(3,  Bachelor's- walk,  Dublin. 
Montgomery,  Archibald  V.,  Solicitor.     12,  Molesworth-street,  Dublin. 
Montgomery,  James.     5,  Carlisle -road,  Londonderry. 
Montgomery,  John  Wilson,  Downpatrick. 
Mooney,  Morgan.     118,  Pembroke -road,  Dublin. 
Moony,  George  M.  S.  Enraght.  J.P.     The  Doon,  Athlone. 
Moore,  Rev.  Courtenay,  M.A.,  Canon.     Rectory,  Mitchelstown. 
Moore,   Rev.  H.  Kingsmill,  M.A.,   Principal,  Training  College,   Kildare- 

street,  Dublin. 

Moore,  Hugh  Stuart,  M.A.     7,  Fitzwilliam- square,  Dublin. 
Moore,  John  Gibson,  J.P.     Llandaff  Hall,  Merrion. 
Moore,  Joseph  H.,  M.A.,  M.  INST.  C.E.I.      63,  Eccles-street,  Dublin. 
Moore,  William,  Castle  Mahon,  Blackrock,  Co.  Cork. 
Moorhead,  Rev.  Joseph,  B.A.     Broughshane,  Co.  Antrim. 
Morgan,  Arthur  P.,  B.A.  (Dubl.),  D.I.N.S.     Springvale,  Tipperary. 
Morgan,  Very  Rev.  John,  D.D.,   The  Deanery,  Waterford. 
Morris,  Rev.  Wm.  Bullen.     The  Oratory,  South  Kensington,  London,  S.W. 
Morrison,  Alexander  Kerr.     Maghera,  Co.  Derry. 
Morton,  John.     Manager,  Provincial  Bank,  Limerick. 
Mulholland,  Miss  M.F.     Eglantine,  Hillsborough. 
Mullan,  Rev.  David,  M.A.    Christian  Union  Buildings,  Lower  Abbey-street, 


Mullan,  Robert  A.,  B.A.     9,  Trevor-hill,  Newry. 
Mullen,  Frank.     44  Room,  Custom  House,  Thames- street,  London. 
Mullin,  Charles,  Solicitor.    Omagh. 

Mulqueen,  John  T.,  Inspector  of  Inland  Revenue.     Nairn,  N.B. 
Murdock,  James.     10,  Ponsonby-avenue,  Belfast. 
Murphy,  Rev.  Arthur  William,  P.P.     Kilemlagh,  Cahirciveen. 
Murphy,  Rev.  James  E.  H.,  M.A.,  Professor  of  Irish,  Dublin  University. 

Rathcore  Rectory,  Enfield,  Co.  Meath. 
Murphy,  Very  Rev.  Jeremiah,  D.D.,  P.P.     Macroom. 
Murphy,  Henry.     Diamond,  Clones. 
Murphy,  John  J.     Belvedere,  Tramore,  Co.  Waterford. 
Murphy,  John  J.,  H.M.  Customs.     Culgreine,  Ballintemple,  Cork. 
Murphy,  Rev.  Joseph,  P.P.     St.  Martin's,  Ballycullane,  Wexford. 
Murphy,  M.  L.     Ballyboy,  Ferns. 
Murphy,  Miss.     77,  Ulverton-road,  Dalkey. 
Murray,  Archibald.     Portland,  Limerick. 

Murray,  J.  W.  Brady,  LL'.B.,  J.P.     Northampton  House,  Kinvara. 
Murtagh,  Mrs.     9,  Raglan-road,  Dublin. 
Murtagh,  Miss.     9,  Raglan-road,  Dublin. 

Musgrave,  Sir  James,  Bart.,  J.P.,  D.L.     Drumglass  House,  Belfast. 
Myles,  Rev.  Edward  A.,  M.A.     Solitude  House,  Banbridge. 

Nash,  Lieut. -Colonel  Edward,  J.P.     56,  Sloane-street,  London,  S.W. 

Nash,  Richard  G.,  J.P.     Finnstown.  House,  Lucan. 

Nason,  William  H.,  M.A.     42,  Dawson- street,  Dublin. 

Neeson,  Rev.  Arthur  J.,  C.C.     Killyleagh,  Co.  Down, 

Neill,  Sharman  D.     12,  Donegall-place,  Belfast. 

Neligan,  Major  William  John,  J.P.     Churchill,  Tralee. 

Nelis,  John.     Londonderry. 

Newell,  P.,  B.A.,  D.I.N.S.     Ballaghadereen. 

Nicolls,  Rev.  George  A.,  B.A.     The  Rectory,  Ballycumber,  King's  Co. 



1893  Nixon,  James  H.  F.,  F.R.G.S.,  J.P.     Mount  Brandon,  Graignamanagh. 

1889  Nolan,  MichaelJ.,  M.D.    Down  District  Asylum,  Downpatrick. 

1890  Nolan,    Pierce    L.,    B.A.,     Barrister-at-Law.       6,    St.    Stephen's-green, 


1896  Nolan,  "William  R.,  B.A.     Brookville,  Simmonscourt-avenue,  Donnybrook. 

1894  Norman,  Alfred,  LL.D.,  SoHcitor.     68,  Dame-street,  Dublin. 

1891  Norman,  Conolly,  F. E.G. P.I.     Richmond  Asylum,  Dublin. 
1896  Nowlan,  Rev.  J.  A.,  O.S.A.     St.  John-street,  West,  Dublin. 
1893  Nugent,  Yen.  Garrett,  M.A.,  Archdeacon  of  Meath.     Trim. 

1893  O'Brien,  James  J.     1,  Charlemont-terrace,  Cork. 

1889  O'Brien,  Rev.  Lucius  H.,  M.A.    The  Rectory,  Adare,  Co.  Limerick. 
1871  '  O'Brien,  Robert  Vere,  B.A.  (Oxon.),  J.P.     New  Hall,  Ennis. 

1896  O'Byrne,  Count  Edward  A.     Corville,  Roscrea. 

1890  O'Callaghan,  Mrs.     Maryfort,  Tulla. 

1894  O'Callaghan,  Rev.  Joseph.     59,  Eccles-street,  Dublin. 

1890  O'Callaghan-Westropp,  Captain  George,  J.P.     Coolreagh,  Bodyke. 

1897  O'Connell,  Rev.  Daniel,  B.D.     81,  Quay,  Waterford. 

1893  O'Connor,   Charles  A.,  M.A.,  Q.C.     50,  Upper  Mount-street,  Duhlin. 
1897  O'Connor,  M.  J.,  Solicitor.     2,  George-street,  Wexford. 

1895  O'Connor-Morris,  Miss  L.     Gartnamona,  Tullamore. 

1890  O'Connor,  Rev.  T.  C.,  M.A.,  Canon.     Donaghmore,  Baltinglass. 

1892  O'Connor,  Thomas  P.,  B.A.,  D.I.N.S.     Longford. 

1896  O'Dea,  Rev.  Denis,  C.C.     Kilkee. 

1890  O'Doherty,    Rev.    Philip,    C.C.,    M.R.I. A.       St.   Columb's    Presbytery, 


1890  O'Donnell,  Rev.  Patrick,  P.P.     Doon,  Pallasgrean. 

1892  O'Donoghue,  David  J.     3,  Bedford-row,  Dublin. 

1874  O'Donoghue,  Rev.  Denis,  P.P.,  M.R.I.A.     Ardfert,  Tralee. 

1894  O'Donoghue,  The.     10,  Gardiner's-place,  Dublin. 

1894  O'Donoghue,  Thomas  Griffin.     3,  Bedford-row,  Dublin. 

1897  O'Duffy,  John,  Dental  Surgeon.     54,  Rutland-square,  Duhlin. 
1892  O'Farrell,  Edward  P.,  L.R.C.S.E.     21,  Rutland-square,  Dublin. 

1895  O'Halloran,  Patrick  M.     Corofin,  Co.  Clare. 

1866  O'Hanlon,  Very  Rev.  John,  P.P.,  M.R.I.A.,  Canon.      3,  Leahy-terrace, 
Irishtown,  Dublin. 

1889  O'Hanrahan,  Timothy  Wm.,  J.P.     Parliament-street,  Kilkenny. 

1890  O'Hara,  Rigbt  Rev.  John  M.,  Monsignor,  P.P.,  V.F.     Crossmolina. 

1896  O'Hennessy,  Bartholomew.     Kilkee. 

1889  O'Keefe,  Stephen  M.,  B.A. ,  Barrister-at-Law,  J.P.     Delville,  Glasnevin. 

1889  Olden,  Rev.  Thomas,  M.A.,  M.R.I.A.     Ballyclough,  Mallow. 

1891  O'LEARY,  Kev.  Edward,  P.P.     Balyna,  Moyvalley. 

1888  O'Leary,  John.     Lonsdale,  St.  Lawrence-road,  Clontarf. 

1892  O'LEARY,  Eev.  John,  P.P.     Kilmalchedor,  Ballyferriter,  Dingle. 
1884  O'Leary,  Patrick.     Main-street,  Graig-na-Managh,  Co.  Kilkenny. 
1870  O'Loghlen,  John.     59,  Bromley -street,  Commercial-road,  London,  E. 

1896  O'Mahony,  Florence  M'Carthy.     Munster  and  Leinster  Bank,  Cork. 

1897  O'Malley,  Joseph,  B.E.     10,  Glentworth-street,  Limerick. 
1894  O'Malley,  Middleton  Moore,  J.P.     Ross,  Westport. 

1891  O'Malley,  Thomas,  Secretary,  Waterford,  Dungarvan,  and  Lismore  Railway 

Company.     Tramore,  Waterford. 

1897  O'Meara,  Rev.  Eugene  H.,  M.A.     The  Vicarage,  Tallaght. 

1891  O'Meara,  John  J.,  Solicitor,  T.C.     211,  Great  Brunswick- street,  Dublin. 

1894  O'Morchoe,  The.     Kerrymount,  Foxrock. 

1891  O'Morchoe,  Rev.  Thomas  A.,  M.A.     Kiltermm  Rectory,  Golden  Ball. 

1890  O'Mulremn,  Richard  J.,  M.A.     6,  Carlisle-street,  S.  C.  Road,  Dublin. 
1896  O'Neill,  Charles.     37,  Great  James's-street,  Londonderry. 

1892  O'Neill,  Rev.  James,  M.A.     5,  College-square,  E.,  Belfast. 

1889  O'Neill,  Michael.     Imperial  Hotel,  Kilkenny. 

1863  O'Neill,  Very  Rev.  Patrick,  P.P.,  Canon.     Clontarf,  Dublin. 

1891  O'Neill,  William  P.,  M.R.I.A.     58,  Great  Charles-street,  Dublin. 
1896         O'Reilly,  James.     Dromore,  Co.  Tyrone. 







1897         Penny,  Eev.  James.     Wispington  Vicarage,  Horncastle,  Lincolnshire. 
Pentland,  Augustus  Tichborne,  M.A.     2,  Tower  Hill,  Dalkey. 







O'Reilly,  Patrick  J.     7,  North  Earl-street,  Dublin. 

Oldham,  Miss  Edith.     33,  Upper  Leeson-street,  Dublin. 

O'Riordan,  Rev.  John,  C.C.     Cloyne. 

OEMONDE,  Most  Hon.  the  Marquis  of,  K.P.     The  Castle,  Kilkenny. 

Orpen,   Ve*n.   Raymond  d'A.,    M.A.,  Archdeacon  of  Ardfert.       Rectory, 

Orpen,  Goddard  H.,  B.A.,  Barrister-at-Law.    Erpingham,  Bedford  Park, 

Chiswick,  London. 

Orpin,  John.     47,  St.  Stephen's -green,  Dublin. 
Orr,  Jacob,  J.P.     Cranagill,  Loughgall. 

O'Shee,  N.  Power,  J.P.,  D.L.     Garden  Morris,  Kilmacthomas. 
0' Sullivan,  Very  Rev.  Archdeacon,  P.P.,  V.G.     Holy  Cross,  Kenmare. 
Oulton,  Rev.  Richard  C.,  M.A.,  D.D.,  Glynn  Rectory,  Glynn,  Belfast. 
Overend,  Trevor  T.  L.,  LL.B.     12,  Ely-place,  Dublin. 

Palmer,  J.  E.     Roselawn,  Ballybrack. 

Palmer,  Mrs.     Carrig  House*  Lower  Road,  Cork. 

Panton,  John.     45,  St.  Andrew- street,  Dublin. 

Parke,  Robert  H.,  LL.B.,  Solicitor.     Monaghan.   .    . 

Parker,  J.  A.     Post  Office,  Wexford. 

Parkinson,  Miss.    Westbourne,  Ennis. 

Patterson,  Mervyn  S.     Tullyard,  Dungannon. 

Patterson,  William  Hugh,  M.R.I.  A.     Garranard,  Strandtown,  Belfast. 

Patton,  Alexander,  M.D.     Farnham  House,  Finglas,  Co.  Dublin. 

Pentland,  George  Henry,  B.A.,  J.P.     Black  Hall,  Drogheda. 

Perry,    James,    M.E.,   M.  INST.  C.E.,   County  Surveyor.       Well    Park, 

Gal  way. 

Persse,  Mrs.     Ormonde  View,  Ballycrissane,  Ballinasloe. 
Peter,  Miss.     Cron  Bryn,  The  Hill,  Monkstown,  Co.  Dublin. 
Phelps,  Ernest  James.     Water  Park,  Castleconnell. 
Phibbs,  Owen,  J.P.,  D.L.    Seafield,  Sligo. 
Phillips,  James  J.,  C.E.,  Archt.     61,  Royal-avenue,  Belfast. 
Piatt,  Arthur  Donn,  Vice-Consul,  U.S.A.      204,  Great  Brunswick-street 


Pirn,  Miss  Gertrude.     Glenageragh  House,  Kingstown. 
Pirn,  Miss  Mary  E.     Greenbank,  Monkstown,  Co.  Dublin. 
Pirn,  Miss  Miriam.     2,  Belgrave-square,  S.,  Monkstown,  Co.  Dublin. 
Pitt- Rivers,  General  A.  H.  Lane-Fox,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S.,  F.S.A.   4,  Grosvenor 

Gardens,  London,  S.W.,  and  Rushmoro,  Salisbury. 
Plummer,  Rev.  Richard,  D.D.     Ashfield  Glebe,  Cootehill. 
Plunkett,  Ambrose,  B.A.,  Solicitor.     29,  Lower  Leeson-street,  Dublin. 
Plunkett,  Thomas,  M.R.I. A.    Enniskillen. 
Poe,  Lieut. -Colonel  Wm.  Hutcheson,  C.B.,   J.P.,  D.L.     Heywood,   Bal- 


Pounder,  Festus  Kelly,  B.A.     Slaney-place,  Enniscorthy. 
Powell,  Frederick  York,  M.A.     Professor,  Christ  Church,  Oxford. 
Powell,  Rev.  William  H.,  D.D.     Rathclarin  Rectory,  Kilbrittain. 
Power,  Ambrose  William  Bushe.     Glencairn  Abbey,  Lismore. 
Power,  Rev.  George  Beresford,  B.A.     Kilfane  Glebe,  Thomastown. 
Power,  Rev.  John,  P.P.      Kilteely,  Pallasgrean,  Co.  Limerick. 
Power,  Laurence  John,  J.P.     Parade,  Kilkenny. 
Pratt,  Rev.  John,  M.A.  (Dubl.).     Rectory,  Durrus,  Co.  Cork. 
Pratt,  Rev.  Philip  C.,  R.N.      Woodview  Cottage,  St.   Anne's  Hill,  Co. 


Prendergast,  Rev.  John,  C.C.     Windgap,  Kilkenny. 
Preston,  Captain  John,  R.M.     The  Moorings,  Athlone. 
Price,  J.  Spencer.     Waterhead  House,  Ambleside,  Westmoreland. 
Purdon,  Henry  Samuel,  M.D.     60,  Pakenham-place,  Belfast. 
Purefoy,  Rev.  Amyrald  D.,  M.A.     3,  Park-place,  Island  Bridge. 



1891  Quail,  Rowland,  J.     Downpatrick. 

1890  Quan- Smith,  Samuel  A.     Bullick  Castle,  Dalkey,  Co.  Dublin. 

1889  Quin,  James,  J.P.     70,  George -street,  Limerick. 
1896  Quinn,  John  A.,  Solicitor.     Dungannon. 

1891  Quinn,  J.  Monsarrat.     25,  Lower  Beechwood-avenue,  Ranelagh. 
1893  Quinn,  Rev.  Bartholomew,  Adm.     Tourlistrane,  Tubbercurry. 

1890  Quinn,  Very  Rev.  Edward  T.,  Canon,  P.P.     Ballybrack. 

1896  Rankin,  Rev.  R.  B.,  B.A.     All  Saints,  Newtown- Cunningham. 

1880  Raphael,  George.     Galgorm  House,  Ballymena. 

1891.  Rapmund,  Rev.  Joseph,  C.C.     Sallymount,  Clogher,  Co.  Tyrone. 

1891  Revelle,  Samuel  J.     37,  Chelmsford-road,  Dublin. 

1891  Reynell,  Miss.     22,  Eccles-street,  Dublin. 

1893  Riall,  Commander  Arthur  G.,  R.N.     Chantilly,  Shankill. 
1890  Rice,  Mrs.     Grange  Erin,  Douglas,  Cork. 

1881  Rice,   Lieut. -Colonel  Richard  Justice,   J.P.       Bushmount,   Lixnaw,  Co. 


1897  Rice,  Thomas.     5,  Carlisle-street,  Dublin. 

1895  Richardson,  Miss  Anna  H.     Craigentemple,  Portrush-. 

1892  Ridgeway,  William,  M.A.     Fen  Ditton,  Cambridge. 

1893  Ringwood,  William,  J.P.     Tullyvolty,  Johnstown,  Co.  Kilkenny. 

1897  Roberts,   Edward,   M.A.,    H.M.    Inspector  of   Schools.     Plas    Maesinda, 

1890  Roberts,  George  C.,  J.P.     Summer  Hill,  Enniscorthy. 

1896  Robertson,  John.     1,  Rostrevor-terrace,  Rathgar. 

1894  Robinson,   John   0' Carroll.     United   States   Hotel,   Beach-street,    Boston, 

Mass.,  U.S.A. 

1891  Robinson,  Thomas.     Drogheda. 

1897  Roche,  H.  J.     The  Mailings,  Enniscorthy. 
1871  Roche,  Patrick  J.     The  Makings,  New  Ross. 

1892  Rock,  Thomas  Dennis.     62,  Leadenhall-street,  London,  E.G. 
1890  Roe,  Rev.  John,  C.C.     Thomastown,  Co.  Kilkenny. 

1892  Rogers,  William  E.     Belfast  Banking  Company,  Portaferry. 

1896  Roice,  Bernard  Herron.     Churchtown  House,  Tagoat. 

1892  Rolleston,  Thomas  WiUiam,  B.A.     104,  Pembroke-road,  Dublin. 

1889  Rooke,  Rev.  George  W.,  M.A.    Precentor,  St.  Canice's  Library,  Kilkenny. 
1896  Rooney,  Rev.  Thomas  J.,  C.C.     Banbridge. 

1894  ROTHEKAM,  Edward  Crofton.     Belview,  Crossakiel,  Co.  Meath. 

1896  Russell,  John,  C.E.     16,  Waring- street,  Belfast. 

1897  Russell,  William,     c/o  Forster  Green  &  Co.,  Ltd.,  High-street,  Belfast. 

1890  Ryan,  Very  Rev.  Arthur,  President,  St.  Patrick's  College,  Thurles. 

1889  Ryan,  Rev.  James  J.,  V.-P.     St.  Patrick's  College,  Thurles. 

1890  Ryan,  Rev.  Martin,  C.C.     Cullen,  Tipperary. 

1897  Ryan,  Thomas  V.,  Solicitor.     46,  St.  Stephen's-green,  Dublin. 

1893  Ryder,  Arthur  Gore,  M.  INST.  C.E.     2,  St.  John's-terrace,  Dolphin's  Barn. 

1895  Ryder,  Mrs.  A.  G.     2,  St.  John's-terrace,  Dolphin's-barn. 

1891  Ryland,  Richard  H.,  B.A.     26,  Herbert-place,  Dublin. 

1895  Salazar,  The  Cavaliere  Lorenzo.      Director  of  the  Bibliotheca  S.  Martino, 

1891  Salmon,  John.     122,  Ellenborough-terraoe,  Belfast. 

1897  Sandford,  Rev.  Herbert  M.,  M.A.     St.  Peter's  Rectory,  Drogheda. 

1889  Sankey,  Lieut. -General  Sir  Richard  H.,  K.C.B.,,     6,  Lowndes- 
square,  London,  S.W. 

1894  Sayers,  Rev.  George,  Canon.     The  Glebe,  Upper  Ballinderry,  Lurgan. 
1889  Sceales,  A.  E.,  F.F.A.     48,  Castle-street,  Liverpool. 

1894  Scott,  Anthony,  Archt.     16,  William-street,  Drogheda. 

1879  Scott,  Rev.  Charles,  M.A.      St.  Paul's  Parsonage,  Belfast. 

1892  Scott,  Conway,  C.E.     15,  Wellington  Park,  Belfast. 

1891  Scott,  John  William,  J.P.     Roslevan,  Ennis. 

1892  Scott,  Samuel.     Inland  Revenue  Office,  Elgin,  N.B. 




1894  Scott,  "William  A.,  Archt.     16,  William- street,  Drogheda 

1891  Scriven,  Eev.  Rowland,  M.A.  (Cantab.),  M.R.I. A.     33,    StephenVgreen, 

1891  Scully,  Very  Rev.  Alex.  F.,  Canon,  P.P.,  V.F.     Hospital,  Co.  Limerick. 

1890  Seale,  Mrs.     Ardenza,  Foxrock,  Co.  Dublin. 

1892  Semple,  Rev.  R.  H.,  M.A.     26,  Barrington-street,  Limerick. 

1891  Sexton,  Sir  Robert,  J.P.,  D.L.     70,  Harcourt-street,  Dublin. 
1897  Shackleton,  Abraham.     23,  Garville-road,  Rathgar. 

1896  Sbackleton,  George.     Anna  Liffey  House,  Lucan. 

1892  Shackleton,  Mrs.  J.  F.     Anna  Liffey  House,  Lucan. 

1891  Shannon,  Patrick,  D.I.N.S.     10,  Patrick-street,  Kilkenny. 

1897  Shaw,  Rev.  George  Bell.     Claggan  Manse,  Cookstown. 

1895  Shaw,  His  Honor  Judge,  M.A.     69,  Pembroke-road,  Dublin. 

1896  Sheridan,  Mrs.     26,  North  Earl-street,  Dublin. 

1896  Sheridan,  Rev.  N.  T.,  President.     St.  Peter's  College,  "Wexford. 

1895  Sherlock,  David,  J.P.,  D.L.     Rahan  Lodge,  Tullamore. 

1896  Shore,  Colonel  the  Hon.  Frederick,  R.A.      Ballyduff,   Thomastown,  Co. 


1896  Shore,  The  Hon.  Mrs.     Ballyduff,  Thomastown,  Co.  Kilkenny. 

1894  Simmons,  John,  Solicitor.     Dungannon. 
1890  Simms,  James.     Abercorn  Arms,  Strabane. 

1895  Simms,  Robert  A.     Lisdoron,  Ballymena. 

1895  Simpson,  Mrs.     "West  Church  Manse,  Ballymena. 

1892  Simpson,  William  J.     10,  Cornmarket,  Belfast. 

1887  Simpson,  William  M.     15,  Hughenden-terrace,  Belfast. 

1893  Skeffington,  Joseph  Bartholomew,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  D.I.N.S.     Waterford. 

1888  Sloane,  Mrs.     Moy  Hill,  Co.  Tyrone. 

1893  Small,  John  F.,  Solicitor.     3 7, 'Hill- street,  Newry. 
1895  Small,  Miss  M.  J.     Hill-street,  Newry. 

1892  Smith,  Christopher,  D.I.N.S.     Woolahara,  Cork. 

1892  Smith,  Frederick  William.     13,  College  Gardens,  Belfast. 

1894  Smith,  Rev.  George  Nuttall,  B.A.     Abbeyleix. 
1887  Smith,  Owen.     Nobber,  Co.  Meath. 

1890  Smith,  Rev.  Canon,  D.D.     St.  Bartholomew's,  Clyde-road,  Dublin. 

1895  Smith,  Thomas  J.,  D.I.,  R.I.C.     Ballinrobe. 

1893  Smith,  William  Joseph,  J.P.     9,  George-street,  Waterford. 

1889  Smithwick,  Edmund,  J.P.     Kilcrene  House,  Kilkenny. 

1893  Smyth,  Edward  Weber,  J.P.     6,  St.  Stephen's -green,  Dublin. 

1895  Smyth,  Mrs.  E.  Weber.     73,  St.  Stephen's -green,  Dublin. 

1894  Smyth,  John,  B.A.     The  Crescent,  Galway. 

1896  Smyth,  Rev.  Thomas  A.     Clogherney  Manse,  Beragh,  Co.  Tyrone. 

1894  Smyth,  Richard  O'Brien,  C.E.,  Archt.     2,  Ken il worth-square,  Dublin. 

1895  Smyth,  Robert  Wolfe,  J.P.     Portlick  Castle,  Athlone. 

1897  Smyth,  Thomas.     2,  Lower  Ormond-quay,  Dublin. 

1894  Smyth,  Victor  E.     7,  Uxbridge-terrace,  Dublin. 
1892  Somerville,  Bellingham  Arthur.     Clermont,  Rathnew. 

1891  Somerville-Large,  Rev.  William  S.,  M.A.     Carnalway  Rectory,  Kilcullen. 
1897  Spaight,  Colonel  William  F.     Union  Hall,  Leap,  Co.  Cork. 

1892  Sparrow,  Robert,  D.I. R.I.C.     Gort. 

1897  Speth,  George  William,  F.  R.  Hist.  S.      La  Tuya,  Edward-road,  Bromley, 

1890  Stack,Rev.  C.  Maurice,  M.A.     Derryvullan  Rectory,  Tamlaght,  Enniskillen. 

1892  Stacpoole,  Mrs.     Edenvale,  Ennis. 

1895  Stacpoole,  Miss.     Edenvale,  Ennis. 

1889  Stanford,  Rev.  Bedell,  B.A.  (Dubl.).     19,  Stamer- street,  Dublin. 

1893  Stanley,  Rev.  William  Francis,  C.C.     St.  Mary's,  Latchford,  Warrington. 
1879  Stawell,  Jonas  W.  Alcock,  J.P.     Kilbrittain  Castle,  Bandon. 

1890  Steede,  John,  LL.D.,  D.I.N.S.     Dundalk. 

1894  Steele,  Charles  W.     18,  Crosthwaite  Park,  Kingstown. 

1895  Steele,  Rev.  William  B.,  B.A.     Levally  Rectory,  Enniskillen. 
1892  Stephen,  Miss  Rosamond.     Godmanchester,  Huntingdon. 

1891  Stephens,    Pembroke    Scott,    Q.C.      18,   Parliament- street,    Westminster, 



Stephens,  Samuel.     Martello-terrace,  Holywood,  Co.  Down. 

Stewart,  Eev.  Harvey,  M.A.     17,  Warrington-place,  Dublin. 

Stirling,  William,  F.E.I. A. I.,  C.E.     7,  Grafton-street,  Dublin. 

Stirrup,  Mark,  F.G.S.L.     High  Thorn,  Bowden,  Cheshire. 

Stoker,  Mrs.     72,  Eathgar-road,  Dublin. 

Stokes,  Michael  B.     The  Square,  Tralee. 

Stokes,  Miss.     Victoria-place,  Athlone. 

Stokes,  Eev.  George  Thomas,  D.D.,  M.E.I. A.,  Professor  of  Ecclesiastical 

History.    All   Saints'    Eectory,    Blackrock ;     and    28,    Trinity   College, 


Stoney,  Colonel  Francis  (late  E.A.),  J.P.     The  Downs,  Delgany. 
Stoney,  Sadleir,  J.P.,  Barrister- at-Law.     42,  Dawson-street,  Dublin. 
Stonham,  Eev.  Frank,  M.A.  (Oxon.),     Fermoy  College,  Co.  Cork. 
Stoyte,  William  James,  J.P.     Glendoneen,  Ballinhassig,  Co.  Cork. 
Strangeways,  William  N.     Breffni  Villa,  Eglinton-road,  Donnybrook. 
Stubbs,  William  Cotter,  M.A.,  Barrister-at-Law.    28,  Hatch-street,  Dublin. 
Sullivan,  Sir  Edward,  Bart.,  B.A.     32,  Fitzwilliam-place,  Dublin. 
Swan,  Percy  S.     Manager,  Bank  of  Ireland,  Tipperary. 
Swanston,  William.    4A,  Cliftonville-avenue,  Belfast. 
Sweeny,    Eev.  Patrick,  M.A.    Ballinacourty  Eectory,  Annascaul  K.S.O., 

Co.  Kerry. 
Synnott,  Nicholas  J.,  B.A.   (Lond.),  Barrister-at-Law.     1,  Garden-Court, 

Temple,  London,  E.C. 

Tallon,  Thomas,  T.C.     Drogheda. 

Tarleton,  Mrs.     The  Abbey,  Killeigh,  Tullamore. 

Tate,  Alexander,  M.  INST.  C.E.I.     Eantalard,  Belfast. 

Taylor,  Edward.     The  Clothing  Factory,  Limerick. 

Teague,  Bernard.     St.  Michael's  Schools,  Enniskillen. 

Telford,  Eev.  William  H.     Eeston  Manse,  Berwickshire. 

Tempest,  William,  J.P.     Douglas-place,  Dundalk. 

Ternan,  Obadiah,  M.D.    Enniskillen. 

Thomas,  W.  J.     Mullingar. 

Thompson,  Mrs.     Lismalin,  Ballingarry,  Thurles. 

Thunder,  Francis  P.     Municipal  Buildings,  Cork-hill,  Dublin. 

Tivy,  Henry  L.     Barnstead,  Blackrock,  Cork. 

Tobias,  Matthew,  Solicitor.     Cozy  Lodge,  Sandymount. 

Tohill,  Eev.  John,  Adm.     Holy  Family  Presbytery,  Newington,  Belfast. 

Toler-Aylward,  Hector  J.  C.,  J.P.,  D.L.      Shankill  Castle,  Whitehall,  Co. 


Toler,  Hector  E.  G.,  J.P.,  D.L.     Durrow  Abbey,  Tullamore. 
Toner,  Eev.  Joseph.     St.  John's,  Monaca,  Beaver  Co.,  Pa.,  U.S.A. 
TOREENS,  Thomas  Hughes,  J.P.     Edenmore,  Whiteabbey,  Co.  Antrim. 
Townsend,  George  C.     Cordangan  Manor,  Tipperary. 
Townsend,  Very  Eev.  William  C.,  D.D.,  Dean  of  Tuam.     Tuam. 
Townshend,  Thomas  Courtney,  B.A.  (Dubl.).     23,  South  Frederick-street, 


Traill,  William  A.,  M.A.,  C.E.     Giant's  Causeway,  Bushmills. 
Trelford,  William  J.     23,  Lin  coin -avenue,  Belfast. 
Trench,  John  Townsend,  J.P.     Lansdowne  Lodge,  Kenmare. 
Tresilian,  Eichard  S.     9,  Upper  Sackville- street,  Dublin. 
Trouton,  Edmund.     Eversham,  Blackrock,  Co.  Dublin. 
Truell,    Henry  Pomeroy,   M.B.,   J.P.,   D.L.     Clonmannon,   Ashford,  Co. 


Tuite,  James,  M.P.     14,  Greville-street,  Mullingar. 
Turner,  Eobert.     English -street,  Armagh. 
Turtle,  Frederick  Locke.     The  Villa,  Aghalee,  Lurgan. 
Twigg,  Eev.  Thomas,  D.D.,  Canon.    Vicarage,  Swords,  Co.  Dublin. 

Upton,  Henry  A.  S.,  J.P.     Coolatore,  Moate,  Co.  Westmeath. 

Ussher,  Eichard  John,  J.P.     Cappagh  House,  Cappagh  E.S.O.,  Lismore. 












Vanston,  George  T.  B.,  LL.D.,  Barrister-at-Law.     Hildon  Park,  Terenure- 

road,  Rathgar. 

Vaughan,  Joseph,  J.P.     Mount  View,  Athlone. 
Venables,  "William  J.     Gortalowry  House,  Cookstown. 
Vincent,  Rev.  Marshall  Clarke,  M.A.     South  Hill,  Nenagh. 

Wade,  William  Richard.     Tullamore. 

Wakely,  John,  M.A.,  Barrister-at-Law.     6,  Harcourt- street,  Dublin. 

Walby,  James,  Engineer.     Post  Office  Telegraph  Department,  Belfast. 

Waldron,  Laurence  A.,  M.R.I. A.     24,  Anglesea- street,  Dublin. 

Walker,  Charles  Francis.     Kilmore-quay,  Wexford. 

Wallungton,  Miss,  M.A.,  LL.D.     Edenvale,  Strandtown,  Co.  Down. 

Wall,  Walter  Saunders,  J.P.     Errislanan,  Clifden,  Co.  Galway. 

Wallace,  Charles  John,  M.A.,  J.P.     Belfield,  Booterstown. 

Wallace,  Major  Robert  H.     Downpatrick. 

Walpole,  Thomas,  C.E.,  M.  INST.  N.A.     Windsor  Lodge,  Monkstown,  Co. 

Walsh,  John  Edward,  M.A.  (Dubl.),    Barrister-at-Law,  J.P.      Greenoge, 

Fahan,  Londonderry. 
Walsh,  John  Francis.     Wexford. 

Walsh,  Rev.  James  H.,  D.D.,  Canon.     44,  Upper  Mount-street,  Dublin. 
Walsh,  Rev.  Robert,  D.D.     St.  Mary's  Rectory,  Donnybrook. 
Walsh,  Thomas  Arnold,  Kilmallock. 
Walsh,  Rev.  Tobias  R.,  P.P.     Freshford,  Co.  Kilkenny. 
Ward,  Alexander.     35,  Upper  Mount-street,  Dublin. 
Ward,  C.  H.,  B.A.  (Cantab.).     51,  Belgrave-square,  Dublin. 
Ward,  H.  Somerset.     6,  Carlisle-terrace,  Malahide. 
Wardell,  John.     Old  Abbey,  Shanagolden. 
Warren,   Sir  Augustus  R.,  Bart.,  J.P.,  D.L.      Warrenscourt,  Lisardagh, 

Co.  Cork. 

WEBB,  Alfred.     Shelmalier,  Orwell  Park,  Rathgar. 
Webb,  Thomas  Henry.     Ardfallen,  Dalkey. 
Webber,  William  Downes,  J.P.     Mitchelstown  Castle,  Co.  Cork. 
Webster,  Henry,  M.  INST.  C.E.,  Co.  Surveyor.     Belvidere  House,  Wexford. 
Wedgwood,  Rev.  George  R.     4,  Crosthwaite  Park,  Kingstown. 
Weir,  Henry  Crichton,  LL.B.  (Dubl.),  Solicitor.     Downpatrick. 
Weir,  John  S.,  J.P.     Carrickbrack,  Convoy,  Co.  Donegal. 
Welch,  Robert.     49,  Lonsdale-street,  Belfast. 

Weldon,  Sir  Anthony  Crosdill,  Bart.,  J.P.,  D.L.     Kilmoroney,  Athy. 
Weldrick,  George.     University  Press,  Trinity  College,  Dublin. 
Welply,  W.  H.,  Inspector  of  National  Schools.     1,  Devon-place,  Galway. 
Westmeath,  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of,  J.P.,  D.L.  Pallas,  Tynagh,  Co.  Galway. 
Westropp,  Miss.     Deer  Park,  Clonlara,  Limerick. 
Westropp,  Miss  F.     1,  Raglan-road,  Dublin. 
Westropp,  Ralph  H.,  B.A.     Springfort,  Patrick's  Well,  Limerick. 
Westropp,  Lieut. -Colonel  William  Keily,  M.R.I. A.     6,  Shorncliffe-road, 


Wheeler,  Francis  P.  C.     64,  Hatton  Garden,  London,  E.G. 
Wheeler,  Mrs.  G.  H.     22,  Calender-street,  Belfast. 
Whelan,  Rev.  Percy  Scott,  M.A.,  Warden,  St.  Columba's  College,  Rath- 


White,  Very  Rev.  George  Purcell,  M.A.,  B.D.,  Dean  of  Cashel.     Cashel. 
White,  Rev.   Hill  Wilson,   D.D.,  LL.D.,   M.R.I.A.     Wilson's  Hospital, 

Multifarnham,  Co.  Westmeath. 

White,  James,  L.R.C.P.S.E.,  J.P.     Walkin- street,  Kilkenny. 
White,  Major  J.  Grove,  J.P.     Kilbyrne,  Doneraile,  Co.  Cork. 
White,  John,  M.A.  (Oxon.),  Q.C.     3,  Paper  Buildings,  Temple,  London. 
White,  John  Newsom,  M.R.I.A.,  J.P.     Rocklands,  Waterford. 
White,  Very  Rev.  P.,  P.P.,  V.G.,  Dean  of  Killaloe.     Nenagh. 
WHITE,  Eev.  Patrick  W.,  B.A.     Stonebridge  Manse,  Clones, 
WHITE,  Richard  Blair.     Ashton  Park,  Monkstown. 
White,  Robert.     Scotch  Rath,  Dalkey,  Co.  Dublin. 















White,  Eev.  T.  S.  Joyner.     Atlantic  Lodge,  Galway. 

"White,  W.  Grove,  LL.B.,  Crown  Solicitor  for  Co.  Kildare.     St.  Helen's, 

Lucan,  Co.  Dublin. 

Whitty,  Eev.  Thomas  J.,  C.C.     Glenbrook,  Arklow. 
Whyte,   Chas.  Cecil  Beresford,  J.P.,  D.L.     Hatley  Manor,  Carrick-on- 


Wigham,  Mrs.  J.  R.     Albany  House,  Monkstown. 
"Wilkinson,  Arthur  B.  Berkeley,  B.E.     Drombroe,  Bantry,  Co.  Cork. 
Willcocks,  Rev.  Wm.  Smyth,  M.A.,  Canon.     Dunleckney  Glebe,  Bagenals- 


Williams,  Alexander,  R.H.A.     4,  Hatch-street,  Dublin. 
Williams, Edward  Wilrnot,  J.P.,  D.L.     Herringston,  Dorchester. 
Williams,  Rev.  Sterling  de  Courcy,  M. A.     Durrow  Rectory,  Tullamore. 
Williams,  W.  D.,  C.E.     4,  Bellevue-terrace,  Waterford. 
Williams,  Mrs.  W.     Parkside,  Wimbledon. 
Willis,  Rev.  J.  R.,  B.A.     Moyne  Rectory,  Rathdrum. 
Willoughby,  John,  High- street,  Kilkenny. 
Wills,  Rev.  Percival  B.,  B.D.     Durrow,  Queen's  County. 
Willson,    Frederick,    M.  INST.  C.E.I.,    County   Surveyor.    Prospect    Hill, 


Wilmot,  Henry,  C.E.     22,  Waltham -terrace,  Blackrock. 
Wilson,  James  Mackay,  M.A.,  J.P.     Currygrane,  Edgeworthstown. 
Wilson,  John  Killen.     Inch  Mario,  Marlborough  Park,  Belfast. 
Wilson,  Robert  C.     Tops,  Raphoe. 
Wilson,  R.  H.     23,  Cromwell  Crescent,  London,  S.W. 
Wilson,  Walter  H.,  C.E.     Cranmore,  Malone-road,  Belfast. 
Windisch,  Professor  Dr.  Ernst,  Hon.  M.R.I. A.     Universitats  Strasse,  15, 


Woodburn,  Rev.  George,  M.A.,  F.R.U.I.     2,  College-avenue,  Londonderry. 
Woodside,  William  J.     104,  Corporation- street,  Belfast. 
Woodward,  Rev.  Alfred  Sadleir,  M.A.     St.  Mark's  Vicarage,  Ballysillan, 


Woodward,  Rev.  George  Otway,  B.A.     St.  John's  Vicarage,  Hillsborough. 
Woollright,  Capt.  Henry  H.,  1st  Battalion  Middlesex  Regiment.      North 

Camp,  Aldersbot. 

Workman,  Rev.  Robert,  B.D.     Newtownbreda  Manse,  Belfast. 
Wray,  Thomas.     Hanover-place,  Coleraine. 

Wright,  Rev.  Wm.   Ball,  M.A.     East  Acklam,  Malton,  Yorkshire. 
Wybrants,  W.  Geale,  M.A.,  J.P.     45,  Raglan-road,  Dublin. 
Wynne,  Ven.  George  R.,  D.D.,  Archdeacon  of  Aghadoe.     Killarney. 
Wynne,  Owen,  J.P.,  D.L.     Hazelwood,  Sligo. 
Wyse,  Captain  L.  W.  Bonaparte,  J.P.     Manor  of  St.  John,  Waterford. 

Younge,  Miss  Katherine  E.     Oldtown  House,  Rathdowney. 

Total  number  of  Fellows,     ...      200 
,,          „          Members,  .     .    .     1160 

Total, 1360 

(Life  and  Hon.  Fellows,  51. 
(Life  Members,  22.) 

N.B. — The  Fellows  and  Members  of  the  Society  are  earnestly  requested  to 
communicate  to  the  Secretaries,  7,  St.  Stephen's -green,  Dublin,  changes  of  address, 
or  other  corrections  in  the  foregoing  lists  which  may  be  needed. 


Names  removed  from  the  Roll  in  1897  : — 

Deceased  (28). 

FELLOWS  (6).— R.  W.  Cochran-Patrick,  LL.D.,  1889;  The  Earl  of  Dartrey,  K.P., 
1873,  Vice- President,  1886-88  ;  Rev.  John  Hammond,  D.D.,  LL.D.,  1890  ;  Deputy 
Surgeon- General  King,  M.B.,  M.A.,  M.R.I.A.,  Member,  1883  ;  Fellow,  1886  ;  Most  Rev. 
Lord  Plunket,  B.D.,  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  Member,  1886  ;  Fellow,  1888  ;  Very  Rev. 
A.  F.  Smyly,  M.A.,  Dean  of  Derry,  1888. 

MEMBERS  (22).— John  Cornwall  Brady,  J.P.,  1888  ;  Miss  Edith  Brown,  1891; 
Very  Rev.  Dean  Byrne,  M.A.,  1868 ;  Rev.  W.  Crook,  D.D.,  1889;  Rev.  J.  Crowe, 
1889;  John  Dillon,  1880;  William  Gilmour,  1892  ;  Samuel  Guilbride,  1886;  Alfred 
Henshaw,  J.P.,  1888;  R.  J.  Hewitt,  M.D.,  1890;  Francis  McGlade,  J.P.,  1890; 
William  A.  Mahony,  1865;  Rev.  D.  B.  Mulcahy,  M.R.I.A.,  1870;  Thomas  F. 
O'Connell,  1893;  Thomas  O'Hanlon,  1895;  Very  Rev.  Thomas  O'Meara,  P.P., 
1895;  The  Earl  of  Roden,  1893;  Edmund  F.  Ryan,  J.P.,  1870;  William  Spillane, 
J.P.,  D.L.,  1889;  Rev.  J.  W.  Stubbs,  D.D.,  S.F.T.C.D.,  1890;  P.  J.  Tuohy,  1890; 
Miss  Wade,  1895. 

Resigned  (62). 

FELLOWS  (5).— J.  G.  Wandesford  Butler,  Member,  1888  ;  Fellow,  1894  ;  W. 
MacNeile  Dixon,  D.  LIT.,  1S89;  Major  E.  C.  Hamilton,  J.P.,  1890  ;  J.  W.  Slattery, 
M.A.,  LL.D.,  1891  ;  John  Stevenson,  1893. 

MEMBERS  (57).  — Thomas  Arnold,  M.A.,  1894;  Rev.  James  Adams,  1891; 
Lieut. -Colonel  C.  M.  Alexander,  J.P.,  1896  ;  The  Earl  Annesley,  J.P.,  D.L.,  1893  ; 
Rev.  J.  H.  Bibby,  1895  ;  Rev.  0.  Brighton,  M.A.,  1892  ;  Mrs.  Waldegrave 
Brodie,  1897;  Samuel  Burke,  1891;  W.  H.  Caldwell,  M.D.,  1890;  R.  R.  Cherry, 
LL.D.,  Q.C.,  1891 ;  C.  G.  F.  Chute,  M.A.,  1888  ;  Rev.  S.  E.  Cooney,  M.A.,  1891 ; 
Ven.  Archdeacon  Daly,  M.A.,  1893  ;  H.  T.  Daunt,  J.P.,  1892  ;  Rev.  M.  Day, 
M.A.,  1891;  John  Duncan,  1896;  Rev.  R.  Eubank,  B.D.,  1890;  Rev.  J.  A. 
Fanning,  D.D.,  1890  ;  Rev.  R.McC.  Gilmour,  1895  ;  Mrs.  James  Godley,  1892  ;  R.  A. 
Gray,  M.  INST.  C.E.,  1858  ;  J.  W.  Gunnis,  C.E.,  1892  ;  Walter  Hare,  1893  ;  R.  M.  Hill, 
B.A.,  1892 ;  Rev.  James  Kenny,  C.C.,  1896 ;  J.  G.  Keogh,  1877 ;  Miss  King,  1892  ; 
Miss  Leecb,  1895  ;  T.  E.  Lloyd,  1895  ;  N.  C.  Macnamara,  1893  ;  Rev.  J.  D.  Madden, 
1893  ;  Rev.  H.  Magee,  D.D.,  1891 ;  Rev.  P.  F.  Mahon,  1894  ;  Rev.  C.  W.  O'H. 
Mease,  M.A.,  1894  ;  Rev.  F.  Meredyth,  M.A.,  1889  ;  Very  Rev.  Dean  Monahan,  D.D., 
1890  ;  G.  M.  Moore,  1890  ;  Rev.  Canon  Morris,  M.A.,  1891  ;  W.  J.  Morrison,  1892  ; 
Rev.  R.  F.  Mullins,  1889  ;  G.  L.  O'Connor,  1895  ;  Major  P.  O'Leary,  J.P.,  1896  ; 
Miss  Payne-Townshend,  1890  ;  Joseph  Pigott,  1877  ;  R.  L.  Praeger,  M.R.I.A.,  1891  ; 
G.  O'C.  Redmond,  M.D.,  1884;  J.  Ilingwood,  M.D.,  J.P.,  1893;  J.  W.  Robb,  1894; 
L.  H.  Roberts,  1896;  F.  W.  Smith,  1892;  J.  F.  Smithwick,  J.P.,  1889;  Mrs. 
Stone,  1890;  R.  J.  Sullivan,  1896;  G.  B.  M.  Swifte.,  J.P.,  D.L.,  1891;  J.  Todhunter, 
M.D.,  1889;  Rev.  J.  Warren,  M.A.,  1895;  Rev.  P.  S.  Weldon,  1895;  Mrs.  A.  S. 
Woodward  (Miss  Steen),  1894. 

Eellows  and  Members  who  are  now  two  years  in  arrears  and  up- 
wards : — 

FELLOWS  (2). 

Elected  £    s.     d. 

1892    Taylor,  Rev.  J.  W.,  LL.D.,    ..  ..  ..     1896-1897     ..200 

1892    Upton,  W.  H.,        ..  ..  ..  ..     1895-1897     ..300 

MEMBERS  (22). 

1891  Anderson,  Very  Rev.  J.  A.,  O.S.A.,      ..  ..  1896-1897  1     0    0 

1885     Baker,  H.  F.,          ..             ..             ..  ..  1896-1897  ..100 

1889    Fahy,  Rev.  J.  G..                  ..             ..  ..  1896-1897  1     0    0 

1892  Fitz  Gerald,  W.  J.,                ..               .  ..  1896-1897  1     0    0 




Hanna,  J.  A., 

Hannay,  Rev.  J.  0...  M.A., 

Hinkson,  Henry  A.,  M.A.,     ., 

Irwiri,  William, 

Jefferson,  W.  G-.,  M.A., 

La  veil,  Rev.  Edward,  c.c., 

Molloy,  Joseph,  J.P., 

Moorhead,  Rev.  Joseph,  B.A., 

O'Neill,  W.  P.,  M.R.I.A., 

Orr,  Jacob,  J.P., 

Sankey,  Lieut.-Gen.  Sir  R.  H.,  K.C. 

Sceales,  A.  E., 

Stokes,  Michael  B., 

Tobias,  Matthew,    . . 

Wakely,  John,  M.A., 

Walker,  Charles  F., 

Warren,  Sir  A.  R.,  Bart.,      .. 

Whitty,  Rev.  T.  J., 




1896-1897  .. 

I  0 


1896-1897  .. 

L  0 


1896-1897  .. 

I  0 


1896-1897  .. 

L  0 


1896-1897  .. 

3  0 


1896-1897  .. 

L  0 


1896-1897  .. 

I  0 


1896-1897  .. 

L  0 


1896-1897  .. 

L  0 





1896-1897  .. 



1896-1897  .. 



1896-1897  .. 



1896-1897  .. 



1896-1897  .. 



1896-1897  .. 



1896-1897  .. 



1896-1897  .. 



The  following  Fellows  and  Members  (32)  owing,  at  the  commence- 
ment of  the  year  1897,  upwards  of  two  years  arrears,  which  have  not 
since  been  paid,  have  been  taken  off  the  Roll : — 


1890  Atkinson,  Henry  J,,  Michigan,  U.S.A., 
1894     Clancy,  John,  T.C.,  Dublin,  .. 

1894     De  Courcy,  William,  J.P.,  Urlingford, 

1894  Egan,  The  Rev.  S.,  c.c.,  Rush, 

1891  Gallagher,  P.  M.,  Donegal, 

1893  Goldon,  J.  W.,  M.D.,  Parsonstown,     .. 

1893  Hamilton,  Captain  J.  D.,  Lagos,  West  Africa, 

1890  Harris,  John,  Galway, 

1893  Johnston,  Miss  Anna,  Belfast, 

1893  Johnston,  Robert,  Belfast,    .. 

1890  Lynch,  The  Rev.  P.  J.,  c.c.,  Monaghan, 

1893  MacDermot,  C.  E.,  B.A.,  Dublin, 

1892  M'Cartan,  M.,  M.P.,  Ulster  Buildings,  Belfast, 

1895  M'Girr,  The  Rev.  P.,  Adm.,  Westport, 

1893  M'Grath,  Rev.  T.,  P.P.,  Clogheen,     .. 

1892  Mercer,  Rev.  W.  Wilson,  Stradbally ,  Queen's  Co. , 

1889  Nash,  Ralph,  Limerick, 

1890  Nolan,  Rev.  C.  P.,  Dublin, 

1883  0' Carroll,  F.  J.,  B. A.,  Hazelhatch,     .. 

1893  O'Mahony,  John,  Dublin,    .. 

1884  Orr,  Cecil,  Blackrock, 

1892  Purcell,  M.,  Solicitor,  41,  Lr.  Sackville-st.,  Dublin, 

1892  Roe,  W.  E.,  Moutrath, 

1891  Sealy,  J.  H.,  J.P.,  Kilbrittain, 
1890  Shanley,  Michael,  M.D.,  Athlone, 

1893  Smith,  Rev.  Charles,  M.A., 

1892  Smyth,  T.  J.,  LL.B.,  Barrister,  28,  Goldsmith- 

street,  Dublin, 

1893  Sullivan,  Herbert,  B.A.,  J. P.,  Charleville, 

1890     Sutherland,  P.   F.,   Municipal  Buildings,  Cork 
Hill,  Dublin, 

1889  Taylor,  The  Rev  G.  B.,  LL.B.,  Clontarf, 
1892     Ward,  F.  E.,  Belfast, 

1890  Whayman,  Horace  W.,  Bellevue,  Newport,  Ken- 

tucky, U.S.A.  (Fellow], 


s.  d. 


.,  1 

10  0 


..  1 

0  0 


..  1 

0  0 


..  1 

0  0 


..  1 

0  0 


..  1 

0  0 


..  1 

0  0 


..  1 

10  0 


..  1 

0  0 


..  1 

0  0 


..  1 

10  0 


.,  1 

10  0 


..  1 

0  0 


..  1 

0  0 


..  1 

0  0 


..  1 

0  0 


..  1 

0  0 


..  1 

0  0 


..  2 

0  0 


..  1 

10  0 


..   1 

10  0 


..  1 

0  0 


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tonrfff  of  &Kti%mm%  of  Jftelmtir 

FOR    1897. 

American  Antiquarian  Society,  "Worcester,  Mass.,  U.  S.  A. 

American  Philosophical  Society,  104,  S.  5th  Street,  Philadelphia,  Penn.,  U.  S.  A. 

Antiquary  (Editor  of),  62,  Paternoster-row,  London. 

Belfast  Naturalists'  Field  Club  :  Rea's  Buildings,  Belfast. 

Bristol  and  Gloucester  Archaeological  Society :  Rev.  "William  Bazeley,  M.A.,  Hon. 
General  Secretary,  The  Museum,  Gloucester. 

British  Archaeological  Association :  Hon.  Secretary,  32,  Sackville -street,  London,  "W. 
Byegones  (Editor  of) :  Care  of  E.  Woodall,  Esq.,  Wingthorpe,  Oswestry,  England. 
Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society :  Dr.  Hardcastle,  Downing  College,  Cambridge. 

Cambrian  Archaeological  Association:    Charles  J.  Clark,  4,  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields, 

London,  W.C. 
Chester  and  North  Wales  Archaeological  and  Historic  Society :  John  Hewitt,  Hon . 

Librarian,  Grosvenor  Museum,  Chester. 

Cork  Historical  and  Archaeological  Society  :  care  of  Messrs.  Guy  &  Co.,  70,  Patrick- 
street,  Cork. 

Director,  Geological  Survey  Department  of  Canada:  Alfred  R.  C.  Selwyn,  Esq., 
LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  Sussex-street,  Ottawa. 

Dorset  Natural  History  and  Antiquarian  Field  Club  :  Rev.  0.  P.  Cambridge,  Blox- 

worth  Rectory,  "Wareham. 
Folk  Lore  (Editor  of),  270,  Strand,  London,  W.C. 

Glasgow  Archaeological  Society :  W.  G.  Black,  Secretary,  88,  West  Regent-street, 

Historic  Society  of  Lancashire  and  Cheshire:  The  Secretary,  Royal  Institution, 

Her  Majesty's  Private  Library :  The  Librarian,  Windsor  Castle,  London. 

Institution  of  Civil  Engineers  of  Ireland:  Hon.  Secretary,  35,  Dawson-street, 

Irish  Builder  (Editor  of),  42,  Mabbot-street,  Dublin. 

Kent  Archaeological  Society:  George  Payne,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Rochester,  Hon. 
Secretary,  Kent 


Kildare  Archaeological  Society :  care  of  Sir  Arthur  Vicars,  F.S.A.,  Ulster  King  of 
Arms,  Bermingham  Tower,  Dublin  Castle. 

National  Library  of  Ireland,  Kildare-street,  Dublin. 

Numismatic  Society  :  The  Secretaries,  22,  Albemarle-street,  London,  W. 

Numismatic  and  Antiquarian  Society  of  Philadelphia :  S.  E.  Cor.  Twenty-first- 
street  and  Pine-street,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  U.  S.  A. 

Palestine  Exploration  Fund  (Secretary  of),  24,  Hanover-square,  London,  W. 
Reliquary   and   Illustrated  Archaeologist    (Editor  of):    J.  E.  Allen,  Esq.,  F.S.A., 
28,  Great  Ormond- street,  London,  W.C. 

Eoyal  Institute  of  British  Architects :  The  Librarian,  9,  Conduit-street,  Hanover- 
square,  London,  "W. 

Eoyal  Institute  of  The  Architects  of  Ireland :  Albert  E.  Murray,  Hon.  Secretary, 

37,  Dawson-street,  Dublin. 
Eoyal  Institution  of  Cornwall:  The  Hon.  Secretary,  Museum,  Truro,  Cornwall. 

Royal  Irish  Academy  :  Ed.  Perceval  Wright,  M.A.,  M.D.,  Secretary,  19,  Dawson- 
street,  Dublin. 

Eoyal  Archaeological  Institute  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  :   Mill  Stephenson,  Esq., 

F.S.A.,  Secretary,  20,  Hanover-square,  London,  W. 
Eoyal  Society  Club,  St.  James' -street,  London,  W.  C. 
Societe  d'Archeologie  de  Bruxelles  :  63,  Eue  de  Palais,  Bruxelles. 
Societe  des  Bollandistes,  14,  Eue  des  Ursu^ines,  Bruxelles. 

Societe  Eoyale  des  Antiquaires  du  Nord :  Messrs.  "Williams  and  Norgate,  14, 
Henrietta-street,  Covent  Garden,  London. 

Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London  :  W.  H.  St.  John  Hope,  M.A.,  Assistant  Secretary, 
Burlington  House,  London,  W. 

Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland :  The  Curator  of  the  Museum  of  Antiquities,  Eoyal 
Institution,  Edinburgh. 

Society  of  Biblical  Archaeology  :  "W.  Harry  Eylands,  F.S.A.,  Secretary,  11,  Har- 
street,  Bloomsbury,  London,  W.C. 

Smithsonian  Institution  (Wm.  Wesley,  28,  Essex-street,  Strand,  London) :  Washing- 
ton, D.  C.,  U.S.A. 

Somersetshire  Archaeological  and  Natural  History  Society  :  William  Bidgood,  Taunton 

Castle,  Taunton. 

Suffolk  Institute  of  Archaeology.     The  Librarian,  Athenaeum,  Bury  St.  Edmunds. 
Surrey  Archaeological  Society:  Hon.  Secretary,  8,  Danes' Inn,  Strand,  London,  W.C. 
Sussex  Archaeological  Society :  Care  of  Hon.  Librarian,  The  Castle,  Lewes,  Sussex. 
The  Copyright  Office,  British  Museum,  London. 
The  Library,  Trinity  College,  Dublin  (5  &  6  Viet.  c.  45). 
The  University  Library,  Cambridge  (5  &  6  Viet.  c.  45). 
The  Bodleian  Library,  Oxford  (5  &  6  Viet.  c.  45). 
The  Advocates'  Library,  Edinburgh. 
Waterf  ord  and  South-East  of  Ireland  Archaeological  Society :  Honorary  Secretary, 


Wiltshire  Archaeological  and  Natural  History  Society:  The  Secretary,  Devizes. 
Yorkshire  Archaeological  Society. 




Revised  at  the  Annual  Meeting,  1896.) 


1.  The  Society  is  instituted  to  preserve,  examine,  and  illustrate  all  Ancient  Monu- 
ments and  Memorials  of  the  Arts,  Manners,  and  Customs  of  the.  past,  as  connected  with 
the  Antiquities,  Language,  and  Literature  of  Ireland. 


2.  The  Society  shall  consist  of  FELLOWS,  MEMBERS,  ASSOCIATES,  and  HONORARY 

3.  FELLOWS  shall  be  elected  at  a  General  Meeting  of  the  Society,  each  name  having 
been  previously  submitted  to  and  approved  of  by  the  Council,  with  the  name  of  a 
Fellow  or  Member  as  proposer.     Each  Fellow  shall  pay  an  Entrance  Fee  of  £2,  and  an 
Annual  Subscription  of  £1,  or  a  Life  Composition  of  £14,  which  includes  the  Entrance 
Fee  of  £2. 

4.  MEMBERS  shall  be  similarly  elected,  on  being  proposed  by  a  Fellow  or  Member, 
and  shall  pay  an  Entrance  Fee  of  10s.  and  an  Annual  Subscription  of  10s.,  or  a  Life 
Composition  of  £7,  which  shall  include  the  Entrance  Fee  of  10s. 

5.  ASSOCIATES  may  be  elected  by  the  Council,  on  being  proposed  by  a  Fellow  or 
Member,  for  any  single  Meeting  or  Excursion  of  the  Society  at  a  Subscription  to  be 
fixed  by  the  Council ;  but  they  shall  not  be  entitled  to  any  privileges  of  the  Society 
except  admission  to  such  Meeting  or  Excursion. 

6.  All  Fees  due  on  joining  the  Society  must  be  paid  either  before  or  within  two 
months  from  the  date  of  Election.     Fellows  and  Members  failing  to  pay  shall  be 
reported  at  the  next  General  Meeting  after  the  expiration  of  this  period. 

7.  Any  Fellow  who  has  paid  his  full  Annual  Subscription  of  £1  for  ten  consecutive 
years  may  become  a  LIFE  FELLOW  on  payment  of  a  sum  of  £8. 

8.  Any  Member  who  has  paid  his  full  Annual  Subscription  of  10s.  for  ten  conse- 
cutive years  may  become  a  LIFE  MEMBER  on  payment  of  £5. 

9.  Any  Member  who  has  paid  his  Life  Composition,  on  being  advanced  to  the  rank 
of  Fellow,  may  compound  by  paying  a  sum  of  £7,  which  sum  includes  the  Entrance 
Fee  for  Fellowship. 

10.  A  Member  paying  an  Annual  Subscription  of  10s.,  on  being  elected  to  Fellow- 
ship, shall  pay  an  admission  Fee  of  30s.,  instead  of  the  Entrance  Fee  of  £2  provided 
for  in  Rule  3. 

11.  All  Subscriptions  shall  be  payable  in  advance  on  1st  day  of  January  in  each 
year,  or  on  election.     The  Subscriptions  of  Fellows  and  Members  elected  at  the  last 
Meeting  of  any  year  may  be  placed  to  their  credit  for  the  following  year.     A  List  of  all 
Fellows  and  Members  whose  Subscriptions  are  two  years  in  arrear  shall  be  read  out 
at  the  Annual  General  Meeting,  and  published  in  the  Quarterly  Journal  of  the  Society. 

12.  Fellows  shall  be  entitled  to  receive  the  Journal,  and  all  extra  publications 
of  the  Society.     Members  shall  be  entitled  to  receive  the  Journal,  and  may  obtain 
the  extra  publications  on  payment  of  the  price  fixed  by  the  Council. 

13.  Fellows  and  Members  whose  Subscriptions  for  the  year  have  not  been  paid 
are  not  entitled  to  the  Journal ;   and  any  Fellow  or  Member  whose  Subscription 
for  the   current   year   remains    unpaid,  and  who   receives  and  retains  the  Journal, 

GENERAL    RULES,    ETC.  43 

shall  be  held  liable  for  the  payment  of  the  full  published  price  of  5s.  for  each  quarterly 

14.  Fellows  and  Members  whose  Subscriptions  for  the  current  year  have  been  paid 
shall  alone  have  the  right  of  voting  at  all  General  Meetings  of  the  Society.  Any  such 
Fellow  present  at  a  General  Meeting  can  call  for  a  vote  by  orders,  and,  in  that  case, 
no  resolution  can  be  passed  unless  by  a  majority  of  both  the  Fellows  and  of  the  Mem- 
bers present  and  voting.  Honorary  Fellows  have  not  the  right  of  voting,  and  are 
not  eligible  for  any  of  the  Offices  mentioned  in  Rules  15  and  16,  nor  can  they  be 
elected  Members  of  Council.  In  cases  where  a  ballot  is  called  for,  no  Candidate  for 
Fellowship  or  Membership  can  be  admitted  unless  by  the  votes  of  two -thirds  of  the 
Fellows  and  Members  present,  and  voting. 


15.  The   Officers  of   the   Society,   who    must  be   Fellows,   shall  consist  of  a 
Patron -in-Chief,    Patrons,    President,    four    Vice-Presidents    for    each   Province,   a 
General  Secretary,    and   a  Treasurer.     All  Lieutenants  of  Counties  to  be   ex-offieio 
Patrons  on  election  as  Fellows. 

16.  The  President  and  Vice-Presidents  shall  be  elected  at  the  Annual  General 
Meeting  in  each  year.    The  nominations  for  these  offices  must  be  received  at  the  Rooms 
of  the  Society  on  or  before  the  first  day  of  December  preceding  the  Annual  General 
Meeting,  addressed  to  the  General  Secretary,  and  endorsed  "  Nomination  of  Officers." 
Each  Nomination  Paper  must  be  signed  by  seven  or  more  Fellows  or  Members  as  pro- 
posers ;  and  in  the  case  of  a  Candidate  who  has  not  held  such  office  before,  his 
Nomination  Paper  must  be  accompanied  by  an  intimation  under  his  hand  that  he  will 
serve  in  that  office  if  elected.     In  case  the  number  of  persons  so  nominated  shall 
exceed  the  number  of  vacancies,  a  printed  Balloting  Paper,  containing  the  names  of 
all  such  Candidates  arranged  in  alphabetical  order,  distinguishing  those  recommended 
by  the  Council,  shall  be  sent  by  post  to  every  Fellow  and  Member  whose  name  is  on 
the  Roll  of  the  Society,  directed  to  the  address  entered  on  the  Roll,  at  least  one  week 
before  the  day  of  election.     Each  person  voting  shall  mark  with  an  asterisk  the  name 
of  each  Candidate  for  whom  he,  or  she,  votes.      The  Voter  shall  then  return  the 
Balloting  Paper  to  the  General  Secretary,  on  or  before  the  day  preceding  the  Election, 
in  an  addressed  envelope,  which  is  to  be  supplied,  sealed,  and  marked  Balloting  Paper, 
and  signed  outside  with  the  name  of  the  Voter  :  the  Balloting  Paper  itself  must  not  be 
signed.     In  case  a  Voter  signs  the  Balloting  Paper,  or  votes  for  more  Candidates  than 
the  number  specified  thereon,  such  vote  shall  be  void.     The  Balloting  Papers  shall  be 
scrutinized  on  the  day  of  election  by  at  least  two  Scrutineers  appointed  by  the  Council, 
who  shall  report  the  result  at  the  General  Meeting  held  on  the  evening  of  that  day. 
The  Treasurer  shall  furnish  the  Scrutineers  with  a  List  of  the  Fellows  and  Members 
whose  Subscriptions  have  been  paid  up  to  the  day  preceding  the  Election,  and  who  are 
consequently  qualified  to  vote  at  such  Election.     Those  Candidates  who  obtain  the 
greatest  number  of  votes  shall  be  declared  elected,  subject  to  the  provisions  of  Rule  17, 
provided  that,  when  there  appears  an  equality  of  votes  for  two  or  more  Candidates,  the 
Candidate  whose  name  is  longest  on  the  books  of  the  Society,  shall  be  declared  elected. 
The  President  shall  be  elected  for  a  term  of  three  years,  and  the  same  person  shall 
not  be  elected  for  two  consecutive  periods.     The  four  senior  or  longest  elected  Vice- 
Presidents  in  each  province  shall  retire  each  year  by  rotation,  and  shall  not  be  eligible 
for  re-election  at  the  General  Meeting  at  which   they  retire.      The   Council  may 
submit  to   the   Annual   General  Meeting  the    name  of  a   Fellow,  Hon.   Fellow,    or 
Member,  who  will  act  as   Hon.  President,  and   the   Meeting  may   adopt  the   name 
submitted,  or  may  elect  another  by  a  majority  of  votes,  such  Hon.  President  to  hold 
office  for  one  year,  and  shall  not  be  elected  for  two  consecutive  periods. 

17.  The  management  of  the  business  of  the  Society  shall  he  entrusted  to  a  Council 
of  Twelve,  eight  of  whom  at  least  must  be  Fellows  (exclusive  of  the  President,  Vice- 
Presidents,  Honorary  General  Secretary,  and  Treasurer,  who  shall  be  ex-officio  Mem- 
bers of  the  Council).  The  Council  shall  meet  on  the  last  Wednesday  of  each  month, 
or  on  such  other  days  as  they  may  deem  necessary.  Four  Members  of  Council  shall 
form  a  quorum.  The  three  senior  or  longest  elected  Members  of  the  Council  shall 
retire  each  year  by  rotation,  and  shall  not  be  eligible  for  re-election  at  the  Annual 
General  Meeting  at  which  they  retire.  In  case  of  a  vacancy  occurring  for  a  Member 
of  Council  during  the  year,  the  Council  shall  at  its  next  Meeting  co-opt  a  Fellow  or 
Member,  to  retire  by  rotation.  A  Member  of  Council  who  has  failed  to  attend  one- 
third  of  the  ordinary  Meetings  of  the  Council  during  the  year  shall  forfeit  his  seat 
at  the  next  Annual  General  Meeting.  The  vacancies  caused  by  the  retirement  by 

44:  GENERAL   EULES,    ETC. 

rotation  of  Members  of  Council  shall  -be  filled  up  in  the  manner  prescribed  for  the 
election  of  President  and  Vice -Presidents  in  Rule  16. 

18.  The  Council  may  appoint  Honorary  Provincial  Secretaries  for  each  Province, 
and  Honorary  Local  Secretaries  throughout  the  country,  whose  duties  shall  be  de- 
nned by  the  Council,  and  they  shall  report  to  the  Honorary  General  Secretary,  at  least 
once  a  year,  on  all  Antiquarian  Remains  discovered  in  their  districts,  to  investigate 
Local  History   and   Tradition,  and  to  give  notice  of  all  injury  inflicted,  or  likely 
to  be  inflicted,  on  Monuments  of  Antiquity  or  Ancient  Memorials  of  the  Dead,  in 
order  that  the  influence  of  the  Society  may  be  exerted  to  restore  or  preserve  them. 

19.  The  Council  may  appoint  Committees  to  take  charge  of  particular  departments 
of  business,  and  shall  report  to  the  Annual  General  Meeting  the  state  of  the  Society's 
Funds,  and  other  matters  which  may  have  come  before  them  during  the  preceding  year. 
They  may  appoint  an  Hon.  Curator  of  the  Museum,  and  draw  up  such  rules  for  its 
management  as  they  may  think  fit.     The  Hon.   General  Secretary  may,  with  the 
approval  of  the  Council,  appoint  a  paid  Assistant  Secretary;  the  salary  to  be  deter- 
mined by  the  Council. 

20.  The  Treasurer's  Accounts  shall  be  audited  by  two  Auditors,  to  be  elected  at  the 
Annual    General    Meeting  in  each  year,   who  shall  present  their  Report  at  a  sub- 
sequent General  Meeting  of  the  Society. 

21.  All  property  of  the  Society  shall  be  vested  in  the  Council,  and  shall  be  disposed 
of  as  they  shall  direct.     The  Museum  of  Antiquities  cannot  be  disposed  of  without  the 
sanction  of  the  Society  being  first  obtained. 

22.  For  tbe  purpose  of  carrying  out  the  arrangements  in  regard  to  the  Meetings  and 
Excursions  to  be  held  in  the  respective  Provinces,  the  Honorary  Provincial  Secretaries 
may  be  summoned  to  attend  the  Meetings  of  Council  ex-officio.     Honorary  Local  Secre- 
taries of  the  County  or  Counties  in  which  such  Meetings  are  held  shall  be  similarly 


23.  The  Society  shall  meet  four  times  at  least  in  each  year  on  such  days  as  tbe 
Council  shall  ascertain  to  be  the  most  convenient,  when  Fellows  and  Members  shall 
be  elected,  Papers  on  Historical  and  Archaeological  Subjects  shall  be  read  and  discussed, 
and  Objects  of  Antiquarian  Interest  exhibited.     Excursions  may  be   arranged  where 

24.  The  Annual  General  Meeting  shall  be  held  in  Dublin  in  the  month  of  January  ; 
one  Meeting  in  the  year  shall  be  held  in  Kilkenny  ;  the  other  Meetings  to  be  held 
in  such  places  as  the  Council  may  recommend.     A  List  of  such   Meetings  shall  be 
forwarded  to  each  Fellow  and  Member. 


25.  No  Paper  shall  be  read  to  the  Society  without  the  permission  of  the  Council 
having  previously  been  obtained.     The  Council  shall  determine  the  order  in  which 
Papers  shall  be  read,  and  the  time  to  be  allowed  for  each.     All  Papers  listed  or  Com- 
munications received  shall  be  the  property  of  the  Society.     The  Council  shall  deter- 
mine whether,  and  to  what  extent  any  Paper  or  Communication  shall  be  published. 

26.  All  matter  concerning  existing  religious  and  political  differences  shall  be  ex- 
cluded from  the  Papers  to  be  read  and  the  discussions  held  at  the  Meetings  of  the 

27.  The  Proceedings  and  Papers  read  at  the  several  Meetings,  and  where  approved 
of  by  the  Council,  shall  be  printed  in  tbe  form  of  a  Journal,  and  supplied  to  all  Fellows 
and  Members  not  in  arrear.     If  the  funds  of  the  Society  permit,  extra  publications 
may  be  printed  and  supplied  to  all  Fellows  free,  and  to  such  Members  as  may  sub- 
scribe specially  for  them. 


28.  These  Rules  shall  not  be  altered  or  amended  except  at  an  Annual  General 
Meeting  of  the  Society,  and  after  notice  given  at  the  previous  General  Meeting.     All 
By-laws  and  Regulations  dealing  with  the  General  Rules  formerly  made  are  hereby 

29.  The  enactment  of  any  new  Rule,  or  the  alteration  or  repeal  of  any  existing 
one,  must  be  in  the  first  instance  submitted  to  the  Council ;  the  proposal  to  be  signed  by 
seven  Fellows  or  Members,  and  forwarded  to  the  Hon.  Secretary.     Such  proposal  being 
made,  the  Council  shall  lay  same  before  a  General  Meeting,  with  its  opinion  thereon  ; 
and  such  proposal  shall  not  be  ratified  unless  passed  by  a  majority  of  the  Fellows  and 
Members  present  at  such  General  Meeting  subject  to  the  provisions  of  Rule  14. 




FOR  THE  YEAR  1897. 




I    MAY   say,    by  way    of   preface,   that  certain  objects  which   I  have 
described  as  the  "  Older  Flint  Implements  of  Ireland"  will  not 
be  referred  to  in  the  following  Paper.     I  shall  deal  only,  as  regards 
Irish  Implements,  with   those   which    are  acknowledged   by   everyone 
to  be  Neolithic. 

We  find  among  the  stone  implements  in  various  countries,  sometimes 
separated  very  widely  in  perhaps  both  time  and  space,  many  specimens 
which  show  a  considerable  degree  of  resemblance.  This  has  been  remarked 
by  several  observers.  On  pp.  14,  15,  of  "  Reliquiae  Aquitanicaj"  are 
compared  implements  of  the  Esquimaux  with  those  of  cave-dwellers  in 
Perigord  ;  and  polished  implements  from  British  India,  England,  South 
America,  France,  and  the  Solomon  Islands  are  placed  side  by  side  to  show 
that  they  have  a  considerable  degree  of  likeness  to  each  other  in  shape  and 
finish.  Sir  John  Lubbock,  in  "  Prehistoric  Times,"1  points  out  that  flakes 
and  some  implements  in  flint  and  obsidian  are  often  very  much  alike  in 
different  countries.  Professor  Boyd  Dawkins  has  shown  that  a  likeness 
exists  between  the  implements  and  artistic  products  of  the  cave-dwellers 

1  5th  ed.,  pp.  89-92  et  seq. 

JOUR.  R.S.A.I.,  VOL.  VII.,  PT.  I.,  5TH  SKR.  B 


in  England  and  France  and  those  of  the  Esquimaux,  and  MM.  G.  and  A. 
de  Mortillet,  in  "  MuseePrehistorique,"  figure  implements  from  England, 
Ireland,  America,  and  elsewhere,  to  show  that  they  are  of  nearly  similar 
shape  to  the  Paleolithic  implements  found  in  France.  I  have  myself 
seen  implements  among  those  discovered  by  Schliemann  at  Hissarlik 
which  I  could  match  in  Ireland  ;  and  I  have  observed  arrow-heads 
figured  in  "  Materiaux,"1  from  Finistere,  which  resemble  implements  of 
the  same  class  in  my  own  Irish  collection.  Although  the  likeness  between 
Irish  and  American  arrow-heads  is  not  general,  yet  there  are  some  kinds 
of  these  implements  found  in  both  countries  that  show  a  great  degree  of 
resemblance.  I  have  some  small  scrapers  from  the  south  of  Africa  like 
others  of  the  same  class  obtained  from  our  Irish  sandhills.  I  have  also 
implements  from  various  other  countries  like  those  found  in  Ireland,  and 
could  therefore  increase  the  list  to  an  indefinite  extent.  I  believe  that 
all  these  cases  of  resemblance  show  relationship,  and  that  it  will  be  the 
task  of  future  archa3ologists  to  trace  the  paths  along  which  those  widely 
separated  sets  of  implements  will  find  a  common  origin. 

I  have  for  several  years  past  observed  a  considerable  degree  of  resem- 
blance between  Irish  Neolithic  flint  implements  and  those  of  the  cave- 
dwellers  in  the  south  of  France  of  Palaeolithic  age,  and  have  referred  to 
the  subject  more  or  less  in  papers  contributed  to  learned  societies ;  but  I 
shall  now  go  more  fully  into  the  subject,  and  shall  show  and  describe 
some  plates  of  Irish  implements  which  I  consider  have  a  resemblance  to 
others  of  Palaeolithic  age.  As  I  cannot  figure  the  two  sets  of  imple- 
ments side  by  side  except  in  one  instance,  I  shall,  refer  to  well-known 
works  accessible  to  archaeologists  in  which  figures  of  Palaeolithic  imple- 
ments having  a  likeness  to  Irish  objects  are  to  be  found  ;  as,  for  example, 
"  Reliquiae  Aquitanicae,"  "  Musee  Prehistorique,"  Evans'  "  Stone  Imple- 
ments and  Ornaments,"  and  Worthington  Smith's  "  Man,  the  Primeval 
Savage."  In  PL  I.,  figs.  1  and  2,  I  am  able  to  show  figures  of  a  Palaeo- 
lithic implement  from  Warren  Hill,  England,  and  a  Neolithic  implement 
found  in  a  bog  near  Glarryford,  about  five  miles  from  Bally  men  a.  It 
will  be  seen  that  the  Irish  implement  is  slightly  larger  than  the  Palaeo- 
lithic one,  but  the  shape  and  workmanship  are  very  similar.  Front  and 
side  views  in  both  cases  are  shown.  Compare  also  figs.  18  and  19,  PL  II. 
Evans'  "  Stone  Implements  and  Ornaments."  Figs.  3,  30  show  front  and 
side  views  of  an  implement  which  has  a  great  resemblance  to  some  of  the 
Palaeolithic  implements  of  the  River  Drift.  See  fig.  450,  p.  520,  of 
Evans'  "  Stone  Implements  and  Ornaments,"  which  is  about  the  same 
size  as  the  implement  I  have  figured.  It  is  made  of  basalt,  and  was 
found  near  dough,  County  Antrim.  We  find  many  rudely  chipped 
and  unpolished  Neolithic  axes  in  Ireland,  but  they  are  usually  longer 
and  less  pointed  than  the  example  figured.  It  does  not  look  like  a 

1  Vol.  for  1880,  pi.  viii. 

[Pj.ATK    I. 

Irish  Neolithic  Implements  compared  \vith  those  of  Palaeolithic  Age.     (One-fourth  size.) 




spoiled  object,  but  seems  to  be  a  complete  implement  of  its  kind.  No.  4 
is  a  large  pointed  implement  of  flint,  with  heavy  butt  for  holding  in  the 
hand,  found  near  the  banks  of  the  River  Eann,  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Portglenone.  It  is  fully  an  inch  in  thickness,  and  has  been  trimmed 
first  coarsely,  and  then  with  more  minute  flaking,  round  the  pointed 
portion.  The  under  surface  is  undressed,  and  in  all  respects  it  resembles 
a  large  implement  of  the  Moustier  type.  Fig.  5  is  a  thick  and  coarse 
implement  from  the  same  place  as  No.  4.  It  is  about  1£  inches  thick 
in  the  centre,  and  is  equally  convex  on  both  sides.  Implements  of 
Palaeolithic  age  of  nearly  similar  shape,  though  perhaps  larger  in  size, 
may  be  seen  in  "  Musee  Prehistorique,"  "  Stone  Instruments  and  Orna- 
ments," and  "Man,  the  Primeval  Savage."  Fig.  6,  6a  is  a  large  flake, 
dressed  round  the  edges  on  one  side  and  undressed  on  the  other.  It  is  of 
the  Moustier  type,  and  can  be  compared  with  fig.  61,  PI.  xi.,  in 
"Musee  Prehistorique,"  and  fig.  461,  p.  538,  of  "  Stone  Implements 
and  Ornaments."  PI.  II.  shows  a  series  of  implements  of  Moustier  type, 
dressed  round  the  edges  on  one  side  and  plain  on  the  other.  I  show  the 
reverse  and  undressed  sides  in  two  instances  (see  figs.  7  and  8),  after  the 
manner  of  MM.  de  Mortillet  in  "  Musee  Prehistorique"  ;  but  the  sides, 
which  are  not  shown,  of  the  other  figures,  from  9-14,  are  in  a  similar  plain 
and  undressed  state.  Plates  xi.  and  xii.,  "  Musee  Prehistorique,"  and 
Plates  A.  xxxvii.  and  xl.,  "  Reliquie  Aquitanicae,"  may  be  consulted  for 
corresponding  examples.  In  PI.  III.  I  show  uracloirs,"  or  side-scrapers, 
(see  figs.  15,  16,  17,  18,  22,  and  23).  They  may  be  compared  with  those 
on  PI.  xiii.,  "  Musee  Prehistorique."  I  show  also  two  double  scrapers, 
figs.  21  and  24,  which  can  be  compared  with  fig.  120,  pi.  xix.,  "  Musee 
Prehistorique."  and  figs.  10,  11,  13  of  PI.  A.  xxiv.  of  "  ReliquiaB  Aquita- 
nicae."  The  long  flakes,  figs.  19  and  20,  may  be  compared  with  similar 
long  flakes  with  scraper-ends  in  "  lleliquiaB  Aquitanicse  "  (see  PI.  A.  VII.). 
Figs.  25  and  25«  show  the  two  sides  of  an  object  excavated  by  myself 
from  the  Neolithic  old  surface  at  Whitepark  Bay,  county  Antrim.  It 
seems  to  resemble  other  objects  found  in  a  Paleolithic  surface  by 
Mr.  Worthington  Smith,  in  the  sharp  edge  and  the  working  of  a 
small  portion  of  the  reverse  side  (see  figs.  20,  21,  pp.  118,  119,  "Man, 
the  Primeval  Savage.")  PI.  IV.  shows  seven  examples  of  Solutrien 
type.  The  reverse  side  of  26  is  shown  in  26#,  and  this  example  can  be 
compared  with  106,  106 fos.,  PL  xviii.,  "Musee  Prehistorique."  The 
likeness  of  the  two  implements  seems  to  be  very  close  both  in  shape  and 
workmanship.  The  other  examples,  in  PL  IV.,  though  much  smaller 
than  many  of  the  best  examples  found  in  France,  yet  show  the  same 
outline.  There  is  the  same  pointed  base  and  the  sides  inclining  inward 
near  the  point.  The  same  form,  giving  an  almost  six-sided  outline, 
is  observed  in  some  of  our  Irish  leaf-shaped  arrow-heads.  Compare 
PL  xvii.  of  «<  Musee  Prehistorique."  PL  V.  shows,  in  figs.  33,  34  and  35, 
points  of  flint  from  Culbane,  near  Portglenone,  which  resemble  figs.  115, 




Irish  Neolithic  Implements  of  Moustier  Type.     (One-fourth  size.) 


116,  117,  PL  xviii.,  of  "  Musee  Prehistorique."  The  Irish  examples  are 
very  thin  flakes,  fig.  33  being  dressed  on  one  side,  and  figs.  34  and  35  on 
both  sides,  into  fine  needle-like  implements.  Pig.  36  may  be  compared 
with  112,  and  37  with  figs.  109  and  1 1 1,  of  "  Musee  Prehistorique."  Fig. 
37  is  not  so  much  notched  as  the  French  examples  of  the  same  kind, 
but  the  workmanship  over  the  one  side  with  the  other  remaining 
undressed,  or  only  very  slightly  dressed,  at  the  point,  shows  a  considerable 
degree  of  resemblance. 

We  have  a  series  of  examples  in  Ireland  of  the  type  of  fig.  40,  but 
some  much  longer,  which,  from  their  knife-like  character,  would  seem  to 
have  taken  the  place,  in  Neolithic  times,  of  the  pointer  a  cran  from 
the  French  caves.  The  object  I  have  referred  to  as  fig.  40,  in  PL  V., 
may  be  compared,  as  to  size  and  shape,  with  fig.  133,  PL  xx.,  "  Musee 
Prehistorique."  We  have  also  among  our  flint  knives  in  Ireland  some  of 
the  type  of  figs.  10  and  11,  PL  xxii.,  of  M.  Piette's  beautiful  Supplement 
to  IS Anthropologie,  No.  4,  1896.  The  objects  referred  to  are  from  Mas 
d'Azil,  in  the  Pyrenees,  and  from  a  bed  which  M.  Piette  says  is  inter- 
calated between  the  last  bed  of  the  Reindeer  Age  and  the  first  of  the 
Neolithic  period.  Examples  are  shown  in  figs.  38  and  39,  PL  V.,  of  a 
small  class  of  arrow-heads  found  in  the  north  of  Ireland,  with  the  point 
short  and  placed  at  the  broad  end.  As  shown  on  the  plate,  the  point  is 
downwards.  Compare  with  them  fig.  104,  PL  xviii.,  "Musee  Prehisto- 
rique." A  series  of  finely  worked  and  lozenge-shaped  arrow-heads  from 
county  Antrim  is  shown  in  PL  VI. ,  some  of  which  vary  slightly  from 
original  types.  Lightness  and  thinness  seem  to  have  been  characteristics 
of  the  laurel-leaf  and  lozenge-shaped  implements  of  the  French  caves, 
and  it  is  among  the  same  class  of  objects  in  Ireland  that  these  characters 
are  most  shown.  The  thinness  of  some  of  the  Irish  specimens  makes  them 
almost  .transparent,  so  that  our  admiration  and  wonder  are  often  excited 
as  to  how  such  objects  could  have  been  made  so  fine  and  slender  by 
mere  chipping.  The  making  of  these  implements  fine  and  thin  would 
seem  to  have  been  an  inherited  art,  which  descended  to  the  Neolithic 
inhabitants  of  Ireland  from  their  Paleolithic  ancestors,  In  some  cases  we 
have  large  spearheads  ground  and  polished  on  both  faces — the  result, 
probably,  of  a  desire  for  thinness  in  a  particular  class  of  implement. 
These  flint  lance,  or  spearheads,  with  their  faces  ground  and  polished,  are 
not,  I  believe,  found  out  of  Ireland.  I  show  one  example  on  page  15, 
somewhat  varied  in  shape  from  the  original  "pointes  en  feuille  de  laurier." 

The  objects  I  have  figured  are  all  from  my  own  collection,  and  are 
only  a  few  out  of  many  examples  of  similar  kinds.  Besides  the  various  fliut 
implements  there  are  other  objects  of  Paleolithic  and  Neolithic  age  that 
resemble  each  other.  There  are  the  stones  with  pits  on  either  one  or 
both  faces.  Both  kinds  of  these  objects  are  found  around  the  hut-sites  in 
the  sandhills  of  the  North  of  Ireland,  as  well  as  in  the  rock-shelters  of 
the  South  of  France.  The  hammer-stones,  the  pieces  of  rubbed  and 


Irish  Neolithic  Implements  of  Moustier  Type.     (One-fourth  size.] 


scraped  haematite,  and  some,  though  not  all,  of  the  hone  pins,  in  the  one 
place,  have  a  resemhlance  to  those  found  in  the  other.  On  referring  to 
my  note-hook  which  I  used  when  visiting  the  St.  Germain  Museum  a 
few  years  ago,  I  find  I  have  noted  a  great  many  things  having  a  likeness 
to  Irish  objects  in  my  own  collection.  In  the  same  way  on  examining 
the  implements  of  Palaeolithic  age  in  the  Musee  Wiertz  in  Brussels,  my 
remarks  were  to  the  effect  that  I  could  match  a  great  number  with  Irish 
objects  found  in  the  old  prehistoric  surface  at  Whitepark  Bay,  county 
Antrim,  Portstewart,  county  Deny,  and  other  similar  sites  in  the  north 
of  Ireland.  I  therefore  hold  that  there  is  a  relationship  between  the 
implements  of  Palaeolithic  Age  in  England,  France,  and  Belgium,  and 
those  of  Neolithic  Age  in  the  North  of  Ireland  which  we  must  endeavour 
to  trace. 

It  is  held  generally  among  archa3ologists  that  the  Palaeolithic 
and  Neolithic  Ages  do  not  merge  into  each  other.  That  the  men  of  the  one 
age  had  as  their  companions  a  number  of  animals  such  as  the  mammoth 
and  the  woolly -haired  rhinoceros,  which  are  now  extinct,  together  with 
others  such  as  the  hippopotamus  and  the  reindeer  which  are  now  not 
found  in  this  country,  but  are  confined  to  warmer  or  colder  regions, 
while  those  of  the  other  came  in  with  a  fauna  practically  the  same  as  that 
now  living  in  these  countries.  Professor  Boyd  Dawkins  says,  in  re- 
ference to  the  hiatus  between  the  two  ages,  that  the  contrast  between 
the  Paleolithic  and  Neolithic  wild  fauna  "  implies  a  zoological  break  of 
the  first  magnitude  which  could  only  have  been  brought  about  by  a  series 
of  changes  going  on  through  long  periods  of  time."1  The  interval  separat- 
ing the  Pleistocene  (Palaeolithic)  from  the  Prehistoric  (Neolithic)  period 
"  could  not  have  taken  place  in  a  short  time,  and  when  we  reflect  that 
comparatively  little  change  has  taken  place  in  this  country  during  the  last 
2000  years,  it  is  obvious  that  the  one  period  is  separated  from  the  other  by 
the  lapse  of  many  centuries."2  Sir  John  Evans,  speaking  of  this  break, 
says  there  appears,  in  this  country  at  all  events,  to  be  a  complete  gap 
between  the  River  Drift  (Paleolithic)  and  the  Surface  (Neolithic)  Stone 
periods  "  so  far  as  intermediate  forms  are  concerned,  and  here  at  least  the 
race  of  men  who  fabricated  the  latest  of  the  Palaeolithic  implements  may 
have,  and  in  all  probability  had,  disappeared  at  an  epoch  remote  from 
that  when  the  country  was  again  occupied  by  those  who  not  only  chipped 
out  but  polished  their  flint  tools."3  Sir  Henry  H.  Howorth  says  : — 
"  At  all  points,  therefore,  the  evidence  is  complete  that  man  and  his 
companions  in  the  Mammoth  age  differed  completely  from  man  in  the 
succeeding  period;  differed  in  habits,  in  tastes,  in  art,  and  in  the  animals 
which  were  his  companions.  This  difference  is  everywhere  acknowledged. 
.  .  .  What  is  much  more  important  is  the  startling  fact  that  the  two 

1  Journal  Anthropological  Institute,  vol.  xxiii.,  p.  246. 

2  "Early  Man  in  Britain,"  p.  263.         3  "Ancient  Stone  Implements,"  p.  618. 


Irish  Neolithic  Implements  of  Solutrien  Type.     (One-fourth  size.] 


sorts  of  men,  their  remains,  and  their  animal  companions  are  sharply  and 
definitely  separated  by  a  complete  gap.  There  is  nowhere  on  record  a  well 
certified  instance  in  either  the  Europasian  or  the  Mediterranean  region  in 
which  the  remains  have  been  found  mixed.  Upon  this  subject  there  is  a 
concurrence  of  opinion  among  the  best  judges."1  Dr.  James  Geikie  says  that 
the  Old  Stone  age  did  not  graduate  into  the  New  Stone  age.  "The  records 
of  the  latter  epoch  are  separated  very  markedly  from  those  of  the  former. 
No  sooner  do  we  pass  from  the  uppermost  deposits  of  the  Pleistocene  age 
to  the  more  modern  accumulations,  than  we  find  ourselves  in  another 
world.  The  hyaenas  and  lions,  the  rhinoceroses  and  mammoths  have 
disappeared,  and  we  are  now  face  to  face  with  a  group  of  animals  that 
we  recognize  as  being  the  common  indigenous  European  forms  of  our  own 
day.  Palaeolithic  man  has  likewise  vanished,  and  his  place  is  supplied  by 
races  considerably  farther  advanced  on  the  road  to  civilization."2  Sir 
Charles  Lyell  gives  a  similar  opinion,  "that  between  the  newer  and  the 
older  divisions  of  the  Stone  Age  there  was  evidently  a  vast  interval  of 
time — a  gap  in  the  history  of  the  past  into  which  many  monuments  of 
the  intermediate  date  will  one  day  have  to  be  intercalated."3 

Mr.  J.  Allen  Brown,  in  a  Paper  read  before  the  Anthropological 
Institute,  which  appears  in  their  "Journal,"  vol.  xxii.,  p.  66,  shows 
reason  for  the  gap  or  hiatus  between  the  two  ages,  being  bridged  "  by 
the  discovery  of  implements  of  later  Palaeolithic  types,  and  of  others 
which  from  their  form  may  be  regarded  as  of  transition  or  intermediate 
age  in  some  combes  or  dry  valleys,  associated  with  deposits  of  chalk  and 
flint  rubble  in  parts  of  Sussex."4  Again  he  says  : — "  Among  them  are 
specimens  which,  if  form  is  to  govern  their  classification,  may  properly 
be  described  as  intermediate  between  the  later  Palaeolithic  and  the 
period  of  polished  stone".5  He  gives  several  illustrations  of  his  inter- 
mediate forms  which  he  names  "  Mesolithic."  Mr.  Worthington  Smith 
believes  that  a  mesolithic  series  of  implements  exist,  and  states  that  he 
has  found  some  himself  in  situ,e  though  I  should  think  he  believes  in  a 
break  of  some  kind,  as  he  says  : — "  At  some  period  prior  to  the  forma- 
tion of  the  English  Channel,  and  the  separation  of  Great  Britain  from 
the  Continent  of  Europe,  this  country  appears  to  have  been,  as  regards 
man,  temporarily  depopulated."7  Mr.  J.  Allen  Brown,  in  support  of  his 
argument,  refers  to  caves  in  the  Pyrenees  which  have  been  inhabited  by 
successive  peoples,  and  which  appear  to  show  a  continuity  between  the 
two  stone  periods,8  but  there  may  have  been  a  continuity,  or  at  least  a 
close  succession  in  the  Pyrenees,  whilst  there  may  be  a  break  in  the 
south  of  England.  Professor  Boyd  Dawkins,  in  a  Paper  in  the  same 
"Journal,"  vol.  xxiii.,  replies  to  Mr.  J;  Allen  Brown: — "That  the 

1  "  The  Mammoth  and  the  Flood,"  p.  246.  2  "  Prehistoric  Europe,"  p.  118. 

3  ''Antiquity  ot  Man,"  p.  373.  4  Page  67. 

5  Ibid.,  p.  73.  c  "  Man,  the  Primeval  Savage,"  p.  299. 

7  Ibid.,  p.  8.  «  Anthrop.  Jour.,  vol.  xxii.,  p.  88. 

Irish  Neolithic  Implements  of  Solutrien  Type.     (Two-fifths  natural  size.) 


evolution  of  the  Neolithic  from  the  Palaeolithic  stage  of  culture  in  some 
part  of  the  world  may  be  accepted  as  a  high  probability;"1  hut  concludes 
after  reviewing  the  whole  evidence  that  "the  progress  of  discovery  has 
not  yet  bridged  over  the  abyss  separating  the  Palaeolithic  age  of  the 
Pleistocene  period,  from  the  Neolithic  age  of  the  Prehistoric  period  in 
any  part  of  the  world."2 

With  the  exception  of  Mr.  J.  Allen  Brown,  and  perhaps  Mr. 
Worthington  Smith,  it  will  be  seen  that  there  is  general  agreement 
among  the  eminent  scientific  men  I  have  mentioned,  that  there  is  a 
break  between  the  older  and  newer  divisions  of  the  Stone  age,  and  many 
of  the  most  eminent  French  and  Continental  archaeologists  hold  similar 
views  regarding  the  gap  between  the  two  ages.  But  whilst  there  is 
general  agreement  that  there  is  a  break,  there  is  a  want  of  harmony  in 
the  explanations  given  for  the  cause  of  such  break.  Professor  Boyd 
Dawkins  assumes  that  Palaeolithic  man  may  have  been  driven  out  of 
Europe  by  the  Neolithic  invaders.  That  "  there  were  the  same  feelings 
between  them  as  existed  in  Hearne's  time  between  the  Eskimos  and 
Red  Indians — terror  and  defenceless  hatred  being  on  the  one  side  met 
by  ruthless  extermination  on  the  other."3  But  this  would  surely  imply 
that  the  Neolithic  invader  occupied  the  land  as  soon  as  Palaeolithic 
man  had  left  it,  and  would  leave  the  zoological  break  unexplained.  Sir 
H.  H.  Howorth  has  given  a  vast  amount  of  evidence  to  show  that  the 
fauna  in  Pleistocene  times,  together  with  Paleolithic  man,  were 
exterminated  by  a  flood  of  great  magnitude.  Whilst  I  am  not  convinced 
that  the  fossil  bones  found  in  the  river  gravels  of  England,  and  equiva- 
lent beds  on  the  Continent,  are  the  result  of  sudden  drowning,  yet  the 
case  laid  down  by  Sir  H.  H.  Howorth,  in  the  "  Mammoth  and  the  Flood," 
requires  careful  consideration  by  those  opposed  to  him,  as  the  accidental 
drowning  of  individual  animals,  or  even  of  occasional  herds,  would  not 
account  for  the  vast  numbers  of  dead  animals  which  are  found  in  either 
Europe  or  Siberia.  He  shows  how  carnivorous,  as  well  as  herbivorous, 
animals,  and  young  as  well  as  those  of  mature  age,  have  died  together, 
and  are  often  found  buried  in  stiff  clay,  far  from  river  courses.  He 
states  that  "however  paradoxical  it  may  seem,  animals  which  are  now 
limited  to  cold  and  hot  countries  respectively  lived  strictly  contempo- 
raneously in  England  and  France,  and  lived  together  all  the  year 
round."4  He  concludes  "that  the  extinction  of  the  mammoth  in  the 
old  world  was  sudden,  and  operated  over  a  wide  continental  area,  involv- 
ing a  wide-spread  hecatomb,  in  which  man  as  well  as  other  creatures 
perished  ;  that  this  catastrophe  forms  a  great  break  in  human  continuity, 
no  less  than  in  biological  records  of  animal  life,  and  is  the  great  Divide 
where  history  really  begins."5 

1  Page  243.  2  page  25i.  3  »  Early  Man  in  Britain,"  p.  243. 

4  Op.  cit.,  p.  132.  *  Ibid.,  p.  256. 


Arrow-heads  from  Co.  Antrim.     (Two-fifths  natural  size.) 


Dr.  James  Geikie  states  that  man  was  an  occupant  of  our  Continent 
during  glacial  and  interglacial  times ;  that  when  the  meridian  of  the 
last  interglacial  epoch  was  attained,  a  climate  approximating  to  that  of 
Pliocene  times  characterised  our  Continent.  More  humid  than  the 
present,  it  was  at  the  same  time  much  more  equable.  The  British 
Isles  were  united  to  themselves  and  to  the  Continent.  A  bridge  of 
land  connected  Italy  and  Malta,  through  Sicily,  to  the  coasts  of  Tunis; 
and  Spain,  in  like  manner,  was  joined  to  Barbary.  "  Such  were  the 
geographical  conditions  of  Europe  when  the  southern  mammals — the 
hippopotamus,  the  elephant,  the  rhinoceros,  and  their  associates — 
advanced  northwards  to  commingle  with  the  denizens  of  temperate 
latitudes.  .  .  .  Southern  and  temperate  forms  ranged  together  from  the 
Mediterranean  region  up  to  the  north  of  England."1  But  "  by-and-by  the 
climate  began  to  change,  'and  the  succession  was  reversed.  The  winters 
became  colder.  .  .  .  The  tender  southern  species  of  plants  now  com- 
menced to  retreat  from  Middle  Europe,  and  to  creep  farther  and  farther 
south,  and  a  like  migration  of  the  fauna  ensued."2  "  The  great  pachy- 
derms of  southern  habitats  vanished  from  our  Continent,  and  the  temperate 
forms  eventually  took  possession  of  the  Mediterranean  region.  All  these 
changes  came  about  in  a  gradual  manner,  and  hence  each  zone  of  latitude 
became  in  succession  the  head- quarters  of  the  arctic  and  northern  fauna 
and  flora  in  their  advance  towards  the  south.  Thus,  Paleolithic  man 
must  have  hunted  the  reindeer  in  southern  England,  Belgium,  and 
northern  France  for  many  generations  before  the  increasing  severity  of 
the  climate  compelled  both  to  retreat.  Step  by  step,  however,  man  was 
driven  south ;  England  and  Belgium  were  deserted ;  perhaps  even 
Germany,  down  to  the  foot  of  the  Alps,  was  left  unoccupied,  until,  at 
last,  the  Paleolithic  race  or  races  reached  the  south  of  France."3  Dr, 
Geikie  then  goes  on  to  show  that  Paleolithic  man  did  not  survive  the  last 
glacial  epoch;  and  he  takes  note  of  one  objection  urged  by  some  English 
geologists.  "  They  tell  us  that  Paleolithic  implements  occur  in  certain 
deposits  that  overlie  the  great  chalky  boulder-clay  in  Norfolk  and  other 
places ;  and  these  deposits  are  recognized  by  them  as  of  post-glacial 
age,  simply  from  the  fact  that  they  rest  upon  boulder-clay.  Now  this 
conclusion  would  be  inevitable  if  it  were  true  that  the  great  chalky 
boulder-clay  had  been  laid  down  during  the  last  glacial  epoch.  If  that 
were  the  case,  no  one  could  dispute  their  contention  that  Paleolithic 
man  lived  in  England  in  post-glacial  times.  .  .  .  We  know  now,  however, 
that,  during  the  glacial  period,  arctic  -and  genial  climates  alternated,  and 
that  the  great  chalky  boulder-clay  is  not  the  moraine  prof onde  of  the  last 
glacial  epoch,  but  belongs  to  a  much  earlier  stage  in  the  series."4  He 
says  there  is  evidence  that  tumultuous  floods  occurred  towards  the  close 
of  the  Paleolithic  period,  the  mud  and  loam  from  which  overlie  the- 

1  Op  cit.,  p.  349.  2  Ibid.,  p.  350.  3  Ibid.,  p.  354.  4  Ibid.,  p.  360. 



gravels  containing  Palaeolithic  relics.  This  is  in  harmony  with  the 
fact  that,  in  many  caves  in  England 
and  the  Continent,  the  Palaeolithic  beds 
are  covered  with  a  more  or  less  con- 
tinuous thick  cake  of  stalagmite,  which 
points  to  a  long  lapse  of  time,  during 
which  the  caves  remained  unvisited  by 
man  or  beast ;  and  he  comes  to  the  con- 
clusion that  the  Palaeolithic  age  came  to 
a  close  with  the  last  glacial  epoch. 

1  have  quoted  from  Dr.  Geikie  at  con- 
siderable length  ;  because,  if  his  contention 
can  be  upheld,  we  are  able  to  find  a  satis- 
factory explanation  of  the  break  between 
the  two  divisions  of  the  Stone  age.  If 
man  was  post-glacial,  as  is  held  by  the 
majority  of  the  eminent  geologists  I  have 
referred  to,  it  is  not  easy  to  see  any  reason 
for  the  one  set  of  men,  and  the  fauna 
associated  with  them,  dropping  suddenly 
from  the  scene,  and,  after  "the  lapse  of 
many  centuries,"  the  succeeding  people, 
with  the  newer  fauna,  coming  as  suddenly 
on.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  Palaeolithic 
man  was  inter-glacial,  and  he  was  com- 
pelled to  retreat  southwards  during  the 
last  glacial  epoch,  then  the  gap  would  re- 
present the  time  between  his  departure  and 
return.  That  only  a  small  portion  of  the 
South  of  England  yields  Palaeolithic  re- 
mains shows,  I  think,  that  during  the  time 
this  small  portion  was  occupied,  the  north 
of  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland  were 
uninhabitable  ;  and,  therefore,  there  ap- 
pears to  be  good  grounds  for  Dr.  Geikie' s 
theory.  I  am  sorry  I  cannot  agree  with 
Dr.  Geikie  in  what  he  says  regarding 
Neolithic  man.  He  states  that  there  is  no 
proof,  either  direct  or  indirect,  that  Neo- 
lithic man  was  the  descendant  of  his 
Palaeolithic  predecessor.  "  On  the  con- 
trary, all  the  evidence  points  in  quite  an 

Opposite    direction."       He  also  Says "  that    V1I-~ Irish  Spear-head,  partly  polished. 

the  beautifully  shaped  and  highly  polished 

specimens  of  stonework  must  be  assigned  to  some  advanced  stage  of  the 


Neolithic  epoch  admits  of  little  doubt."1  Yet  it  is  just  such  a  set 
which  he  exhibits  as  types  of  Neolithic  implements.2  I  do  not  for  a 
moment  hint  that  there  is  any  intention  to  deceive  ;  but  it  is  generally 
the  case  that  the  objects  or  particular  arts  that  contrast  well  are  dwelt 
on  when  showing  the  difference  between  the  Palaeolithic  and  Neolithic 
implements.  I  believe,  myself,  in  there  being  a  gap  between  the  two 
ages ;  but  it  should  not  be  made  wider  than  it  is.  At  Whitepark  Bay, 
county  Antrim,  where  about  5000  manufactured  objects,  of  flint  and 
other  stone,  have  been  obtained — and,  if  we  count  flakes  artificially  pro- 
duced, twenty  or  thirty  times  that  amount — only  three  or  four  polished 
implements  have  been  found,  and  these  only  of  a  very  poor  description.  I 
am  convinced  that,  if  a  full  series  of  such  poor  implements  of  everyday  use 
as  are  found  at  Whitepark  Bay  could  be  contrasted  with  the  implements 
from  the  old  floors  of  caves  of  Paleolithic  age  in  the  south  of  France, 
that  the  points  of  likeness  would  be  nearly  as  striking  as  those  of  differ- 
ence. I  believe,  from  the  likeness  of  the  Neolithic  implements  to  those 
of  the  later  Palaeolithic  age  in  the  south  of  Prance,  that  the  arts  of 
polishing  stone  implements  and  making  pottery  were  acquired  in  some 
southern  country  in  the  long  interval  during  which  these  islands  were 
depopulated ;  and  that,  when  the  climate  became  again  suitable  for 
occupation,  Neolithic  man,  descended  from  the  older  race,  came  with 
these  new  arts,  but  with  many  of  the  preceding  age  still  surviving. 

It  is  stated  in  "  Early  Man  in  Britain"  that  the  Neolithic  people 
appear  as  farmers  after  Britain  had  become  an  island,3  that  they  crossed 
in  canoes,  with  their  cattle  and  household  stuff  from  the  nearest  shores 
of  the  Continent  to  Britain,  and  from  Britain  to  Ireland,4  whilst  Dr. 
Geikie  says  that  before  the  reappearance  of  the  North  Sea,  Neolithic 
man  had  entered  Europe  and  crossed  into  Britain.5  The  latter  view 
would  seem  to  me  to  be  the  more  correct  one,  as  at  Whitepark  Bay,  which 
is  still  noted  as  a  good  fishing  district,  there  is  almost  an  entire  absence 
of  fish-bones  in  the  old  surfaces,  whilst  there  is  an  abundance  of  remains 
of  shell  fish  such  as  could  be  obtained  between  high  and  low  watermark. 
At  Portstewart  the  conditions  are  similar.  The  Bann,  which  is  a  good 
fish  river,  runs  past  the  sites  of  the  Neolithic  encampments,  yet  fish-bones 
are  very  rare,  though  shell  fish  are  abundant.  This  would  lead  me  to 
believe  that  the  people  had  not  the  means  of  fishing  in  the  quiet  bays  and 
rivers,  and  I  am,  therefore,  doubtful,  whether  the  earliest  Neolithic 
population  of  this  country  were  acquainted  with  the  use  of  canoes. 

If  man  and  beast  were  driven  out  of  England  by  the  severity  of  the 
climate,  and  compelled  to  remain  away  for  a  long  lapse  of  centuries,  a  ques- 
tion arises  as  to  what  was  happening  in  the  south  of  England  during  their 
absence.  Had  the  river  valleys  been  entirely  excavated,  and  the  gravels 

1  Op.  cit.,  p.  364.  2  md)  pL  c.  facing  p.  372.  3  Page  266. 

4  Page  282.  *  Op.  cit.,  p.  555. 


all  formed  before  man's  retreat  southward?  The  proofs  of  his  contem- 
poraneous occupancy  are  his  implements  which  are  included  in  the  gravels, 
and  the  proofs  of  the  fauna  being  present  are  their  bones,  which  are  also 
included  in  the  gravels.  Some  leg-bones,  and  other  parts  of  the  skeleton, 
are  occasionally  found  in  their  natural  position,  which  would  go  to  prove 
that  the  animals  had- been  buried  in  the  gravels  shortly,  after  death. 
But  suppose  Siberia,  with  its  many  entombed  animals — some  embedded 
in  frozen  clay  with  the  flesh  still  intact — were  elevated  200  or  300  feet, 
and  carved  into  river  valleys,  we  might  expect  to  find  gravels  with 
fossil  bones  and  many  leg-bones  and  other  parts  of  the  skeleton  in 
their  natural  position,  and  yet  perhaps  not  one  of  these  bones  would  belong 
to  an  animal  which  lived  at  the  time  the  valleys  were  being  excavated. 

Sir  H.  H.  Howorth,  in  enumerating  the  various  causes  which  might 
bring  about  the  death  of  animals,  makes  mention,  among  others,  of  a 
severe  winter.  I  think  he  does  not  dwell  sufficiently  on  this  cause,  as  I 
can  easily  conceive  how  an  early  winter,  with  deep  snow  and  great  cold, 
-coming  on  perhaps  suddenly,  would  prevent  many  animals  of  all  kinds 
from  escaping  southwards,  and  cause  them  to  perish  of  cold  and  hunger. 
In  this  way  in  the  south  of  England  we  could  account  for  young  and 
fully  matured,  as  well  as  different  species,  being  found  together.  Besides 
the  implements  found  in  the  gravels  are  weathered,  which  would  show 
that  they  had  been  exposed  for  a  considerable  time  to  the  air,  as  weather- 
ing would  not  take  place  if  implements  were  dropped  into  water  or 
lost  through  iceholes  while  fishing  on  a  frozen  river.  I  think  it  more 
probable  that  man  abandoned  his  implements  in  escaping  southwards, 
and  when  floods  afterwards  swept  them  along,  they  would,  with  the 
heavier  stones,  fall  first  to  the  bottom,  the  position  in  the  gravels  where 
the  implements  are  usually  found.  I  have  been  much  impressed  with 
the  sections  showing  Paleolithic  floors  and  implement-bearing  beds  in 
^Ir.  Worthington  Smith's  "  Man,  the  Primeval  Savage."  He  gives  a 
section  at  p.  66,  showing  an  old  surface  where  he  found  heaps  of  rough 
flints  which  had  been  collected  by  Paleolithic  people  for  the  purpose  of 
their  manufacture,  besides  many  flakes,  cores,  and  implements  already 
made.  He  states  that  he  has  replaced  more  than  500  flakes  from  this 
floor  either  on  to  other  flakes  or  on  to  implements  and  cores.  These 
implements,  flakes,  and  material  for  further  workmanship  were  evidently 
abandoned  by  the  owners,  the  increasing  cold  having  probably  driven 
them  away.  The  contorted  drift  on  top  of  this  section,  and  also  that  on 
top  of  the  implementiferous  sands,  shown  in  the  section  given  as  fig.  140, 
p.  209,  as  well  as  the  contortion  of  the  old  floor  itself,  as  shown  in  fig.  139, 
indicate,  I  think,  that  the  country  had  been  subjected  to  great  severity 
of  climate  after  these  old  surfaces  were  abandoned. 

From  the  various  considerations  I  have  mentioned,  I  am  not  con- 
vinced that  Palaeolithic  man  with  the  associated  fauna  was  living  in  the 
south  of  England  during  the  entire  time  of  the  excavation  of  the  river 

JOUR.  R.S.A.I.,  VOL.   VII.,  PT.  I.,  OTH   SER.  C 


valleys,  and  I  believe  that  Fome,  at  least,   of  the  work  of  excavation 
was  accomplished  during  the  time  he  was  absent. 

The  locality,  where  the  evolution  of  the  Neolithic  from  the  Palaeolithic 
stage  of  culture  took  place,  cannot  as  yet,  I  think,  be  donned.  If  the 
hiatus  between  the  older  and  newer  Stone  age  is  bridged  by  the  dis- 
coveries of  M.  Piette,  in  the  cavern  of  Mas  d'Azil,  then  it  may  have 
occurred  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Pyrenees,  but  M.  de  Quatrefages 
says  that  M.  Hamy  has  met  with  skulls  in  the  Canary  Islands,  uthe 
ethnical  relation  of  which,  with  the  old  man  of  Cro-Magnon,  is  beyond 
discussion,"  l  and,  therefore,  the  evolution  in  question  may  as  readily  have 
been  effected  in  North  or  Noi'th-West  Africa.  It  is  probable  that  when 
the  climate  began  to  get  milder  and  the  glaciers  to  disappear  there  would 
be  a  movement  from  that  place  of  evolution,  wherever  it  was,  towards  the 
north.  The  artistic  tribes,  with  the  reindeer  and  its  associates,  would 
probably  proceed  first,  whilst  others  might  be  delayed  till  the  temperate 
flora  had  occupied  the  place  of  the  glaciers,  and  probably  the  advance, 
like  the  retreat,  would  be  gradual.  The  theory  that  the  artistic  cave- 
dwellers  are  represented  by  the  Esquimaux  involves  an  interesting 
question.  Did  they  develop  their  taste  for  an  arctic  climate  while 
hunting  the  reindeer  in  the  south  of  France,  or  did  they  come  there 
originally  with  the  arctic  fauna  and  return  with  it  to  their  northern 
home  ?  It  is  also  a  subject  of  inquiry  whether  any  of  the  artistic  folk 
came  to  Britain.  From  the  finding  of  harpoons,  as  for  example  in  Victoria 
Cave,  Yorkshire,  as  described  by  Professor  Boyd  Dawkins,2  and  at  Oban, 
Scotland,  as  lately  reported  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries, 
Scotland,  by  Dr.  Joseph  Anderson,3 1  suspect  that  some  may  have  followed 
the  reindeer  whose  descendants  have  lingered  to  a  comparatively  recent 
date  in  Scotland.  However  these  questions  may  be  answered,  I  am  con- 
\7inced,  from  a  comparison  of  our  Irish  implements  with  those  of  newer 
Palaeolithic  age  in  France  and  elsewhere,  as  detailed  above,  that  a  good 
contingent  of  those  tribes  who  used  the  Mousterien  and  Solutrien  types 
of  implements  came  to  the  British  area,  and  that  the  best  examples  of 
their  surviving  art  and  skill  are  to  be  found  among  the  flint  implements 
of  the  North  of  Ireland. 

1  "  Human  Species,"  p.  335.  2  "  Cave  Hunting,"  pp.  Ill,  112. 

3  Vol.  v.,3rdSer.,  p.  211. 



the  fifth  century  the  chieftains  of  Muintur  Murchada  were  lords 
of  the  fertile  plains  of  Moy  Soela.1  Their  tribe  name  was  derived 
from  Morough,  the  son  of  Maonach,  Prince  of  Moy  Soela,  who  died  A.D. 
891.  This  Morough  was  a  descendant  of  Eochy,  monarch  of  Ireland, 
through  Duagh,  the  "  sweet-tongued,"  who  is  referred  to  as  the  "third 
Christian  king  of  Connaught." 

In  later  years  the  lords  of  Moy  Soela  took  the  name  of  O'Flaherty, 
and  for  a  considerable  period  held  a  position  of  pre-eminence  amongst 
the  chieftains  of  the  "Western  Province.  They  were  near  kinsmen  of  the 
O'Connors.  The  O'Hallorans,  lords  of  Clan-Feargail,  the  MacConrys,  and 
the  clans  of  Dealbna  Feadha  beyond  the  Corrib,  were  their  relatives,  and 
seem  to  have  ruled  those  districts  as  subordinate  chieftains.  Hence  we 
find  that,  in  the  tenth  century,  and  after,  the  O'Flahertys  are  frequently 
styled  Chieftains  of  lar  Connaught,  as  well  as  Lords  of  Moy  Soela.  Our 
annalists  record  the  death  of  Archad,  son  of  Murchad,  chief  of  Moy 
Soela,  A.D.  943,  but  we  find  that  he  is  also  styled  "Lord  of  lar  Con- 
naught."  But  though  exercising  a  paramount  influence  over  their 
kindred  chieftains  in  the  adjoining  territories,  the  territory  of  Moy 
Soela,  over  which  they  were  recognized  lords,  was  by  no  means  exten- 
sive. It  extended  from  the  village  of  Clare  Galway  to  Tuam ;  and  from 
near  Athenry  to  the  shores  of  the  Corrib.  The  entire  district,  according 
to  the  learned  editor  of  "lar  Connaught,"2  would  only  measure  an  area 
of  10  miles  in  length  by  6  in  breadth.  But  the  district  was  exceedingly 
interesting.  Several  of  the  localities  included  within  this  area  have 
been  long  memorable  in  our  annals:  Abbey  Knockmoy  is  one  of  the 
oldest  of  our  venerable  Cistercian  abbeys.  Clare  Galway  and  Ross- 
errilly  are,  even  in  their  ruins,  striking  evidence  of  the  splendour  of 
our  Franciscan  monasteries  before  the  Reformation  period.  And  the 
ecclesiastical  remains  at  Kilursa  and  Annaghdown  recall  the  still  earlier 
period,  when  the  religious  and  monastic  life  of  Ireland  was  the  light  of 
Northern  Europe. 

The  battlefield  of  Knock  Tuagh  has  its  memories  of  valour  and 
heroism,  but,  alas!  of  profuse  and  profitless  bloodshed  also.  And  just 
as  those  venerable  ruins  of  churches  and  monasteries  recall  the  religious 
history  of  Moy  Soela,  so,  too,  the  ruined  castles  which  stand  out  in  the 

1  O'Flaherty's  "  lar  Connaught,"  ed.  Hardiman,  pp.  2-3.  -  Ibid.,  p.  148. 



landscape,  weather-stained  and  roofless,  speak  to  us  of  the  conquerors 
who  wrested  the  supremacy  of  the  territory  from  the  grasp  of  the 
0' Flaherties. 

The  territory  of  Clanfeargail  was  adjoining,1  and  extended  from 
Clare  Gal  way  to  the  sea  ;  it  lay  east  of  the  Corrib  and  the  Gal  way  river, 
and  included  twenty-four  battys,  in  which  Galway,  Clare,  and  Roscani 
were  situated.  The  O'Hallorans,  who  were  kinsmen  of  the  O'Flahertys, 
were  the  Dynasts  of  this  small  territory.  But  we  have  at  so  remote  a 
period  as  the  reign  of  Cathal  0 '  Conor  evidence  that  the  O'Flahertys 
were,  at  least,  paramount  lords  of  the  district.  It  is  recorded2  that  the 
chief  of  Muintur  Murchada,  with  the  consent  of  Cathal,  King  of  Con- 
naught,  made  a  present  of  the  town  of  Lismacaun,  in  Clan-Feargail,  to 
the  abbot  and  convent  of  Knockmoy.  The  erection  of  an  O'FLtherty 
castle  in  Galway,3  in  the  early  part  of  the  twelfth  century,  may  be  re- 
garded as  an  additional  evidence  that  the  authority  of  the  chiefs  of  Moy 
Soela  extended  southwards  to  the  sea.  In  addition  we  have  the  fullest 
historical  evidence  that  the  0' Flaherty  territory  was  co-extensive  with 
the  Diocese  of  Annaghdown,  in  which  we  know  the  town  of  Galway  was 

Though  the  O'Hallorans  seem  never  to  have  attained  military  fame, 
yet  it  is  their  privilege  to  claim  some  of  the  most  eminent  of  our  Irish 
saints  as  kinsmen.  St.  Finbar  of  Cork  and  St.  Aileron  "the  Wise"  are 
regarded  as  members  of  this  ancient  tribe.  It  should  be  remembered 
that  the  O'Hallorans  of  Clan-Feargail  are  entirely  distinct  from  the 
Munster  family  of  the  same  name  who  claim  descent  as  a  branch  of  the 

"We  think  it  pretty  certain  that  the  authority  of  the  O'Flahertys  was 
also  recognized  by  the  chieftains  of  Gno-more  and  Gno-beg  in  the 
remote  districts  of  lar  Connaught  from  an  early  period.  Mr.  Hardinian 
regards  this  opinion  as  probable,  though  he  does  not  consider  it  can  be 
supported  by  "  direct  evidence." 

But  the  important  part  which  they  took  in  the  warfare  of  the  period 
would  be  consistent  with  this  opinion.  In  the  early  part  of  the  twelfth 
century  they  frequently  supported  the  growing  power  of  their  kinsmen 
the  O'Connors  against  the  Princes  of  Munster.  In  1117  the  son  of 
Dermot  O'Brien  and  his  brave  Dalcassians  were  "  defeated  with  great 
slaughter,"  by  the  sons  of  Cathal  O'Connor  and  by  Brian  O'Flaherty. 
And  when  a  few  years  after,  Dermot  O'Brien  and  his  armies  would  wipe 
ont  the  disgrace  of  their  defeat,  by  an  invasion  of  Connaught,  it  was  to 
suffer  a  still  more  crushing  repulse  at  the  hands  of  Cathal  O'Connor  and 
O'Flaherty.  King  Turlough  O'Connor  received  a  loyal  and  continuous 
support  from  Mureadhach  O'Flaherty,  prince  of  lar  Connaught,  against 

1  0' Flaherty's  "lar  Connaught,"  ed.  Hardiman,  p.  232. 

2  "  History  of  Galway,"  p.  3.  3  4i  lar  Connaught,"  p.  232. 


O'Brien.  At  the  battle  of  Ardfinnan  O'Connor  was  defeated,  and 
O'Flaherty,  with  many  others  of  his  bravest  followers,  slain.  But  Connor 
O'Brien  soon  carried  the  warfare  into  the  enemy's  country.  The  castle 
of  Gal  way  was  destroyed,  and  soon  after  the  entire  territory  of  the 
O'Flahcrtys  was  devastated  by  Turlough  O'Brien. 

But  this  loyal  alliance  was  not  destined  to  last  between  the  O'Connors 
and  their  powerful  kinsmen.  We  find  that  "  Cathal,  the  son  of  Hugh 
O'Flaherty,  was  slain  by  Mortagh-Midhe-O'Connor."  We  find  the 
English  invaders  then  upon  the  scene,  and  constantly  allied  to  some 
one  of  the  ambitious  aspirants  to  the  Connaught  crown  ;  in  whose 
wretched  ambition  all  other  interests  were  lost  sight  of,  whether  of 
country  or  of  kindred.  We  find  accordingly  that  Roderic  O'Flaherty, 
lord  of  "  West  Connaught,"  was  taken  prisoner  by  Cathal  Crovedearg, 
"  who  delivered  him  over  to  the  English,  by  whom  he  was  put  to 
death."  And  in  the  year  1204,  when  the  authority  of  Crovedearg  was 
still  more  firmly  established  as  sovereign  of  Connaught,  he  expelled 
Hugh  O'Flaherty  from  Moy  Soela  only  to  confer  the  territory  on  his 
own  son. 

Richard  De  Burgo  had  obtained  royal  grants  of  the  entire  Province 
of  Connaught.  And  in  1225  the  Earl  Marshal  of  Ireland  was  ordered 
by  Henry  III.  to  "  seize"  the  whole  country  of  Connaught,  and  deliver 
it  to  Richard  De  Burgo.  Hugh  O'Connor  lent  De  Burgo  his  royal  aid  to 
carry  this  decree  into  effect  in  Moy  Soela.  By  their  combined  forces 
Hugli  O'Flaherty,  lord  of  Moy  Soela,  was  deprived  of  the  islands  of  the 
Corrib,  and  obliged  to  take  refuge  in  his  strong  castle  of  Gal  way.  Here, 
after  a  spirited  defence  against  these  unnatural  allies,  he  was  obliged 
to  capitulate  in  A.D.  1232.  "  Hugh  O'Flaherty  and  his  people  crossed 
Lough  Orbsen,  and  took  possession  of  these  western  districts,  to  which 
the  name  of  lar  Connaught  had  been  exclusively  given."1 

No  sooner  was  De  Burgo  master  of  the  Castle  of  Galway,  than  he 
"  built  several  additions  to  it,"2  and  made  it  his  chief  residence.  From 
it  he  was  able  to  hold  undisturbed  possession  of  the  plains  of  Moy 
Soela,  on  which  several  strong  castles  were  soon  after  erected  by  his 
kindred  and  descendants.  As  many  as  thirty-three  castles  were  erected, 
by  them  in  this  district  from  the  thirteenth  to  the  fifteenth  century. 
And  as  De  Burgo  seized  the  territory  of  the  O'Flahertys,  so  also  he 
appropriated  the  lands  of  Clan-Feargail,  and  drove  its  chiefs,  with  their 
kinsmen,  into  lar  Connaught. 

This  district,  designated  'flar,"  or  ''Western"  Connaught,  was  also 
known  by  other  names,  which  perhaps  more  clearly  indicate  its  position. 
It  was  called  Dealbna  Feadha  and  Tir  da  Locha — the  country  of  the 
L\\ro  lakes — which  were,  we  assume,  Lough  Orbsen  and  Lough  Lurgan. 
It  was  also  known  as  Conmhaicne  of  the  Sea  (Mara),  now  familiarly 

1  "  Jar  Connaught,"  p.  380.  »  "  History  of  Galway,"  p.  48. 


anglicised  Connemara,  and  was  described  in  1586  as  a  territory  of  about 
20  square  miles.  lar  Connaught,  interesting  though  it  is  in  many 
respects,  is  by  no  means  the  most  picturesque  portion  of  Western 
Galway.  The  mountain  and  lake  scenery,  which  even  in  our  own  day 
charm  the  traveller  by  their  beauty,  belong  chiefly  to  the  still  more 
remote  districts  of  Ross  and  Ballinahinch,  which  were  of  old  the  homes 
of  the  Joyces  and  O'Malleys.  Yet  the  lar  Connaught  districts  present 
many  charming  pictures  of  hill  and  dale,  of  lake  and  open  sea.1 

For  the  most  part  the  country  slopes  gently  to  the  sea.  Its 
highest  hills  do  not  reach  a  greater  altitude  than  700  feet ;  while  three- 
fourths  of  the  district  is  not  100  feet  over  the  sea-level.  The  weird  and 
wooded  lakes,  the  charming  bays,  the  mountain  gorges  over  which  the 
hills  reach  an  altitude  of  2000  feet,  belong  to  the  more  remote  districts 
of  Ross  and  Ballinahinch.  And  though  much  of  the  lands  of  lar  Con- 
naught  was  comparatively  unproductive,  many  of  the  plains  which  skirt 
the  Corrib  are  very  fertile. 

We  have  seen  that  the  expulsion  of  the  clans  of  Moy  Soela  and  Clan- 
Feargail  was  effected  in  the  opening  of  the  thirteenth  century.  Hugh 
O'Flaherty  was  on  the  occasion  chief  of  his  name.  On  migrating  beyond 
the  Corrib  with  his  tribe,  and  his  kindred  of  Clan-Feargail,  he  seems  to 
have,  without  opposition,  asserted  his  authority  over  the  districts  hitherto 
held  by  the  MacConrys  and  O'Heyneys,  the  chiefs  of  Gno-more  and  Gno- 
beg ;  and  Hugh  O'Flaherty  might  therefore  be  regarded  as  the  first  of 
his  name  who  could  be,  strictly  speaking,  regarded  as  chief  of  lar  Con- 
naught.  His  new  territory,  which  extended  from  the  shores  of  the 
Corrib  to  Kilkieran  Bay,  was  then  comparatively  unknown.2  Indeed,  it 
may  be  said  to  have  remained  unexplored  by  the  English  till  towards 
the  close  of  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  Yet  Richard  De  Burgo  felt  him- 
self insecure  as  long  as  the  ex-chiefs  of  Moy  Soela  and  Clan-Feargail 
could  maintain  their  independence  even  in  the  "  Wild  West."  Until 
the  chieftain  of  lar  Connaught  was  completely  subdued,  the  astute 
Norman  felt  insecure  in  his  newly  acquired  territory. 

In  1235  he  accordingly  organized  an  expedition  for  perilous  ser- 
vice in  lar  Connaught.  But  Hugh  O'Flaherty,  finding  himself  aban- 
doned by  the  O'Connors  and  others  to  whom  he  might  have  looked  for 
protection,  entered  into  a  treaty  of  peace  with  his  powerful  enemy,  against 
whom  he  considered  himself  powerless  to  struggle  alone.  Though  the 
O'Connors  had  been  his  faithless  allies,  they  were  still  his  kings;  he  must 
have  felt  that  he  still  owed  them  allegiance,  notwithstanding  their  petty 
strifes  and  ambitions.  Yet  he  entered  into  an  alliance  with  De  Burgo  in 
violation  of  his  fealty  to  his  king.  •'  This,"  says  Hardiman,  "  was  the 
last  and  the  only  disgraceful  act  of  his  life." 

In  1244  King  Henry  III.  was  engaged  in  his  Scotch  campaigns.    He 

lar  Connaught,"  p.  8.  2  Ibid.,  p.  383. 


considered  the  support  of  the  chief  of  lar  Connaught  of  sufficient  impor- 
tance to  solicit  it  by  letters  under  his  seal.1  But  before  the  Lord  rof 
lar  Connaught  could  have  led  his  clansmen  to  his  Majesty's  aid,  terms  of 
peace  were  arranged  with  Scotland.  But  they  supported  Henry  in  his 
expedition  to  Wales,  under  Felim  O'Connor,2  "  whence  they  returned 
victorious,"  says  Hardiman. 

.  On  this  occasion  the  O'Flahertys  endeavoured  to  utilise  their  claims 
on  his  Majesty's  good  will,  for  the  purpose  of  regaining  their  ancestral 
possessions  in  Moy  Soela.  They  represented  truly  to  his  Majesty  that 
they  had  been  "unjustly  expelled  from  their  territory  "  ;  but  they  also 
represented  with  absolute  untruth,  "that  their  ancestors  and  themselves, 
though  mere  Irish,  always  showed  their  fealty  to  him  and  his  predecessors 
by  assisting  the  English  to  reduce  the  Irish.  They  had  notwithstanding 
been  unjustly  expelled  from  their  territory  to  which  they  humbly  prayed 
to  be  restored."3  This  appeal  was  made  conjointly  by  Morogh  O'Flaherty 
and  his  brother  Roderic ;  and  we  doubt  if  history  supplies  at  this  early 
period,  on  the  part  of  any  Irish  chieftain,  greater  evidence  of  base 
recreancy  to  the  Irish  cause.  The  astute  monarch  replied  through  the 
Lord  Justice  of  Ireland  to  this  appeal  to  the  Royal  clemency,  in  a  manner 
calculated  to  natter  their  selfishness.  His  Majesty  informed  the  Lord 
Justice,  in  Latin  more  courtly  than  classical,  that  if  those  O'Flahertys 
and  their  ancestors  had  always  supported  the  English  cause,  they  could 
not  then  be  justly  deprived  of  their  possessions,  even  though  they  were 
Irish*  The  king's  reply  may  perhaps  be  regarded  as  an  evidence  of  his 
willingness  that  some  protection  should  be  extended  to  such  recreants. 
41  But,"  says  Hardiman,  in  his  valuable  appendix  to  "  lar  Connaught," 
"  the  O'Flahertys  derived  no  benefit  from  the  Royal  Mandate."  On  the 
contrary,  their  new  territory  was  again  invaded  by  Walter  De  Burgo, 
as  if  in  defiance  of  it,  and  was  plundered  by  the  English.  In  1248, 
Walter  De  Burgo  marched  against  them  with  an  army,  but  was  defeated 
with  considerable  slaughter ;  he  soon  after  made  another  excursion  against 
Roderic  O'Flaherty,  plundered  his  territory  of  Gno-more  and  Gno-beg, 
now  called  the  barony  of  Moycullen,  and  seized  on  Lough  Orbsen  with 
its  islands.  The  persecuted  chief  was  at  length  forcibly  expelled  from 
his  territory,  but  his  expulsion  was  only  temporary.  It  was  the  old 
struggle  which  their  ancestors  had  fought  out  on  the  plains  of  Moy  Soela, 
and  now  as  of  old,  fortune  favoured  the  invaders. 

But  it  did  not  suit  the  De  Burgos  to  continue  the  struggle  for  the 
wild  districts  of  the  west,  and  so  the  O'Flahertys  were  soon  after  able 
to  return  to  their  territory.  And  from  the  close  of  the  thirteenth  to  the 
fifteenth  century,  they  continued  practically  undisturbed  as  chiefs  of 
lar  Connaught.  Their  wise  abstention  from  interference  in  contem- 

1  "  lar  Connaught,"  p.  389.  2  Ibid.,  p.  380. 

3  Ibid.,  p.  381.  *  Ibid.,  p.  381. 


porary  struggles  outside  of  their  territory,  and  the  friendly  relations 
which  they  cultivated  with  the  O'Malleys  and  Joyces  of  the  more  remote 
regions  of  Connemara,  also  helped  to  give  for  a  period  additional  security 
to  their  authority.  NOT  have  we  any  reason  to  justify  the  assumption 
that  their  assertion  of  authority  over  Gno-more  and  Gno-beg  met  with  any 
opposition  from  the  friendly  chieftains  of  those  districts. 

O'Duggan  tells  us,  in  his  "Topographical  Poem,"  who  the  chief- 
tains of  those  districts  were  until  their  territories  were  seized  by  the 
O'Flahertys  :— 

"  Mac  Conry,  mark,  you  shall  find 
Over  Gno-more  of  smooth  callows  ; 
O'Heyney  over  Gno-beg  lasting, 
A  nest  not  poor  nor  transient." 

We  are  informed  by  Hardiman,  in  his  valuable  notes  to  "Jar  Con- 
naught,"1  that  Conry  was  the  first  chief  of  Gno-more.  In  the  course  of 
centuries,  the  tribe  migrated  westward  and  settled  in  a  district  on  the; 
seacoast,  which  received  from  them  the  name  of  Bally  in  aconry.  It  is 
interesting  to  know  on  the  same  authority  that  the  English  rendering  of 
the  name  as  "King"  (as  if  the  Irish  were  Mac  an  Kigh)  is  entirely 
incorrect.  The  name  seems  to  have  been  also  anglicised  as  Mac  Enry. 

Those  districts  of  Gno-more  and  Gno-beg  over  which  the  O'Elahertys 
and  O'Hallorans  had  asserted  a  kind  of  joint  occupation  were  also  known 
as  Moycullen,  i.e.  the  plain  of  Ullin.  O'Flaherty  and  others  derive  the 
name  from  Ullin,  the  grandson  of  Nuad,  monarch  of  Ireland.  On  this 
plain  Ullin  slew  Orbsen,  a  famous  merchant,  also  known  as  Manannan 
Mac  Lir,  who  had  his  principal  residence  on  the  Isle  of  Man.  From  this 
event,  the  place  was  designated  the  "  Magh  "  or  plain  of  Ullin,  i.e.,  Moy 
Cullin  ;  or  to  use  O'Flaherty' s  words,  "  therefore  from  Ullin  Moycullen 
is  named — to  wit,  Magh  Ullin,  the  field  of  Ullin."  The  name  is  still 
preserved  as  the  designation  of  the  barony,  which  comprises  the  terri- 
torial divisions  already  referred  to,  of  Gno-more  and  Gno-beg.  It  extends 
from  the  Corrib  to  the  sea.  It  has  the  baronies  of  Ross  and  Ballina- 
hinch  on  its  northern  and  north-western  borders.  And  we  are  told  by 
O'Flaherty  that  "  Lough  Orbsen,"2  and  the  river  of  Galway  were  the 
eastern  boundary. 

The  principal  residences  of  the  chiefs  of  lar  Connaught  were  at  Ein- 
voyle,  Bunowen  and  Aghenure,  "where  the  salmon  comes  under  the 
castle  on  a  river  not  far  from  the  west  side  of  Lough  Orbsen."  The  site 
of  Aghenure  on  the  shore  of  the  Corrib,  must  have  derived  considerable 
attractiveness  from  the  ancient  yews  which  grew  around  it,  and  from 
which  the  picturesque  site  derived  its  name  Aghenure,  i.e.  "  Field  of  the 
Yews."  But  these  ancient  trees  from  which  Aghenure  had  derived  its 

1  "  lar  Connaught,"  p.  281.  -  Ibid.,  p.  52. 


name  had  nearly  all  perished  when  the  author  of  lar  Connaught  lived. 
One  alone  had  remained,  and  that,  which  was  showing  evidences  of  decay  r 
was  reputed  to  be  over  a  thousand  years  old. 

The  Castle  of  Aghenure  with  500  acres  was,  by  Eoyal  grant  created 
a  manor  by  James  I.  on  the  25th  June,  1618,  in  favour  of  Hugh 
O'Flaherty,  father  of  Roderic,  author  of  "lar  Connaught  "  and  "  Ogygia," 
who  writes  of  Moy  Cullen  as  his  patrimony1  : — "  This  is  my  natal  soil 
and  patrimony,  enjoyed  by  my  ancestors  time  immemorial.  There  was  a 
manor  exempted  by  a  patent  from  all  taxes ;  it  likewise  enjoyed  the 
privilege  of  holding  a  market  and  fairs,  and  was  honoured  with  a  Sene- 
schal's Court  to  determine  litigations.  But  having  lost  my  father  at  the 
age  of  two  years,  I  sheltered  myself  under  the  wings  of  royalty,  and  paid 
the  usual  sum  for  my  wardship.  But  before  I  attained  the  proper  age 
for  possessing  my  fortune,  I  was  deprived  of  the  patronage  of  my 
guardian  by  the  detestable  execution  of  my  king.  Having  completed 
my  nineteenth  year,  and  the  prince  half  a  year  younger,  then  I  was  com- 
pelled to  take  refuge  in  a  foreign  clime." 

Even  at  the  present  day  the  ruins  of  the  Castle  of  Aghenure  at  Moy- 
cullen  are  amongst  the  most  striking  in  the  West  of  Ireland. 

Bunowen  JUanor  was  another  of  the  chief  residences  of  the  O'Flahertys. 
It  occupied  a  picturesque  situation  an  the  shores  of  the  beautiful  lake  of 
Ballinahinch,  three  miles  from  Irosbeg,  and  outside  the  borders  of  lar 
Connaught  proper.  It  was  overshadowed  by  some  of  the  loftiest  peaks 
of  the  "  pins"  of  Bunnabeola.  The  hill  of  Duin  stood  near,  which  gave 
its  name  to  the  surrounding  parish  of  Ballindown  in  which  St.  Flannan 
of  Killaloe  was  venerated  as  patron.  The  Castle  of  Bunowen  is  described 
by  Hardiman  as  an  "  extensive  fortress."  Donell  na  Chogaidh  O'Flaherty, 
so  called  from  his  warlike  proclivities,  was  owner  of  the  castle  in  the 
sixteenth  century.  In  the  compositions  under  Elizabeth  in  1585,  we 
find  that  the  "  Castle  of  Bunowen  and  six  quarters  of  land  next  adjoin- 
ing the  same  was  conferred  on  Donell' s  sons,  Owen  and  Morogh,  as  a 
free  demayne  for  ever."  After  the  death  of  Owen,  who  was  slain, 
Morogh  became  sole  claimant  of  the  Bunowen  estates.  He  was  known 
as  Morogh  an  Maor  (the  Steward.)  On  the  25th  May,  1618,  King 
James  I.  made  a  grunt  by  letters  patent  to  Morogh,  of  "  the  Castle  of 
Bunowen,  with  numerous  lands  in  the  barony  of  Ballinahinch,  and 
thereby  created  the  manor  of  Bunowen  to  contain  1300  acres  in  de- 
mesne ;  gave  a  power  to  create  tenures,  hold  courts,  leei  and  baron ;  a 
Monday  market  at  Bunowen,  and  a  fair  there  on  St.  Laurence's  Day  and 
the  day  following." 

These  were  very  important  Royal  favours ;  and  before  Morogh  passed 
away  in  1626,  he  was  justly  regarded  as  equal  in  prominence  and  influence 
to  his  kinsmen  at  Moycullen.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Morogh  na 

1  "  lar  Connaught  "  — "  Ogygia,"  p.  27. 


Mart  (of  the  beeves)  in  the  lordship  of  Bunowen,  who  was  regarded  on 
his  accession  as  the  most  powerful  of  the  western  O'Flahertys."1 

The  Lord  Deputy  did  him  the  honour  of  paying  him  what  seemed  to 
be  a  visit  of  ceremony  in  his  remote  mountain  fortress.  But  the  favours 
of  Wentworth  ("  Black  Tom")  were  open  to  grave  suspicion.  Though 
the  chieftain  was  away  on  some  military  raid,  the  representative  of  royalty 
patiently  awaited  his  return,  and  his  stay  was  honoured  by  profuse  and 
lavish  hospitality  ;  and  so  pleased  did  his  lordship  seem  to  be  with  the 
hospitable  chieftain,  that  he  conferred  upon  him  the  honour  of  knighthood 
on  his  departure.  We  are  told,  however,  that  Wentworth  carefully 
utilised  his  stay  for  the  purpose  of  exploring  the  intricate  passes  of  the 
district,  and  of  ascertaining  the  exact  extent  of  O'Flaherty's  property. 
But  whatever  the  Deputy's  designs  may  have  been,  it  is  certain  that  Sir 
Morogh  experienced  in  his  own  person  one  of  those  sad  vicissitudes  but 
too  frequent  at  that  period.  He  was  robbed  of  his  property  in  the  name 
of  law,  and  died  A.D.  1666  in  abject  poverty. 

On  the  15th  May,  1678,  his  castle  of  Bunowen,  and  the  "  adjoining 
lands,"  were  conferred  on  Edmond  Geoghegan,  the  son  of  Art  Geoghegan, 
of  Castletown  in  Meath,  a  forfeiting  proprietor.2 

Early  in  the  seventeenth  century  we  find  the  O'Flahertys  extending 
themselves  still  further  to  the  north-west,  and  acquiring  there  from  their 
kinsmen,  the  O'Hallorans,  some  additional  territory  and  the  strong  castle 
of  Rinvyle.  This  castle  stood  on  Rinvyle  headland,  which  runs  into 
the  sea  opposite  the  Island  of  Boffin.  Some  say  that  this  castle  was 
erected  by  the  Joyces,  though  it  is  difficult  to  say  on  what  authority. 
We  know  with  certainty  that,  in  A.D.  1594,  this  castle  was  the  property 
of  Dermott  Duff  O'Halloran  of  Bearna,  who  sold  it  to  Edmond  O'Halloran, 
a  Galway  merchant.3  The  deed  of  assignment  or  transfer,  which  is  a 
curious  one,  is  preserved  by  Hardiman  in  his  appendix  to  "lar  Con- 
naught."  And  we  also  find  that,  in  October,  1638,  this  same  castle  and 
lands  of  Rinvoyle  were  transferred  to  Edmond  O'Flaherty  by  Theo. 
Eremond,  the  son  of  Edmond  O'Halloran. 

From  some  other  deeds  of  sale  made  by  the  O'Hallorans  to  their 
well-beloved  lord,  Morogh  na  Moyer  O'Flaherty  of  Bunowen,  it  is  certain 
that  the  Edmond  O'Flaherty  referred  to  was  the  second  son  of  Sir  Morogh, 
by  whom  the  castle  was  held  in  1642,  whose  opposition  to  the  English  at 
that  period  was  active  and  continuous. 

The  castles  of  O'Hery  and  Bearna,  with  extensive  lands,  were  in 
the  possession  of  the  O'Hallorans  at  the  close  of  the  sixteenth  century.4 
O'Hery  Castle  occupied  a  picturesque  situation  on  an  island  in  Lough 
Lonan,  now  known  as  the  Lake  of  Ross.  It  was  therefore  in  dangerous 
proximity  to  the  castle  of  their  "  well-beloved  lord,"  Morogh  na  Doe  at 

1  "  lar  Connaught,"  p.  83.  2  Ibid.,  p.  108. 

3  Ibid.,  p.  255.  *  Ibid.,  p.  84. 


Aghenure.  In  1585  it  was  in  the  possession  of  Lonick  O'Halloran.  In 
that  year  he  was  driven  out  by  Morogh  "  of  the  Battle-axes,"  who 
appropriated  both  the  castles  and  lands  of  his  kinsmen.  The  castle  of 
Bearna  was  the  chief  residence  of  the  O'Hallorans.  It  was  situated 
by  the  seashore  about  three  miles  west  of  Galway.  In  1594,  we  find 
that  Dermott  Duff  O'Halloran  of  Bearna,  who  had  transferred  his  Rin- 
voyle  castle  and  property  to  Edmond  O'Flaherty,  was  still  proprietor  of 
Bearna.  On  the  28th  November,  1638,  we  find  that  "  Stephen  Lynch 
obtained  a  decree  in  Chancery  against  Edmond  O'Halloran  of  Bearna  in 
£410  1 9s.  8^."1  With  reference  to  this  judgment  Hardiman  adds  :  "This 
decree  is  supposed  to  have  led  to  the  transfer  of  the  Bearna  estates  to 
the  Lynches,  by  whom  it  is  possessed  to  this  day." 

1  "lar  Connaught,"  p.  255. 

kJ«S  KOYAL    SoCIKTY    ol-1    A  NTIQlf  A  KI  US    OF    IKKLANI). 


Itv  <1KOH<;I':  rnl'KKY,   A.I.I!.,    M.U.I. A.,    Fi:imu 
(Continued  from  payo  69,  /W.  /'/.,  1890.) 


iK  main  argument  oft  he   pal  ferns  has  been    brought  to  a  close,  but} 
I  IK-  inquiry  would  bo  incomplete)  if  we  did  not  consider  (he  bearing 
of  the  evidence  collected  in  the  preceding  sections  on  the  question  of 

eii|)  mid  cup-and-riug  sculpt  urrs.  Much  has  lieen  written  mi  the  suh- 
jcct,  :iinl  various  theories  have  been  proposed  to  explain  Iheir  meaning. 
They  have  been  supposed  to  be  sacrificial  altars,  Hie  cup  cavities  being 
designed  to  receive  the  blood  of  the  victims  (Nilsson);  archaic  maps  of 
circular  curups  and  cities  (Ureonwell,  Wilkinson,  (jruves);  a  means  of 
recording  events,  the  explanation  bring  handed  down  by  oral  t  radii  ion 
(Keller,  Dixon)  ;  dials,  astronomical  and  astrological  diagrams,  tables  for 
games,  boundary  marks  (various  writers).  No  substantial  evidence  has 
been  produced  in  favour  of  any  of  these  theories,  and  they  ha\e  been 
generally  discarded.  The  prevailing  opinion  is  that  these  mysterious 
markings,  found  so  frequently  on  rude  stone  monuments,  erratic  block,- 
and  rock  surfaces,  are  symbols  expressive  of  some  religious  conception.1 

A  theory  pnt  forth  by  Mr.  Itivett-Carnac,  that  these  symbols  repre- 
sent the  powers  of  generation  in  nature  has  won  many  adherents. 
-Briefly  summarised,  his  argument  is  as  follows  : — 

Two  and  a-half  miles  south  of  'Dwara-llath,  and  twelve  miles 
north  of  the  military  station  of  Kanikhet,  in  Kumaoii,  Central  India, 
is  a  narrow  gorge,  at  the  mouth  of  which  is  a  temple,  locally  known 
by  the  name  of  Chamleshwar,  sacred  to  Mahadeo.  About  two 
hundred  yards  south  of  the  temple  arises  a  rock  at  an  angle  of  forty- 
live  degrees,  upmi  \\hidi,  in  a  space  measuring  fourteen  feet  by  twelve 
feet,  more  than  two  hundred  cups  are  sculptured.  They  vary  fn>m  an 
inch  and  a-half  to  six  inches  in  diameter,  and  from  half  an  inch  to  one 
inch  in  depth.  They  are  arranged  in  groups  of  approx  imatcly  parallel 
rows.  The  illustration  given  in  the  Taper  under  notice  shows  'J 
cups;  in  two  instances  the  cups  are  enclosed  by  a  single  ring. 

1  A  Nummary  «>l  tho  loading  \u-\\s  mi  thr  Mihjcrt  will  !>••  I'niiiul  in  Sir  ,1 .  Sim 
"Archaic  Sculpt  mrs,"  AM-.;  mid  nu>iv  ivrrntiv  in  "Observations  on  ( 'np- 
and  otlici  1  .apidari.m  Sculptures  in  the  Old  World  and  in  Anu-iicu,"  by  Charles  K.m, 
"  U.S.  <i.  and  <i.  Sm  \t  y  of  the  lux  ky  Mountain  Ke:;h«n,  ( 'onl  rihul  ions  to  IS'ortli 
American  Kthnology,"  vol.  v.  (1881). 

OI;K;INS  OK  I-KKIIISTOKK;  <>I;N :\MI:NT   IN   II;KLANI>.        -_>!) 

From  the  villagers  and  from  the  old  priest  at  the  temple,  no  informa- 
tion W08  to  be  obtained  of  the  or  igiii  of  these  markings,  beyond,  "thai 

they  were  so  old  that  tin-  oldest  man  in  the  village  had  no  knowledge 
pf  who  had  made  them,  nor  had  they  been  made  in  UK-  time  of  their 
lathers'  lathers,  hut,  they  were  most  probably  the  work  of  -iants  or  (he 
goolas  (  herdsmen)  in  days  gone  by." 

On  visiting  the  temple  of  (Ihandesh  war,  Mr.  Kivett-Carnac  was  striirk 
by  t,he  resemblance  of  many  of  its  shrines  to  tin-  rock-markings.  He  says, 
the  better  class  Muhadoo  is  represented  by  an  upright  stone,  hut  the 
"poorer  type  is  without  the  upright,  and  ifl  apparently  a  conventional 
rendering  or  sketch  of  these  symbols  roughly  cut  on  the  stone,  the  inner 
circle  ivpre-.eiiting  the.  Mahadeo,  the  outer  circle  the  Yoni,  the  line  or 
lines  the  gutter  by  which  the  libations  and  offerings  are  drained  (.If  from 

this,    as   Well   as   the    more    elaborate    class   of    Mahadeos."       Four   of    the 

poorer  shrines  are  figured.  They  consist  of  flat  stones  with — (1)  Two 
concentric,  im-ised  rings,  witli  a  groove  or  gutter  leading  from  the  outer 
rin;;  to  the  edge  of  the  stone  ;  (2)  a  cup,  surrounded  by  a  single  ring, 
from  which  a  gutter  leads  to  the  edge  of  the  stone;  (3)  a  single  rin-, 
with  :i  -utter  from  it  to  the  edge  of  the  stone.  The  fourth  shrine 
M.\po  of  No.  2)  shows  cup-marks  in  addition  to  the  symbol,  but  as, 
Mr.  Kivett-Carnae  states,  "the  cups  were  in  all  probability  on  the 
•-Ia!i  before  it,  was  split  oil'  from  the  rock,  and  made  to  do  service  ull  f,|M. 
top  of  the  shrines,  no  particular  significance  can  be  claimed  for  this 


The  resemblanee  of  these  symbols  to  the  (jup-und-ring  markings  in 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland  cannot  be  denied  ;  and  Mr.  llivett-Carnac  draws 
the  conclusion  'hat  the  latter  are  of  the  same  class. 

In  support  of  this  argument,  it  should  be  stated,  Mr.  llivett- 
Caniac  points  to  the  r< •--.- •mblanee  of  tumuli,  surrounded  by  circles  of 
stones,  on  some  of  which  nip-marks  are  found,  in  Central  India,  to  monu- 
ments of  the  same  class  in  Europe,  and  to  the  further  parallel  to  bo 
drawn  between  the  menhirs  of  Carnac  in  Brittany  and  the  Siva  embh m> 
of  India.  With  the  addition  of  this  evidence,  he  concludes,  that  "the 
jcoiiii e..\ ion  between,  the  marks  in  India  and  Europe"  may  "  be  considered 
tolerably  complete."1 

Sun  worship  and  associated  forms  of  worship  of  tin  powers  of  gene- 
ration arc  so  widely  distributed  amongst  primitive  peoples  that  it  is 
probable  an  underlying  correspondence  will  be  found  in  nianv  in  lances 
between  the  symbols  and  customs  of  widely  separated  countries.  But 
we  must  not  assume  that  such  re.>emblam-e  implies  the  identity  of  either 
DM  symbol  or  its  meaning. 

It  will  be  observed  that  then-  are  M  \eral  \\eak  points  in  Mr.  Kivett- 
-Carnac's  argument.  In  the  first  place,  neither  the  priest  nor  the 

1  Asiiitir  Society  of  Uengu  vol.  46  (1H77)  ;  and  vol.  48  (1879). 


villagers  at  Chandeshwar  associated  the  cup-marks  on  the  rock-surface- 
in  the  gorge  with  the  emblems  in  the  temple,  or  with  Siva  worship. 
The  answer  given  was  of  the  usual  kind,  such  as  peasants  give  in 
Europe  concerning  pre-historic  remains.  Further,  out  of  219  cup-marksr 
two  only  are  ringed,  so  that  the  resemblance  of  tlie  cups  on  the  rock- 
surface  to  the  Siva  symbols  at  the  temple  is  not  very  definite. 

The  cup-marks  on  the  tumuli  stones,  none  of  which  are  ringed,  and  on 
the  rock-surface  at  Chandeshwar,  appear  to  be  pre-historic,  and  as  far  as 
the  Indian  evidence  goes,  there  is  nothing  to  show  that  there,  is  any 
original  connexion  between  them  and  Siva  worship. 

Cup-marks  are  widely  distributed  in  Europe.  They  have  been 
recorded  from  France,  Switzerland,  Portugal,  Germany,  Austria,  Denmark, 
Sweden,  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland.  Yet,  with  the  exception  of 
a  few  instances,  cup-and-ring,  or  concentric  circle  sculptures,  have  not 
been  recorded  in  Europe,  outside  Sweden,  Great  Britain,  and  Ireland, 
The  exceptions  referred  to  are — a  cupped  stone  near  Bunsoh,  Holstein, 
showing  twenty-seven  cups,  three  of  which  are  surrounded  by  single 
rings  *  ;  a  cupped  stone,  stated  to  bave  existed  near  Mels,  St.  Gall, 
Switzerland,  unfortunately  destroyed,  one  of  the  cups  of  which  was 
enclosed  by  two  rings2;  some  examples  of  cup-and-ring  and  cross-in- 
circle  markings,  in  association  with  cup-marks,  on  rock- surf  aces  in  the 
Eringerthal,  Yalais,  Switzerland 3 ;  an  example  of  concentric  rings  on  a 
rock-surface  in  the  Meraviglie,  Mentone  4 ;  and  two  or  three  examples 
on  a  surface  in  Galicia.5 

The  last  two  instances  do  not  appear,  from  associated  forms,  to  be 
strictly  of  the  class  under  consideration.  The  Holstein  examples  are 
within  the  Scandinavian  area,  so  that  the  instances  in  Switzerland  would 
seem  to  be  the  only  outliers  from  the  north-western  group.  When  we 
take  into  consideration  how  widely  spread  cup-marked  stones  are  in 
Europe  these  facts  become  of  first-rate  importance. 

This  narrow  distribution  of  cup-and-ring  cuttings  is  emphasised  by  the 
fact  that  cup-and-ring  marks  with  radial  gutters  are  absolutely  confined 
in  Europe  to  Great  Britain  and  Ireland.  To  establish,  therefore,  for  the 
purpose  of  Mr.  Hivett-Carnac's  argument,  a  connexion  between  cup- 
marks,  cup-and-ring,  and  cup-ring  with  gutter  marks,  it  is  necessary  to 
pass  at  a  step  from  India  to  Britain  (where  they  are  found  associated), 
skipping  the  Continent.  This  is  an  insuperable  objection  to  the  theory 
of  a  common  origin  for  the  Siva  emblems  of  India,  and  the  ring-and- 
gutter  cuttings  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland ;  and  it  is  evident  that  a 

1  In  a  letter  from  Miss  Mestorf,  Rau,  /.  c.,  note,  p.  24. 

2  Rau,  I.e.,  p.  22. 


similar  meaning  cannot  be  assumed  for  the  latter  symbols  until  inde- 
pendent evidence  has  been  produced  for  the  British  and  Irish  examples. 

Now  let  us  see  what  light  the  Irish  evidence  throws  on  the  subject. 

At  New  Grange  there  are  numerous  examples  of  cup-markings  ;  for 
instance,  stone  No.  6,  right  side  of  passage,  on  which  are  a  number  of 
irregularly-spaced  cups  from  two  to  four  inches  iu  diameter  (there  are  no 
other  markings  on  this  stone).  The  curiously  ribbed  stone  at  end  of 
passage  on  same  side  has  a  large  cup  below  the  ribs,  and  four  smaller 
cups  along  the  edge.  Stone  No.  5  in  ch amber,  and  stone  a  outside  may 
be  also  mentioned.  But  whilst  cup-marks  are  numerous  at  New  Grange, 
in  no  instance,  except  in  the  case  of  the  cartouche-like  figures,  and  con- 
centric curves  on  stone  a  (fig.  62),  is  any  attempt  made  to  combine  them 
with  the  incised  patterns.  As  previously  stated  concentric  circles  are 
not  represented  at  New  Grange,  and  necessarily  cup-and-circle  marks  are 
absent.  But  it  is  important  to  note  that  cup  and  spirals  are  likewise 
absent.  That  is,  there  is  no  example  of  a  spiral,  the  centre  of  which  is 
sunk  in  the  form  of  a  cup-cutting. 

At  Dowth  single  spirals  and  the  debased  form,  concentric  circles,  are 
well  represented.  As  at  New  Grange  many  examples  of  plain  cup-marks 
occur,  but  here  we  find  in  addition  several  examples  of  concentric  circles 
with  cup  centres.  No  examples,  however,  of  a  spiral  with  cup  centre 
is  found. 

Lough  crew  takes  us  a  step  further.  Here  we  have  the  full  series, 
with  numerous  intermediate  forms.  Some  of  the  stones  may  be  de- 
scribed as  pitted  with  small  cup-marks.  Thus  Con  well  mentions  a 
stone  standing  outside  cairn  N,  upwards  of  6  feet  above  the  surface,  in- 
scribed with  forty-eight  cup-hollows,  and  one  in  cairn  o,  with  thirty-nine 
cups  varying  from  half  an  inch  to  three  quarters  of  an  inch  in  diameter, 
and  about  a  quarter  of  an  inch  in  depth.  Other  stones  show  large  well- 
defined  cup-marks,  as  for  instance,  stone  d,  Cairn  T.  Single  spirals  and 
concentric  circles,  as  already  stated,  are  well  represented.  Also  transi- 
tional forms,  spirals  with  concentric  circle  centres,  concentric  circles  with 
spiral  centres,  and  concentric  circles  and  tangents.  But  further,  spirals 
and  concentric  circles  are  frequently  combined  with  cup-marks.  Thus 
we  have  the  spiral  with  cup-centre,  stone  d,  Cairn  T,  spiral  with  cup-and- 
ring  centre,  stone  a,  Cairn  H.  Concentric  circles  occur  with  three,  four, 
and  more  circles  (stones  c,  Cairn  i,j,  Cairn  u,  d,  Cairn  w),  and  likewise 
descend  to  two,  and  if  one  can  say  so,  single  circles  (stones/*,  Cairn  i,  m, 
Cairn  L).  Similarly,  cup-and-ring  marks  are  found  descending  from 
many  rings  or  circles  to  three,  two,  and  single  rings  (Cairn  L,  view  of 
chamber,  stones  ^and#,  Cairn  T,  etc.) :  in  some  instances  these  figures  are 

Taking  the  evidence  of  Loughcrew  with  that  of  New  Grange,  the 
inference  appears  to  be  forced  upon  us  that  the  cup  is  the  oldest  symbol, 
using  the  term  for  convenience  of  description,  and  that  it  was  not  yet 


associated  with  the  spiral  or  concentric  circle  at  the  period  of  the  erection 
of  the  latter  monument,  or  at  least  was  not  associated  in  the  tradition 
which  governed  the  inscribed  markings  of  New  Grange. 

The  general  evidence  from  the  Continent  appears  to  support  this  view. 
Cup-marks  are  recorded  from  France  (Brittany,  Pyrenees,  Rhone  Yalley, 
Lozere),  Portugal,  Switzerland  (French  cantons,  Zurich,  Saint  Gall), 
Germany  (Schleswig,  Holstein,  Prussia,  Saxony,  Silesia),  Austria 
(Bohemia,  Moravia,  Lower  Austria),  Denmark,  and  Sweden.  Up  to  the 
present,  cup-marks  do  not  appear  to  have  been  recorded  from  southern 
Germany,  Italy,  and  the  more  eastern  part  of  Europe,  but  we  may  con- 
fidently expect  that  further  researches  will  extend  the  area  of  their  dis- 

It  has  been  shown  that  the  spiral  did  not  travel  westward  across  the 
€oritinent.  Concentric  circles,  the  debased  spiral,  are  represented  on 
bronze  remains  from  the  western  lands  of  the  Continent,  but  for  the 
most  part  they  pertain  to  a  late  period,  and  become  increasingly  numerous 
in  the  early  Iron  Period,  when  inscribing  by  compass  came  into  general 
use.  We  should  expect  to  find  cup-and-spiral  and  cup-and-circle  mark- 
ings along  the  track  of  the  spiral  to  the  north,  but  spirals  and  con- 
centric circles  do  not  appear  to  have  been  transferred  to  rocks  or 
megalithic  structures  along  this  route,  and  cup-marks  have  not  as  yet 
been  recorded  further  south  than  Lower  Austria.  In  Sweden,  where 
rock-sculptures  are  numerous,  in  addition  to  many  cup-cuttings,  we  have 
some  examples  of  the  spiral,  and  many  examples  of  concentric  circle  and 
•cup-and-ring  markings.  In  some  instances  the  latter  appear  to  represent 
shields  held  by  armed  men  (Holmberg,  Pis.  10  and  13). 

But  other  instances,  for  example,  the  stone  figured  by  Simpson, 
PI.  xxxi.,  from  Halland,  inscribed  with  six  concentric  circles,  and 
examples  of  cups  surrounded  by  single  rings  (Holmberg,  Pis.  2  and 
22-23),  would  appear  to  be  true  cases  of  concentric  circle  and  cup-and- 
ring  markings. 

In  Britain  and  Ireland,  where  the  spiral  and  concentric  circle  were 
transferred  to  megalithic  structures  and  rock-surfaces,  the  combination 
of  cup-marks  with  the  spiral  and  concentric  circle,  imperfectly  represented 
by  cup-and-ring  marks  in  Sweden,  is  illustrated  by  numerous  examples. 
The  occurrence,  as  at  Loughcrew,  of  the  spiral  and  concentric  circles  in 
company  with  free  cup-marks,  and  also  (especially  the  spiral  examples) 
combiped  with  cup-marks,  seems  to  disclose  the  stages  of  a  local  combi- 
nation of  the  spiral  and  derived  concentric  circles  with  the  cup-mark. 
I  suspect  that  this  combination  was  largely  induced  by  the  prevalence  of 
circle-and-dot  forms  in  the  later  Scandinavian  Bronze  Age. 

In  this  connexion,  the  tendency  in  concentric  circle  ornament  to 

1  Ran,  L  6-.,  p.  98.      Allen,   Proc.   Soc.  Ant.,   Scot.,   vol.  xvi.,   pages  122-143. 
"  Cartuilhac,  Ages  Prehistoriques  de  1'Espagne  et  du  Portugal." 


emphasise  the  centre  may  be  noted.  In  metal  work  there  is  a  further 
tendency  to  simplification,  and  the  centres  are  frequently  developed  as 
bosses,  when  in  relief,  or  deep  sinkings,  when  incised.  This  may  be 
observed  in  Mycenae  gold  work,  and  in  the  later  Bronze  Age  of  Scandi- 
navia examples  are  numerous.  From  this  point  of  view,  it  is  possible  to 
regard  the  combination  of  the  cup-and-circle  as  falling  within  a  general 
tendency,  the  representatives  of  which  are  to  be  looked  for  on  the  Con- 
tinent in  metal  work.  We  have  not  as  yet  taken  into  consideration 
the  important  class  of  cup-and-circle  markings  which  are  characterised 
by  radial  grooves  or  gutters  leading  from  the  central  cup  through  the 
•enclosing  circles.  I  have  left  this  class  of  markings  aside  for  the 
purpose  of  massing  together  the  evidence  regarding  the  combination  of 
the  spiral  and  concentric  circle  with  the  cup-mark.  But  before  entering 
on  the  question  of  cup -and- gutter  markings,  it  is  desirable  to  examine 
the  distribution  of  spiral  and  cup-and-circle  cuttings  in  Ireland,  and  the 
relation  of  the  rock-markings  there  to  the  tumuli  series. 

So  far  the  spirals  observed  in  Ireland  are  confined  to  sepulchral 
monuments,  with  the  exception  of  "a  rude  carving  of  a  short  portion 
of  a  spiral,"  noted  on  a  stone  in  a  fence  in  the  county  Kerry,  by 
Dr.  Graves,  Bishop  of  Limerick.1  In  addition  to  the  examples  on  the 
Boyne  and  Loughcrew  tumuli,  the  following  are  recorded.  Some  two 
miles  east  of  the  Loughcrew  hills,  on  an  eminence  called  "  King's 
Mountain,"  is  a  large  flagstone  set  on  end  as  a  rubbing  stone  for  cattle ; 
it  measures  7£  feet  by  3  feet  by  6  inches.  One  side  is  incised  with 
spirals,  the  other  shows  no  trace  of  carving.  Conwell  states  that  up  to 
a  few  years  before  he  visited  it,  a  tumulus  stood  on  its  present  site, 
"  which  the  proprietor  of  the  field  caused  to  be  carried  away  for  top- 
dressing  ;  and  in  the  centre  of  the  mound  this  stone  was  found,  covering 
in  a  chamber  of  smaller  flagstones,  and  filled  with  bones,  all  of  which 
have  disappeared,  the  covering  stone  alone  excepted."3  An  illustration 
of  this  stone  is  given  here  from  a  photograph,  kindly  taken  for  me  by 
Mr.  E.  C.  Eotheram  (fig.  87).  The  spirals,  it  will  be  observed,  are  of 
better  work  than  those  of  the  Loughcrew  series,  and  may  be  classed 
with  those  at  New  Grange. 

Wright,  in  u  Louthiana,"  describes  a  sepulchral  chamber  on  Killing 
Hill,  near  Dundalk.  He  states  that  on  the  principal  stones  of  the 
"altar  and  cell  of  this  temple,"  as  he  calls  it,  he  "observed  a  rude 
sort  of  carving  in  the  form  of  a  spiral  or  volute."  A  spiral  is  figured 
which  is  evidently  a  true  example  of  an  archaic  punched  spiral 
(Book  iii.,  p.  13,  PI.  vi.).  Killing  Hill  I  have  identified  with  a  hill  at 
Killin  or  Killeen,  about  three  miles  north  of  Dundalk.  A  pond  shown 
in  Wright's  drawing  has  been  drained,  and  has  now  little  water  in  it, 

1  Parish  of  Kilchrohane,  Trans.,  R.I. A.,  xxiv.,  p.  46. 
3  "OllamhFodhla,"  p.  14. 

JOUR.  R. S.A.I.,  VOL.  VII.,  PT.   I.,  OTH  SER.  D 



but  the  old  water  line  can  still  be  traced.  Mr.  Bell,  the  proprietor, 
informed  me  when  I  lately  visited  this  site,  that  his  predecessor  had 
quarried  the  top  of  the  hill  for  limestone,  and  that  the  rude  stone 
structures  on  the  top  had  then  been  completely  cleared  away.  He 
showed  me  one  of  the  slabs  in  his  garden  ;  this  has  no  markings  on  its 
exposed  face.  Another  slab  is  at  the  forge  close  by.  This  he  remem- 
bers was  for  some  time  used  as  a  gate  post,  and  one  of  its  faces  was 

Fig.  87.— " 

utfiin,"  Meath. 

covered  with  markings.  It  has  since  been  used  for  bending  hoops,  and 
the  incised  markings  have  been  almost  completely  rubbed  away.  One 
of  the  cuttings  appeared  to  have  been  spiral,  and  another  spiral  or 
concentric  circles;  some  short  lines  of  a  branch-like  form  are  also  visible. 
The  markings  are,  however,  too  indistinct  to  be  worth  transcribing. 

At  TCnockmany,  county  Tyrone,  a  sepulchral  chamber  is  inscribed 
with  cup-and-ring,  and  other  markings  more  or  less  of  the  Loughcrew 
class;  they  include  a  few  spiral  forms.1 

1  Last  year  the  owner,  Mr.  F.  P.  Gervais,  kindly  had  one  of  the  fallen  stones  of 
this  monument  raised  for  me.  The  under  surface  was  found  to  be  richly  carved  with 
arc-hair;  markings.  I  hope  shortly  to  publish  a  full  description  of  this  monument.  The- 


At  Castle  Archdall,  county  Fermanagh,  the  stones  of  a  sepulchral 
chamber,  described  and  illustrated  by  "Wakeman,  are  inscribed  with 
markings  very  similar,  in  general  character,  to  the  Loughcrew  mark- 
ings.1 Two  single  spirals  occur  on  one  of  the  stones.  On  another 
stone,  circles  joined  tangentially,  are,  no  doubt,  debased  spirals.  A 
third  carving  consists  of  two  lozenges  arranged  like  the  figure  8.  At 
Clover  Hill,  county  Sligo,  spirals  are  incised  on  the  slabs  of  a  sepulchral 
chamber,  described  and  illustrated  by  Mr.  Wakeman.2 

In  Glencolumbkille,  county  Donegal,  a  rude  stone  structure,  appa- 
rently sepulchral,  also  described  by  Mr.  Wakeman,  shows  traces  of 
inscribed  markings,  among  which  spiral  forms  and  a  lozenge  cun  be 
distinguished  .3 

The  examples  of  spiral  sculptures  are,  as  stated,  with  the  exception 
of  the  Kerry  instance,  confined  to  sepulchral  monuments.  The  Kerry 
spiral  is  too  indefinite  to  weigh  in  the  argument.  It  is  described  as  "  a 
rude  carving  of  a  short  portion  of  a  spiral."  It  is  in  a  district  which 
has  yielded  an  extensive  series  of  cup-and-ring  markings,  but  no  other 
example  of  the  spiral.  Moreover,  no  examples  of  plain  concentric 
circles  have  been  found  in  the  locality. 

Putting  aside,  therefore,  the  Kerry  stone,  we  may  state  that  spiral 
sculptures  do  not  extend  to  rock-surfaces  or  boulder-stones  in  Ireland. 
In  agreement  with  this  distinction  is  the  fact  that  plain  concentric 
circles,  common  in  the  tumuli  series,  are  extremely  rare  on  rock-surfaces 
and  detached  stones.  On  a  rock-surface  at  Ballybawn,  county  Cork,  are 
five  single  circles,  and  an  example  of  two  concentric  incomplete  circles.4 
One  example  of  concentric  circles  and  a  few  single  rings  are  shown  in 
Mr.  Kinahan's  figure  of  the  rock  surface  at  Mevagh,  county  Donegal  5 
(fig.  88).  There  may  be  a  few  other  instances,  but  they  are  quite  excep- 
tional. In  the  extensive  series  of  cup-and-ring  markings,  published  by 
Dr.  Graves,  from  Kerry,  there  is  not  a  single  example  of  plain  concentric 
circles.  Again,  among  numerous  examples  of  cup-and-ring  cuttings  on 
"  St.  Patrick's  Chair,"  county  Mayo,  there  is  not  a  case  of  plain  con- 
centric circles.6  The  same  is  the  case  at  Rhyfad,  county  Fermanagh.7 
The  spiral  which,  as  we  have  seen,  is  found  as  far  north  as  Donegal, 
has  not  been  found  south  of  the  Boyne  line. 

Ireland  has  not  been  as  thoroughly  explored  as  Scotland  and  Eng- 
land ;  many  tumuli  remain  to  be  excavated,  and  possibly  spiral  markings 

general  relation  of  the  carvings  appears  to  ine  to  belong  to  the  later  Scandinavian 
Bronze  Age. 

1  Journal,  R.H.A.A.L,  4th  Ser.,  vol.  v.,  pp.  546-551.  2  Ibid.,  p.  552. 

3  Journal,  R. S.A.I.,  oth  Ser.,  vol.  i.,  p.  265. 

4  Journal,  R.H.A.A.L,  3rd  Ser.,  vol.  i.,  p.  91. 

5  Ibid.,  4th  Ser.,  vol.  viii.,  p.  429.     Several  single  rings  occur  on  the  under  side  of 
the  cap-stone,  and  on  the  inside  of  a  supporting  stone  of  a  cromleach  at  Rathkenny,. 
county  Meath. — Proc.  R.I.A.,  vol.  ix.,  plates  x.  and  xi. 

6  Kinahan,  Proc.  R.I. A.,  SS.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  17. 

7  Wakeman,  Journal,  R.H.A.A.L,  4th  Ser.,  vol.  iii.,  p.  453. 

D  2 



will  eventually  be  found  to  extend  to  the  southern  counties.  Neverthe- 
less, it  is  remarkable  that  the  examples  hitherto  recorded  fall  within  the 
northern  half  of  the  island.  This  remark  may  be  extended  to  inscribed 
tumuli  generally.  Although  cup-and -circle  markings  are  found  on 
detached  stones  and  rock-surfaces  in  the  south  of  Ireland,  no  example  of 
an  inscribed  tumulus  chamber  has  up  to  the  present  been  recorded  south 
of  the  Boyne. 

Fig.  88. — Mevagh,  Donegal. 

It  may  be  well  to  state  here  that  the  argument  I  seek  to  establish 
does  not  depend  on  the  possibility  of  being  able  to  show  absolute  lines 
of  demarcation  between  the  different  classes  of  markings.  It  is  possible 
that  the  spiral  may  yet  be  found  to  extend  to  rock-surfaces  in  Ireland, 
and  that,  as  stated,  the  area  of  distribution  may  be  enlarged.  The 
practice  of  cutting  markings  on  sepulchral  and  other  stones  lasted  no 
doubt  over  a  considerable  period,  during  which  continuity  of  tradition 
was  preserved  to  a  greater  or  less  extent.  We  have  also  to  take  into 
account  movement  of  population  and  change  of  settlement.  We  should, 


therefore,  expect  to  find  earlier  forms  occasionally  reappearing  among 
later  forms,  and  stations  detached  exceptionally  from  the  areas  of  distri- 
bution. The  argument  is  hased,  not  on  an  absolute  association  of 
particular  forms  with  a  particular  class  of  monuments,  but  on  pre- 
ponderance of  association.  The  evidence  is  not  exhaustive,  but  it  is 
sufficient  to  establish  the  preponderance  relied  on. 

Cup-marks  and  cup-and-circle  markings  have  been  recorded  from  many 
parts  of  Ireland,  and  range  the  entire  length  of  the  island  from  north 
to  south,  Donegal  to  Kerry.  Unlike  the  spiral,  they  are  not  confined 
to  sepulchral  monuments,  but  are  found  also  on  detached  stones  and 
rock  surfaces.  Plain  concentric  circles — that  is,  without  central  cups — 
occur  with  cup-and-circle  markings,  but,  except  in  the  tumuli  series, 
they  are  extremely  rare.  Tn  the  great  majority  of  examples  on  detached 
stones  and  rock-surfaces  the  central  cup  is  present. 

Concentric  half  circles  are  not  known  outside  the  Loughcrew  series, 
and  one  example  at  Knockmany.  The  cross  in  circle,  several  examples 
of  which  are  found  at  Dowth  and  one  at  Loughcrew,  is  found  also  on  a 
rock-surface  at  Mevagh,  Co.  Donegal.  The  latter  examples  are  well 
and  firmly  cut,  and  suggest  at  first  sight  a  direct  lodgment  from  Sweden, 
where  the  cross  in  circle  is  frequently  found  on  rock-surfaces.  But  the 
presence  also  of  cup-and-circles  with  radial  grooves,  a  form  unknown  in 
Scandinavia,  renders  it  doubtful  that  this  is  so. 

We  come  now  to  the  cup-and-circle  with  radial  groove.  This 
remarkable  form  of  marking  is  found  at  Mevagh,  Co.  Donegal ;  at  Muif, 
Co.  Donegal l ;  a  fine  example  was  recently  discovered  by  Mr.  E.  C. 
Rotheram,  built  into  a  fence  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Loughcrew,  Co. 
Meath  (now  in  the  Science  and  Art  Museum,  Dublin).  I  am  indebted 
to  the  late  Dr.  Y.  Ball,  Director  of  the  Museum,  for  permission  to  have 
this  stone  photographed  by  magnesium  light  (fig.  89).  The  manner  in 
which  the  symbol  is  displayed  in  centre  of  the  stone,  and  garnished 
round  with  other  markings,  is  very  remarkable.  This  is  seen  better  in 
the  drawing  (fig.  90),  inserted  as  a  key  to  the  photograph,  which  I  have 
prepared  from  rubbings,  with  constant  reference  to  the  stone  itself.  An 
important  example  was  found  at  Youghal,  Co.  Cork.2  Numerous 
examples  have  been  published  from  the  Co.  Kerry  by  Dr.  Graves.3 

We  thus  see  that  this  remarkable  form  of  marking  has  been  found 
from  the  north  to  the  south  of  Ireland.  Other  examples  will,  no  doubt, 
be  discovered ;  but  those  already  recorded  are  sufficient  to  show  how 
widely  it  is  distributed. 

The  first  fact  to  note  about  this  form  of  marking  is  its  absence  from 
the  tumuli  series.  There  is  one  doubtful  case,  Knockmany.  The  large  set 

1  Journal,  R.H.4.A.L,  4th  Ser.,  vol.  iv.,  p.  293. 

2  Ibid.,  vol.  vii.,  p.  604. 

3  Trans.  R.I.  A.,  vol.  xxiv.     The  substance  of  this  Paper,  and  the  illustrations, 
are  reprinted  in  the  Journal,  JR. If. A. A. L,  4th  Ser.,  vol.  iv. 


of  concentric  rings  on  the  upper  part  of  the  stone  figured  by  Mr.  Wakeman 
has  a  short  radial  groove.  It  is  not  shown  in  Mr.  Wakeman's  drawing1  ; 
he  does  not  seem  to  have  regarded  it  as  part  of  the  figure,  though  it 
shows  strongly  in  photographs  of  the  stone.  It  does  not,  however,  enter 
the  central  cup,  and  does  not  cut  the  outermost  ring,  and  as  there  is 
some  indication  of  a  flaw  at  this  part  of  the  stone,  I  regard  the  case  as 
doubtful.  On  the  stone  recently  raised  at  this  grave  (see  note,  p.  34) 
there  is  a  cutting  of  rings,  showing  a  radial  line  left  in  relief.  Here 

Fig.  89. — Near  Loughcrew,  Meath. 

again,  I  am  not  sure  that  this  marking  is  strictly  of  the  class  under 
consideration.  My  general  impression  is  that  the  markings  at  Knock- 
many,  as  also  at  Clover  Hill,  Sligo,  are  late  in  the  series ;  but  I  hope 
to  discuss  these  examples  in  detail  at  a  future  date  when  publishing  the 
stone  lately  discovered  at  Knockmany. 

The  cup  with  radial  groove  has  been  found  on  cist  stones  and  sepul- 
chral chambers  in  Scotland  and  England,2  and  it  is  not  improbable  that 

1  Journal,  R.H.  A.A.I.,  4th  Ser.,  vol.  iv.,  p.  99. 

2  Simpson,  p.  27,  and  pi.  xiv. 



it  will  yet  be  found  in  Ireland  in  association  with  sepulchral  remains. 
We  do  not  know  whether  the  stone  from  the  Loughcrew  district  and 
that  from  Youghal  were  sepulchral  or  not. 

This  does  not  impair,  however,  hut  increases  the  significance  of  the 
fact  that  this  particular  [form  is  absent,  or,  at  most,  represented  by  a 
single  monument,  in  the  tumuli  series.  In  the  chambered  tumuli  of 
Dowth,  New  Grange,  Loughcrew,  Clover  Hill,  Castle  Archdall,  and 
Glencolumbkille,  we  have^a^sufficient  body  of  evidence  to  feel  on  sure 

These  monuments,  extending  from  Meath  to  Donegal,  embrace 
counties  in  which  the  cup-and-circle  with  radial  duct  is  found.  The 
form  is  found  associated  with  sepulchral  remains  in  Scotland  and 
England,  so  that  there  is  apparently  no  reason  pertaining  to  this  parti- 
cular symbol  for  its  exclusion  from  tumuli  in  Ireland.  It  appears  to 
me  to  be  inconceivable  that 
if  this  very  definite  form 
had  been  in  use  in  the  period 
during  which  the  majority 
of  the  tumuli  were  erected, 
it  would  be  practically  ab- 
sent from  the  markings  on 
them . 

Moreover,  the  fact  of  the 
absence  of  this  particular 
form  does  not  stand  alone. 
The  evidence  of  the  tuinuli 
series  presents  us  with  the 
following  argument  : — 

At  New  Grange  the  cup-  Pi0.    90. 

mark  had  not  yet  been  com- 
bined with  the  spiral  and  degenerate  spiral,  concentric  circles.  At  Lough- 
crew  this  combination  has  taken  place,  the  cup-mark  is  adopted  as  a  centre 
for  spirals  and  concentric  circles,  and  the  cup-and-ring  mark,  with  one  or 
more  concentric  circles  enclosing  the  central  cup,  is  firmly  established. 
Outside  the  great  groups  of  the  Boyne  and  Loughcrew  we  still  find  the 
spiral  associated  with  the  chambered  tumuli  in  company  with  the  cup- 
and-circle.  But  the  spiral  does  not  extend  to  rock-surfaces  and  detached 
stones,  and,  further,  it  is  to  be  noted  that  plain  concentric  circles,  the 
representative  of  the  spiral,  common  in  the  tumuli  series,  are  extremely 
rare  on  rocks  and  detached  stones.  On  the  latter,  the  cup-and-circle, 
with  or  without  radial  grooves,  is  the  predominant  form. 

We  thus  seem  led  to  the  conclusion  that  the  cup-mark,  which  pro- 
bably takes  us  back  to  the  Stone  age,  was  brought  into  combination  with 
the  spiral  and  concentric  circle  by  the  tumuli  builders  (in  whose  period 
the  spiral  was  introduced  into  Ireland) ;  that  the  tendency  of  the  spiral 


to  be  replaced  by  concentric  circles  led  to  the  disappearance  of  the  spiral,, 
and  the  general  prevalence  of  cup-and-circle  markings ;  that  from  the 
tumuli  the  custom  of  incising  cup-and-circle  markings  spread  to  rock- 
surfaces  and  detached  stones,  -  many  of  which  were  probably  already 
cup-marked  ;  and,  lastly,  that  it  was  not  until  the  practice  of  cutting 
cup-and-circle  markings  on  rock-surfaces  and  detached  stones  was  estab- 
lished that  the  cup-and-circle  with  radial  groove  appeared. 

The  evidence  from  Scotland  and  England  supports  these  conclusions. 
Take  first  the  distribution  of  the  spiral.     If  we  tabulate  the  localities- 
*from  which  spiral  sculptures  are  recorded  in  Scotland  and  England,  we 
find  that  they  are  confined  to  the  following  shires  : — 

Elginshire  —  Strypes   (Reliquary  and  Illustrated  Archaeologist,  iii., 

p.  41). 

Argyleshire — Aughnabreach  (Simpson,  pi.  xxiii.). 
Ayrshire — Coilsfield  (Simpson,  pi.   xiii.);  Blackshaw  (Proc.  S.A.S.r 

xxi.,  143). 

Wigtonshire — Camerot  Muir,  Kirkdale  (Simpson,  p.  33,  note). 
Dumfriesshire  —  Hollows    Tower,     Eskdale     (Proc.     Berwickshire 

Naturalists'    Club,    x.,    346). 
Peeblesshire — La  Mancha  (Simpson,  pi.  xvi.). 

Cumberland — Mauganby  (Simpson,  pi.  v.) ;  Old  Park,  Kirkoswald 
(Trans.  Cumberland  and  Westmoreland  Ant.  and  Arch.  Society, 
1895,  p.  389). 

Lancashire — Calderstones,  near  Liverpool  (Simpson,  pi.  vi.).1 
Northumberland — Morwick    (Proc.   Berwickshire    Naturalists'   Club, 
x.,   343) ;    Lilburn   Hill   Farm  (Archseologia  JEliana,  N.S.,  x., 

In  addition  to  the  preceding,  two  localities  occur  in  Orkney,  Edday 
and  Frith  (Simpson,  pi.  xix.),  and  one  in  Llanbedr,  on  the  coast  of 
Merionethshire,  North  Wales  (Simpson,  pi.  xxvi.). 

The  majority  of  the  examples  given  above  are  associated  with  con- 
centric circles,  cup-and-circle,  and  plain  cup- markings.  They  occur 
chiefly  on  megalithic  structures,  but  in  a  few  instances  on  cist  covers  and 

The  most  interesting  monument  to  us  in  the  preceding  list  is  the 
Calderstones.  On  these  stones,  in  addition  to  cup-marks,  there  are 
two  examples  of  the  single  spiral,  and  ten  sets  of  concentric  circles  without 
central  cups,  and  one  cup  surrounded  with  a  single  ring.2  The  markings 
are  thus  seen  to  be  closely  in  line  with  the  Loughcrew  series. 

The  manner  in  which  the  spiral  in  association  with  sepulchral  monu- 

1  These  stones  are  illustrated  in  greater  detail  by  J.  Romilly  Allen,  Journal  British 
Archaeological  Association,  vol.  39,  p.  304. 

2  Allen,  ibid.,  p.  305. 



merits  is  extended  on  the  west  coast,  from  Argyleshire  to  Lancashire,  sug- 
gests Irish  influence.  The  spirals  at  Morwick  show  a  couple  of  examples 
of  single  spirals  joined  S-wise  (fig.  91).  The  example  lately  discovered 
in  Elginshire,  by  Mr.  Hugh  "W.  Young,  consists  of  two 
beautifully  formed  single  spirals,  also  joined  S-wise 
(fig.  92).  Moreover,  it  is  in  the  north-east  of  Scotland — 
Elgin,  Aberdeen,  and  Eorfar — that  the  most  important 
examples  of  the  stone  balls  incised  with  spirals  have 
been  found.1  The  S-joined  spirals  in  Northumberland 
and  Elginshire  seem  to  represent  a  more  direct  tradi- 
tion than  the  general  run  of  examples  in  Scotland  and 
England  ;  and  it  is,  I  think,  probable  that  the  spiral 
has  entered  Elgin  and  Northumberland  directly  from 
Scandinavia.  The  occasional  occurrence  of  the  spiral 
amongst  the  rock-sculptures  of  Sweden  has  been  in- 
stanced in  section  viii.  The  example  there  referred 
to  (Holmberg,  pi.  viii.)  may  be  supplemented  by  three 
examples  on  a  rock-surface  in  Scania.2  One  of  these 
consists  of  two  single  spirals  joined  S-wise,  similar  to  those  at  Morwick 
and  Strypes.  A  further  point  of  relation  may  be  noted.  Among  the 
sculptures  at  Mevagh  is  a  form  resembling  the  volutes  of  the  capital  of 
an  Ionic  column  (fig.  88).  This  form  is  also  found  on  the  Hollows 
Tower  stone,  Northumberland,  and  similar  forms  are  figured  for  Sweden 

by  Holmberg,  plates  18-19,  and  22- 
23  (fig.  93). 

The  probabilities  of  the  case  are, 
perhaps,  reconciled  by  the  sugges- 
tion that  Scotland  and  the  north  of 
England  has  been  the  meeting  ground 
of  a  direct  wave  of  influence  from 
Scandinavia  and  a  return  wave  from 

Fig.  91. —  Morwick. 


Fig.  92. 

Fig.    93.- 



The  inference  that  the  spirals 
on  the  west  coast  of  Great  Britain, 
extending  from  Argyleshire  to  Lan- 
Tower, and  Sweden,  cashire,  for  the  most  part  associated 
with  megalithic  structures,  represent  an  extension  of  the  Irish  group 
gains  force  when  considered  in  connexion  with  the  distribution  of  the 

1  In  a  cist,  with  cremated  remains,  at  Ardkeiling,  Elginshire,  two  stone  balls  were 
found,   "  with  eight  projecting  knobs  on  each,  and  well-formed  grooves  between  them. 
Each  of  the  six  faces  of  the  halls  presented  four  knobs  when  looked  at  separately" 
(Hugh  W.  Young,  Reliquary  and  Illustrated  Archaeologist,  vol.  iii.,  p.  45).     These 
balls,  which  appear  to  be  within  the  Bronze  Period,  may^he  set  against  the  Late  Celtic 
bronze  ball,  by  which  the  Scotch  stone  balls  have  been  hitherto  dated. 

2  "  Cong.  Prehist.,"  Stockholm,  vol.  i.,  p.  479.     See  also  Hildebrand,  single  and 
double  spirals  at  Ekensberg,  "  Antiqvarisk  Tidskrift  for  Sverige,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  428,  and 
pi.  3. 



spiral  in  Ireland.  The  spirals  within  the  area  from  the  Boyne  line  to 
Argyleshire  may  be  regarded  as  a  single  group,  the  centre  of  which  is  to  be 
placed  in  Ireland.  The  influence  of  Scandinavian  Bronze  Age  ornament 
appears  to  have  made  a  deeper  impression  on  Ireland  than  on  Scotland 
or  England.  This  is  to  be  inferred  not  only  from  the  fact  that  more 

Fig  94. — Map  showing  the  Distribution  of  the  Spiral  in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland. 

important  examples  of  the  spiral  are  found  in  Ireland  than  in  Scotland  or 
England,  but  also  from  the  evidence  at  Loughcrew  of  continuity  of 
influence  extending  into  the  later  Bronze  Age  of  Scandinavia.  The 
centre  of  activity  of  the  group  appears,  therefore,  to  lie  in  Ireland. 

The  examples  in  Orkney,  on  the  sea-way  between  Scandinavia  and 
Ireland,  present  no  difficulty.     The  isolated  example  in  Merionethshire, 


•on  the  coast  of  North  Wales,    is  no  doubt  an  outlier  from   the  Irish 

Other  members  of  the  Irish  series  are  extremely  rare  in  Scotland  and 
England.  Concentric  half-circles  are  represented  by  a  single  example 
•at  Black shaw,  Argyleshire.  A  horse-shoe  form  ut  Morwick,  Northumber- 
land, consisting  of  two  concentric  cuttings,  with  a  border  of  pittings,  or 
cup-marks,  round  the  outer  circumference  of  the  figure,  maybe,  however, 
of  this  class.  Lozenge  markings  are  represented  by  three  examples  : — 
( 1 )  Five  concentric  lozenges  on  a  loose  slab  found  in  a  cist  at  Carnban, 
Argyleshire  (Simpson,  pi.  xiii.).  (2)  Three  concentric  lozenges,  with 
•central  cup  and  groove,  at  Westbank,  Northumberland  (Simpson,  pi.  ii.). 
This  latter  example  is  important  as  showing  the  combination  of  the 
lozenge  with  the  cup-mark,  analogous  to  the  combination  of  the  spiral 
and  concentric  circle  Avith  the  cup.  (3)  A  cross-hatched  lozenge  on  one 
of  the  stones  of  a  cist  discovered  at  Aspatria,  Cumberland  (Archceologia, 
x.  112).  The  cross  in  circle  also  occurs  on  this  stone,  and  appears  to  be 
the  only  example  of  that  form  recorded  from  Great  Britain.1 

"We  may  now  consider  the  classification  and  associations  of  forms. 
It  is  true  that  the  spiral  occurs  on  rock-surfaces  at  Aughnabreach, 
Argyleshire,  Blackshaw,  Ayrshire,  and  Morwick,  Northumberland.  At 
the  two  former  stations  it  is  exceptional ;  at  Morwick  it  is  the  prevailing- 
feature.  But  though  these  exceptions  are  to  some  extent  disturbing, 
the  association  of  the  spiral  with  sepulchral  monuments  in  Scotland  and 
England  is  very  marked,  and,  when  we  bring  into  view  concentric 
circles,  this  association  becomes  significant. 

The  definite  cases  of  the  sepulchral  association  of  the  spiral  are — 
•Coilsfield,  Ayrshire,  on  a  cist  cover ;  Maughanby,  Cumberland,  on  one  of 
the  stones  of  a  circle  enclosing  a  barrow  and  cist — an  urn  was  found  in 
the  latter — this  example  consists  of  a  spiral  joined  tangentially  to  a 
group  of  concentric  circles;  Old  Parks,  Kirkoswald,  Cumberland,  several 
rude  spirals  on  stones  in  a  tumulus,  associated  with  urns  ;  Lilburn, 
Northumberland,  rude  spirals  on  stone  in  grave  with  cremated  inter- 

To  these  may  be  added,  as  probably  sepulchral,  La  Mancha,  Peebles- 
shire,  a  spiral  and  concentric  circle  on  a  broken  slab,  found  near  other 
stones,  and  considered  by  Simpson  as  possibly  sepulchral ;  Calderstones, 
Lancashire,  spirals  and  concentric  circles  on  stone  circle. 

The  spiral  recorded  from    Camerot  Muir,  Wigtonshire,  is  stated  to 

1  Fergusson,  in  "llude  Stone  Monuments,"  relies  on  the  statement  that  a  skeleton, 
with  iron  sword,  &c.,  was  found  in  this  cist,  as  proving  that  the  tomb  is  as  late  as  the 
Vikin-  Age.  On  referring  to  the  original  account  of  the  discovery  of  the  cist,  it 
appears  that  the  description  is  secoad-hand,  by  a  Mr.  Rooke,  from  information  given 
by  Mr.  lligg,  the  proprietor  of  the  land,  who  was  not  present  himself  when  the  grave 
was  opened.  Hearsay  evidence  of  this  kind  is  worthless.  Objects  found  near  each 
other  are  frequently  slated  to  have  been  found  together.  It  was  possibly  a  case  of 
•a  secondary  interment. 


have  been  on  a  standing  stone,  no  longer  in  existence.  The  examples  at 
Hollows  Tower,  Dumfriesshire,  are  on  a  stone  now  used  as  a  door-sill. 

It  thus  appears  that,  with  the  exception  of  the  three  rock-surfaces 
previously  mentioned,  examples  of  archaic  spirals  in  Scotland  and  England 
are  associated  with  sepulchral  monuments,  or  with  megalithic  structures, 
as  distinguished  from  rocks  and  boulder-stones.  When  we  include  con- 
centric circles,  and  can  thus  extend  the  number  of  examples,  this  associa- 
tion becomes,  as  I  have  said,  significant. 

Cup-and-circle  markings,  with  and  without  radial  grooves,  are 
numerous  on  rock-surfaces  and  erratic  boulders  in  Scotland  and  England; 
but  plain  concentric  circles  are  extremely  rare.  I  have  failed  to  find  a 
single  example  without  the  central  cup  in  the  large  volume  of  plates  of 
"Incised  Markings  on  Stone,"  published  under  the  direction  of  the  late 
Duke  of  Northumberland.  Again,  in  Simpson's  plates,  the  only  example 
of  plain  concentric  circles  on  a  rock-surface  or  a  boulder-stone  is  one  of 
two  concentric  rings  on  a  rock  at  Berwick.  The  remainder  of  the 
surface  is  covered  with  cup-and-circle  markings,  the  majority  of  which 
have  radial  grooves.  A  series  of  cup-and-ring  markings,  recently  pub- 
lished from  Kirkcudbrightshire,  numbering  thirty-four  figures,  and 
embracing  probably  over  two  hundred  examples,  includes  but  four  cases 
of  plain  concentric  rings.1 

I  may  have  overlooked  some  instances,  but  it  will  be  seen  from  the 
preceding  statements  how  extremely  rare  plain  concentric  circles  are  on 
this  class  of  monuments.  When  we  turn  to  the  incised  cist  stones  we 
find  that  the  contrary  is  the  case. 

On  a  cist  cover  at  Cragie  Hill,  Linlithgowshire,  there  are  carved  nine 
groups  of  concentric  circles.  Of  this  number  two  show  cups — one  is 
doubtful — and  in  the  centres  of  the  remaining  six  there  are  no  cup- 

At  Caerlowrie,  Edinburgh  shire,  a  cist  cover  was  found  incised  with 
"three  series  at  least  of  concentric  circles,"  each  set  composed  of  five 
concentric  circles.  It  is  not  stated  whether  these  had  central  cups 
or  not.3 

At  Carnwath,  Lanarkshire,  a  cist  cover  is  incised  with  three  groups 
of  plain  concentric  circles,  and  some  triangular  cuttings.4 

At  Cunninghar,  Tillicoultry,  near  Stirling,  a  cist  cover  was  found, 
incised  with  several  groups  of  plain  concentric  circles.  In  the  cist  was  a 
richly  decorated  urn,  of  the  "  food- vessel"  type.  The  interment  is  ascribed 
to  the  Bronze  Age.  This  example  is,  therefore,  important  as  an  indepen- 
dent check  on  the  period  in  which  concentric  circle  markings  are  to  be 

At  High  Hucklow,  Derbyshire,  a  fragment  of  a  slab,  probably  an 

1  Proc.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  xxix.          2  Simpson,  p.  7,  pi.  xv. 

3  Simpson,  p.  28.  4  proc<  goc   ^nt.  gcoti>  Vol.  x.,  p.  62. 

5  Proc.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot.,  vol.  xxix.,  p.  190. 


urn  cover,  has  cut  on  it  a  group  of  seven  concentric  circles  without  central 
cup.1  Two  slabs  found  in  a  tumulus  at  Came  Down,  Dorsetshire, 
associated  with  an  urn  and  calcined  bones,  had  a  group  of  concentric 
circles  cut  on  each  of  them,  also  without  central  cups.2 

Cist  stones  and  urn  covers  are  very  rarely  sculptured  in  any  way. 
They  have  been  occasionally  found  with  cup  and  cup-and-circle  markings, 
in  some  in  stances  with  radial  grooves  (Simpson,  pp.  27-31).  But,  though 
rare  as  a  class,  the  preceding  examples  show  that  in  proportion  to  the 
number  of  examples,  plain  concentric  circles  are  common  on  cist  stones, 
where;) s.  as  already  stated,  they  are  extremely  rare  on  rock-surfaces  and 

Taking  this  fact  in  connexion  with  the  association  in  so  many  cases 
of  the  spiral  with  sepulchral  and  megalithic  structures,  and  the  associa- 
tion of  the  spiral  with  concentric  circles  on  the  Maughunby  stone  and  the 
(Jalder  stones,  we  can  say  that  the  spiral  and  concentric  circles  are  to  be 
expected  on  tumuli  and  cist  stones,  but  are  to  be  regarded  as  exceptional 
on  rock-surfaces  and  boulder-stones. 

There  appears  to  be  no  reason  to  believe  that  the  prevailing  associa- 
tion of  the  spiral  and  concentric  circles  with  megalithic  structures,  as 
distinguished  from  rocks  and  boulder-stones,  is  due  to  the  appropriation 
of  those  forms  of  markings  to  a  particular  class  of  monuments.  The  co- 
existence of  spirals,  concentric  circles,  cups,  and  cup-and-circles,  on  the 
Calder  stones  ;  the  presence  of  cup-and-circle  markings  in  company  with 
plain  concentric  circles  on  cist  stones ;  and  the  occasional  occurrence  of 
the  cup-aud-circle  with  radial  groove,  in  association  with  interments;  as 
also  the  presence  of  the  spiral  on  rock-surfaces,  shows  that  no  strict 
division  of  types  can  be  made  according  to  class  of  monument. 

The  evidence,  though  less  clear  than  in  Ireland,  seems  to  tend  to 
similar  conclusions :  namely,  that  the  spiral  and  concentric  circle  were 
introduced  into  Scotland  and  England  in  the  Bronze  Age,  and  are  to  be 
associated,  in  the  first  instance,  with  the  sepulchral  monuments  of  that 
period  ;  that  the  concentric  circles  on  the  cist  stones  represent  the  tradi- 
tion of  the  spiral  ornament  or  symbol ;  and  that,  some  time  after  the 
introduction  of  the  spiral  and  concentric  circle,  when  the  custom  of  com- 
bining the  circle  with  the  cup-mark,  or  of  emphasising  the  centres  of 
circles  by  the  cup-mark,  had  become  general,  the  practice  of  incising 
these  markings  was  extended  to  rock-surfaces  and  boulder-stones;  lastly, 
that  the  cup-and-circle,  with  gutter  or  radial  grooves — a  type  common 
on  rocks  and  boulder-stones,  but  rare  on  sepulchral  stones — is  probably 
the  latest  of  the  series. 


Concerning  the  origin  of  the  type  of  the  cup-and-circle  with  gutter 
leading  from  the  cup,  I  have  not  succeeded  in  finding  a  satisfactory  clue. 

1  Simpson,  p.  62.        2  Warne's  "  Celtic  Tumuli  of  Dorset,"  p.  36.    Simpson,  pi.  xii. 



Isolated  cups  are  frequently  joined  by  channels  or  gutters,  and  in  many 
instances  several  cups  are  connected  together  by  a  system  of  gutters, 
without  any  apparent  definite  plan  or  purpose.  This  is  also  the  case- 

with  cup-and-circle  markings. 
The  grooves  or  gutters  from 
the  cups  of  the  hitter  fre- 
quently connect  with  other 
cup  -  and  -  circles,  sometimes 
with  complex  ramifications. 

The  cup  with  concentric 
circles  and  single  radial  groove 
leading  out  from  the  cup  is, 
however,  definite  in  form,  and 
is,  apparently,  the  key  to  the 
question.  In  some  instances 

Fig.  95. — (After  Holmberg.) 

two  or  more  radial  grooves- 
occur  ;  as,  for  example,  at 
Mevagh,  county  Donegal ; l  and,  in  some  other  instances,  the  enclosing 
circles  are  stopped  or  gapped  along  a  radius ;  so  that  the  groove  to  the- 
cup  is  replaced  by  what  may  be  described  as  a  path. 

Some  remarkable  cup-and-ring  sculptures  at  Ilkley,  Yorkshire,  have 
recently  been  published  by  Mr.  Romilly  Allen.2  They  show  two  grooves 
proceeding,  in  most  cases,  from  one  of  the  inner  rings  surrounding  the 
cup — rarely  from  the  cup  itself.  These  grooves  are  prolonged  beyond 
the  outer  ring,  and  the  space  between  them  is  barred  across  like  a  ladder- 
This  type  has  not  been  observed  in  Ireland. 

Mr.  Allen  seeks  to  connect  this  and  the  usual  gutter  type  with 
certain  conventional  or  symbolical  representations  of  men  in  the  rock- 
sculptures  of  Sweden.  Fig.  95,  after  Holmberg,  indicates  the  line  of 
Mr.  Allen's  inquiry.  The  figures  can  be  related  to  figures  of  men  with 
rayed  heads,  in  ships,  on  the  small  bronze  knives  found  in  women's 
graves  in  Denmark  ;  and  Mr. 
Allen  draws  the  deduction  that 
"the  cup-and-ring  is  the  symbol 
of  some  deity,  perhaps  the  Sun- 
god,  who  is  indicated  by  substi- 
tuting a  cup-and-ring  for  his 

This  is,  I  think,  the  most  sug- 

Fig.  96. — Fiinen. 

gestive  line  of  inquiry  that  has  as  yet  been  opened  concerning  the  so- 
mysterious  markings.  Mr.  Allen  further  illustrates  a  figure  from 
Ilkley,  which  seems  "  to  have  been  suggested  by  a  cord  following  a 
winding  path  round  a  series  of  fixed  pins."  It  takes  the  form  of  a  sort 

1  Kinahan,  L  c.,  fig.  3. 

2  The  Reliquary  and  Illustrated  Archaeologist,  vol.  ii.,  p.  65. 

3  Ibid.,  p.  82. 


of  curved  swastica.  This  and  allied  forms  are  found  on  Mycenaean  and 
Danish  metal  work,  and  an  almost  identical  figure  occurs  on  a  rock 
at  Tossene,  Sweden  (Holmherg).  It  is  remarkahle  how  the  evidence- 
seems  closing  in  for  Bronze  Age  relations  between  Scandinavia  and 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland. 

There  is  a  series  of  Scandinavian  patterns  which  it  is  desirable  to 
notice  in  this  connexion.  These  patterns  are  found  chiefly  on  bronze 
vases  from  the  old  Danish  lands  of  the  later  Bronze  Age.  Pig.  96 
appears  to  be  derived  from  the  spiral,  but  the  connecting  lines  have 
ceased  to  be  tangential  ;  figs.  97-101  show  the  influence  of  other 
motives.1  In  all  these  examples  we  see  the  tendency  to  terminate  the 
free  lines  of  the  pattern  by  concentric  circles.  This  suggests  the  pos- 
sibility that  many  of  the -lines  connecting  groups  of  concentric  circles, 
and  the  branching  systems  of  these  sculptures  on  rock-surfaces,  as  also  on 
some  of  the  Loughcrew  stones,  represent  the  rude  execution  of  the  same 

Tli is  idea  is  helped  out  by  a  form  of  ornament  frequently  found  on 
celts,  with  more  or  less  quadrangular  sockets,  found  in  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland  (figs.  102-105).  These  celts  belong  to  the  end  of  the  Bronze 
Age.  Thus  we  see  the  analogies  of  form  for  the  cup -and- circle  with 
radial  groove,  fall  in  with  the  evidence  of  the  monuments,  pointing  to 
the  late  appearance  of  this  form  of  sculptures. 


The  subject  of  symbolism  has  been  avoided  in  the  preceding  sections. 
Patterns  and  forms  have  been  considered  solely  with  regard  to  the  con- 
ventionalisation of  ornament,  and  diffusion  by  copies  and  copies  of  copies. 
It  is  desirable,  in  bringing  this  essay  to  a  close,  that  the  question  of 
symbolic  meaning  should  be  briefly  discussed,  more  by  way  of  caution 
than  of  exposition. 

The  lotus,  Professor  Flinders  Petrie  states,  "  was  not  a  sacred  plant'* 
in  Egypt.2 

This  statement  seems  to  be  at  variance  with  the  views  of  Maspero  and 
other  writers,  who  regard  the  lotus  as  symbolical  of  life,  resurrection, 
and  immortality.  Apart  from  the  disputed  question  of  the  definite 
symbolism  of  the  lotus,  the  discussion  of  which  would  take  us  too  far,  it 
may  be  claimed  that  the  frequent  representation  of  lotus  offerings,  lotus 
sceptres,  lotus  amulets,  the  association  of  the  flower  with  the  solar  disc, 
the  representations  of  the  sun  rising  from  a  lotus,  and  other  analogous 
uses  of  the  flower,  imply  a  sacred  adoption  of  the  flower  which  cannot 
be  explained  on  decorative  principles,  though  it  may  not  be  always  easy 
to  distinguish  between  its  religious  and  its  decorative  use. 

1  For  references,  see  Montelius,  "  Manadsblad,"  1881,  p.  69. 

2  "Egyptian  Decorative  Art,"  p.  106. 

Fig.  97.— Scania. 

Fig.  98.— Scania.  Fig.  99.— Smaland. 

Fig.  100.— Jutland. 

Fig.  101.— Fiinen. 

Fig.  102.— R.I.A.  Fig.  103.— R.I. A.        Fig.  104.— Yorkshire.       Fig.  105.— R.I.  A. 

(Half-size.)  (Half-size.)  (After  Evans.)       (Petrie  Coll.)    (Half  size.) 


The  intimate  association  of  the  lotus  and  the  spiral,  which  forms  so 
prominent  a  feature  in  the  decoration  of  the  XVIII.  -XIX.  Dynasties, 
was  not  preserved  in  the  spread  of  spiral  patterns  to  the  north  of  Europe. 
I  have  "been  able  to  discover  only  one  example  in  Scandinavia  in  which 
the  survival  of  the  lotus  motive  can  be  traced  (fig.  44).  The  spiral  has 
become  the  ruling  feature  of  the  patterns.  To  this  the  spread  of  the 
earlier  JGgean  spiral  system  of  the  scarabs  may  have  contributed. 

No  definite  symbolic  meaning  can  be  alleged  for  the  Bronze  Age 
spiral,  but  it  is  not  improbable  that  some  talisman  ic  power  was  attributed 
to  it.  The  combination  of  three  spirals  is  confidently  recognised  by  some 
archaeologists  as  the  solar  symbol  known  as  the  triskele.  But  as  there  is 
no  evidence  that  the  tetraskele  or  svasticar  the  solar  significance  of  which 
has  been  established,1  and  of  which  the  triskele  is  a  variant,  had  reached 
the  north  in  the  spiral  period,  I  do  not  see  that  the  spiral  triskele  rests 
on  any  surer  ground  than  a  resemblance  of  form.  The  filling  of  a 
triangular  space  by  six  spirals  may  be  instanced  in  fig.  44,  and  the  reduc- 
tion of  the  spirals  to  three  seems  fully  accounted  for  by  decorative  fitness 
without  calling  in  the  aid  of  symbolism. 

There  is  no  reason  to  doubt  that  the  cross 
in  circle  is  a  sun  smbol.     As  Count  Goblet      f  ,  J 


^^^  __ 

,  J         (•)  \^J, 

*£\        l\\  '•   •   \ 
£     \      I  \  ,* 

d'Alviella  tells  us  —  "  Amongst  the  Assyrians 

themselves  the  equilateral  cross,  as  denoting 

the  main  directions  in  which  the  sun  shines, 

became  also  the  symbol  of  the  luminary,  and  Fig-  106. 

consequently   here,    again,    of  the   god   who 

governs   it.      It  was   the   same   with   the  Chaldeans,   the    Hindus,  the 

Greeks,  the  Persians,    and,    perhaps,   with  the  Gauls,   and  the  ancient 

civilizers  of  Northern  America."2 

It  must  not  be  supposed  from  this  that  all  crosses  are  solar  symbols. 
But  the  union  of  the  cross  with  the  solar  disc,  in  the  cross  in  circle,'  and 
the  fact  that  the  centre  of  these  specialised  forms  of  symbolism  lies  to 
the  south-east  of  the  Mediterranean,  and  from  thence  spread  northward 
and  westward  through  Europe,  along  lines  followed,  it  would  seem,  more 
tardily  by  the  swastica,  is  sufficiently  conclusive  as  to  the  meaning  of  the 
cross  and  circle  in  Northern  ICurope.  With  the  latter  are  to  be  associated 
various  wheel,  star,  and  rayed  forms.  But  to  decide  as  to  the  distinctions 
of  meaning  which  may  have  been  attached  to  these  different  forms,  we 
have  not,  I  think,  at  present  evidence.3 

The  rayed  cup-and-circle  as  found  at  Loughcrew  (fig.  79)  is  no  doubt 
a  solar  symbol.  The  solar  disc  with  rays  proceeding  downwards  is  a 
well-known  Egyptian  sign  for  the  sun  and  light4  (fig.  106).  With  these 

1  Goblet  d'Alviella,   "  Migration  of  Symbols."  2  Ibid, 

3  The  cross  in  circle  occurs  on  pre-Mycenaean  pottery.     It  goes  back  to  the  Stone 
Age  in  Scandinavia  (Peterson,   "Mem.  Soc.  R.  des  Antiq.  du  Nord.,"  1877,  p.  330), 
but  it  is  not  found  in  general  use  until  the  later.  Bronze  Age. 

4  Champollion,  "  Dictionnaire  Egyptienne." 

.TOUR.   U.S.  A.  I.,   VOL.  VII.,  VT.  I.,   5TH   SER.  E 


examples  may  be  compared  (fig.  107)  from  Loughcrew,1  and  simplified 
forms  (fig.  108),  also  from  Loughcrew.2 

These  instances  seem  to  suggest  that  the  cup-and-circle  is  a  solar 
symbol.  But  the  inference  cannot  be  narrowed  so  clo§ely.  It  is  true 
that  Worsaae  accepts  concentric  circles  as  a  sun 
sign,  but  in  Europe  concentric  circles  represent 
for  the  most  part  the  spiral.  Until,  therefore, 
some  agreement  has  been  arrived  at  concerning 

w     the  question   of  the  symbolism  of  the  spiral,  it 

/  jf £*  1*1*^*       cannot  be   assumed  that  concentric  circles  have, 
*  9    l\  1     •  in  all  cases,  a  solar  meaning.   Moreover,  the  cup- 

*  •*  mark   itself,    extending   behind    the    spiral  and 

p-^  1()7 Loughcrew.     concentric  circle,  has  to  be  explained.     It  thus 

appears  that  whereas  rayed  cup-and-circles,  and 

in  many  instances  the  cup-and-circle,  may  be  correctly  explained  as  sun 
signs,  it  by  no  means  follows  that  all  cup-and-circles  are  to  be  so 

Further  we  cannot  venture  at  present  with  safety.  At  the  same  time 
it  is  difficult  to  escape  from  the  impression  that  some  scheme  of  association 
underlies  the  markings  on  some  of  the  stones  at  Loughcrew,  pertaining 
to  religious  myth,  or  the  life  stories  of  the  persons  who  were  buried 
there.  A  comparison  is  suggested  with  petroglyphs  and  pictographs  of 
America,  so  exhaustively  illustrated  by  Colonel  Mallery  in  the  "Tenth 
Annual  Report,  Bureau  of  Ethnology,"  Washington. 

Concerning  cup-marks,  Dr.  Charles  Rau  has  brought  together  a  number 
of  superstitions  in  relation  to  cupped  stones  still  in  vogue  among  the 
peasantry  of  different  European  countries.  In  Sweden  cupped  stones 
are  called  elfstenar,  or  elfstones.  Offerings  of  a  trifling  nature — a 
button,  a  coin,  a  flower,  or  a  ribbon — are  deposited  in  the  cups.  In  cases 
of  sickness  some  object  worn  by  the  sick  person  is  deposited.  A 
Swedish  proprietor  who  had  caused  an  elfstone  to  be  transported  to  his 
park,  found  a  few  days  afterwards  small  sacrificial  gifts  lying  in  the  cups. 

In   the   church    of 

Voanas,  Ain,  is  a  large      '  •  *  ^-^        ^  Q 

stone,  called  La  Pierre    ',@x       ~,  VT^      $!>      **»        /& 
de    Saint  -  Loup,    into  '  * 

which  sick  and  impo-  Fig.  108.— Details,  Loughcrew. 

tent  persons  grind  holes 

and  drink  the  pulverised  matter,  which,  as  they  believe,  cures  fevers  and 
renews  the  vital  strength.  Another  stone,  known  as  La  Pierre  de  Saint- 
Clement,  same  department,  is  used  for  the  same  purpose.  A  cupped  stone, 
called  the  JBischofs- Stein,  near  Niemegk,  Brandenburg,  Prussia,  is  visited 

1  Stone  on  Patricksto-wn  Hill. 

2  Cairn  T,  stones  x,  d,  h,  b  ;  Cairn  s,  stone  d;  Cuirn  i,  stone  c. 


by  patients  and  quack  doctors,  who  rub  it  with  grease  in  order  to  bring 
about  cures.  Cup-marks  are  found  on  many  churches  in  Germany,  Swit- 
zerland, and  Sweden.  Sometimes  they  are  partially  executed  on  the 
mortar,  showing  that  they  were  made  after  the  erection  of  the  churches. 
Healing  properties  are  generally  attributed  to  them.  Fever-sick  persons 
blow,  as  it  were,  the  disease  into  the  cavities,  or  patients  swallow  the 
powder  produced  in  grinding  out  the  cups.  In  a  few  instances  the  inside 
of  cups  on  German  churches  exhibited  traces  of  grease.  On  the  other 
hand,  in  Posen  a  tradition  refers  the  cups  to  the  souls  of  the  damned, 
who  during  lifetime  never  had  visited  the  churches.  They  ground  out 
the  cavities  during  the  night,  and  left  them  as  tokens  of  despair.1 

Cartailhac  mentions  that  in  the  department  of  Ain,  when  young 
women  and  widows  make  a  pilgrimage  to  the  ancient  chapel  of  Saint- 
Blaise,  they  pass  by  Thoys,  near  a  small  erratic  bearing  sixty  cup-sculp- 
tures, at  which  they  practise  certain  ceremonies  to  obtain  marriage 
within  the  year.2 

The  preceding  folk-superstitions  are  interesting  in  themselves,  but  it 
is  doubtful  if  they  furnish  any  evidence  as  regards  the  original  meaning 
of  cupped  stones.  In  some  instances  they  appear  to  lend  colour  to 
Eivett-Carnac's  theory  ;  but  the  fact  that  cup-sculptures  are  found  in 
-all  sorts  of  positions,  horizontal  and  vertical,  and  again  in  closed  tumuli 
where  access  was  not  possible,  renders  any  inference  from  cup  offerings 
or  the  anointing  of  cups  of  slender  value.  In  handling  folk-traditions 
much  caution  is  necessary.  Prehistoric  remains  are  almost  invariably 
-endowed  by  the  peasantry  with  supernatural  and  magic  powers.  Stone 
celts  are  thunderbolts,  flint  arrow-heads  elf -darts.  As  such  they  are 
potent  charms.  Thus,  as  Rau  remarks,  "  what  was  originally  an  object 
•employed  in  daily  life,  became  in  course  of  time  a  charm." 

On  the  subject  of  cup  sculptures  in  America,  Colonel  Mallery  writes : — 
"  Inquiries  have  often  been  made  whether  the  North  American  Indians 
have  any  superstitions  or  religious  practices  connected  with  the  markings 
under  consideration,  e.g.,  in  relation  to  the  desire  for  offspring,  which 
undoubtedly  is  connected  with  the  sculpturing  of  cup  depressions  and 
furrows  in  the  eastern  hemisphere.  No  evidence  is  yet  produced  of  any 
such  correspondence  of  practice  or  tradition  relating  to  it."3 

In  America  several  groups  of  cup-and-ring  markings  have  been  re- 
corded, resembling  closely  British  and  Irish  types,  notably  in  Georgia, 

1  Rau,  I.e.,  pp.  86-89. 

2  "La  France  Prehistorique,"  p.  247.     Superstitions,  more  or  less  similar,  are 
recorded  for  Scotland,  Proc.  Soc.  Ant.,  Scot.,  vol.  xviii.,  p.  126 ;  and  see  references  in 
note,   vol.  xxvii.,   p.  452  ;    also  for  Ireland,  Wakeman's    "  Inismurray,"   p.   121  ; 
Stone  of   St.  Hugh,  of  Rahue  (Journal,  U.S. A. I.,  5th  Ser.,  vol.  vi.,  p.  332).     No 
attempt  has  yet  been  made  to  collect  the  superstitions  connected  with  cupped-stones 
in  Ireland. 

3  Picture-writing  of  the  American  Indians  :  "  Report  of  the  Bureau  of  Ethnology," 
Smithsonian  Institution,  1888-1889,  p.  199. 



Maryland,  California,  Venezuela,  and  Brazil.  They  include  examples 
with  radial  and  connecting  grooves.  The  spiral  is  also  frequently  pre- 
sent. Little  progress  has  as  yet  been  made  in  elucidating  the  meaning 
of  these  markings.  It  is  possible  that  working  from  the  known  elements 
of  picture-writing  in  America,  an  explanation  may  be  discovered  in  par- 
ticular instances.  Such  explanations,  if  forthcoming,  could  not,  however, 
be  considered  as  evidence  for  European  examples.  Until  a  connexion 
can  be  shown  independent  of  resemblance  of  form,  similarity  of  meaning 
must  not  be  assumed. 

I  cannot  more,  fitly  conclude  the  present  Paper  than  by  quoting 
Colonel  Mallery's  conclusions  on  this  point.  Summarizing  the  result  of 
his  studies  upon  American  petroglyphs  as  distinct  from  other  forms  of 
picture-writing,  he  writes : — "  Perhaps  the  most  important  lesson  learned 
from  these  studies  is  that  no  attempt  should  be  made  at  symbolic  inter- 
pretation unless  the  symbolic  natiire  of  the  particular  characters  under 
examination  is  known,  or  can  be  logically  inferred  from  independent 
facts.  To  start  with  a  theory,  or  even  an  hypothesis,  that  the  rock 
writings  are  all  symbolic,  and  may  be  interpreted  by  the  imagination  of 
the  observer,  or  by  translation  either  from  or  into  known  symbols  of 
similar  form  found  in  other  regions,  were  a  limitless  delusion."  l 

Loc.  tit.,  p.  768. 



TPiETAiLED  descriptions  of  gold  lunulae,  of  which  the  Museum  of  the 
Royal  Irish  Academy  contains  an  unrivalled  collection,  have  not 
yet  appeared  in  the  pages  of  this  Journal.  Examples  are  also  preserved 
in  the  British  Museum,  and  in  the  National  Museum  of  Antiquities, 
Edinburgh ;  there  is  one  in  the  Belfast  Museum,  three  at  least  remain  in 
private  collections,  and  two  are  recorded  found  in  France.  They  are  termed 
in  Irish  tales,  *'  Minn-oir,"  or  "  Minds  "  ;  the}*  are  composed  of  thin  plates 
of  hammered  gold,  of  crescentic  shape — the  borders  usually  decorated  by 
linear  or  angular  patterns,  forming  various  figures,  triangles,  squares, 
and  decussations,  arranged  to  produce  symmetrical  designs ;  similar 
ornamentation  is  repeated  on  the  cornua  of  these  crescents,  arranged 
transversely  and  corresponding  on  either  side.  The  bordering  lines,  and 
longer  markings  were  produced  by  a  sharp  graving  tool,  whilst  those  of 
smaller  extent  are  formed  by  chisel-shaped  punches,  for  the  depressions 
so  caused  are  perceptible  as  distinct  elevations  on  the  reversed  side  of 
the  metal  plate.  One  of  the  specimens  preserved  in  the  Royal  Irish 
Academy  Museum  differs  from  the  rest  in  its  decorations,  which  consist  of 
numerous  small  circular-punched  markings,  arranged  to  produce  definite 
patterns ;  this  is  exceptional,  for  in  all  other  instances  the  ornamenta- 
tion was  formed  by  combinations  of  straight  lines,  more  or  less  prolonged. 
No  two  lunulaj  are  alike,  they  differ  in  weight,  in  the  height  of  the 
crescent,  its  transverse  breadth,  and  the  size  of  the  inner  cavity,  which 
is  more  or  less  circular  in  outline :  such  measurements,  being  liable  to 
variation,  are  recorded  hereafter  when  describing  the  separate  lunulae. 

The  ornamental  patterns,  whilst  preserving  a  certain  general  art 
resemblance,  vary  in  details,  and  are  essentially  different  in  their  arrange- 
ment and  execution.  At  either  extremity  the  crescents  terminate  in 
small  flat  appendages  of  rounded  or  discoid  form,  placed  at  right  angles 
with  the  plane  of  the  lunula,  approximating  to  the  size  of  a  sixpence. 
In  several  of  the  lunulge  curved  lines  are  engraved  along  the  borders  of 
the  crescents  with  such  precision  that  they  must  have  been  formed  by 
skilful  workmen,  with  the  assistance  of  a  guiding  outline,  or  some  similar 
arrangement  to  direct  the  course  of  the  graver's  tool,  for  the  curves  are 
drawn  with  remarkable  accuracy ;  some  display  the  highest  style  of 


ornamentation;  others  are  less  elaborate,  having  patterns  made  by  small 
punched  indentations,  and  a  very  few  are  without  markings.  Regarded  as- 
a  whole,  the  style  of  decoration  employed  represents  a  class  of  ornament 
that  must  be  considered  distinctive,  and  which  was  accepted  at  the  time 
as  correct  and  fashionable  for  such  golden  coronets ;  somewhat  like  the 
present  custom  of  ornamenting  the  back  of  watch  cases  with  an  engine- 
turned  pattern,  more  a  conventional  matter  of  taste  than  dependent  on 
any  possible  utility,  or  referable  to  any  special  aesthetic  development  of 
the  race  of  people  who  wore  them. 

An  inspection  of  the  illustrations  given  will  explain  better  than 
mere  description  the  character  of  these  gold  lunula?,  and  their  style  of 

Bishop  Pococke,  in  1773,  was  the  first  person  who  applied  the  term 

From  Gold  Lunula  belonging  to  Sir  Montague 
Chapman,  Bart. 

lunulae  to  these  objects  (see  "  ArchaBologia," 
vol.  ii.,  p.  36) ;  he  there  stated  :  tl  Many  such 
have  been  found  in  Ireland,  some  flat  and 
plain,  others  crimpled  and  like  a  fan";  the 
latter  portion  of  his  statement  is  explained 
by  Sir  William  Wilde,  who  remarked,  such 
"  crimpling  was  caused  by  the  spoiler  when 
concealing  them,  or  the  finder  wlio  wished  to  lessen  their  bulk  for 
convenient  carriage." 

An  early  reference  to  the  wearing  of  lunulae  by  women  is  pre- 
served in  the  Book  of  Leinster  (see  Professor  Atkinson's  Introduction, 
p.  51).  It  is  the  legend  of  the  Robber  Gorman  Mac  Bomma  Licce,  who 
in  spite  of  severe  enactments  against  theft,  and  during  the  "Truce  of 
God,"  at  the  Feast  of  Teamair,  stole  the  queen's  golden  diadem  from 
the  Royal  Palace,  and  carried  it  off  to  Inber  Slaine,  in  the  south-west  of 
Ireland.  The  king's  name  was  Cathair-Mor,  who  was  slain  A.D.  177. 
The  same  story  is  found  in  the  Books  of  Ballymote  and  of  Lecan,  so  that 
it  may  claim  the  respectable  antiquity  of  transmission  in  legendary  form 
for  about  one  thousand  years  before  the  earliest  of  those  books  was 

Lunula  No.  32. 
Royal  Irish  Academy  Collection.     Found  1890,  in  Co.  Wi-stmeath. 

Xo.   1. 
Denarius  of  Julia  Miinnn;ea. 

No.  2. 
Denarius  of  Marcia  Otacilia  Severa. 


We  can  refer  to  the  "  Silva  Gadelica,"  of  Standish  H.  O'Grady,  for 
those  who  are  not  Irish  scholars,  upon  the  employment  of  gold  ornaments 
by  females  for  their  head-dress.  Thus,  in  the  often  quoted  legend  of  the 
two  Queens  of  King  Dermot,  one  of  them  being  Maireen,  who  is  also 
sui named  "  Mael,"  or  Bald,  and  the  other  Mughair,  a  daughter  of 
Conchraid,  son  of  Duach  (of  the  men  of  Munster),  the  latter,  who  is 
represented  as  jealous  of  Maireen,  bribed  a  female  jester  to  remove  from 
Maireen's  head  her  gear  of  gold,  and  presumably  with  it  some  artificial 
hair  which  she  habitually  wore  .to  conceal  her  defect,  whereupon 
Maireen  cried,  "  God  and  St.  Kieran  help  me  at  this  need,"  and  forth- 
with "glossy  convoluted  golden -sheeny  hair"  fell  down  to  her  very 
shoulders.  Whatever  else  this  story  tells  us  we  obtain  from  the  mention 
of  the  saint,  Kieran,  the  Carpenter's  Son,  a  date  of  some  importance  for 
working  out  the  history  of  these  ornaments.  The  saint  was  born  in 
A.D.  515,  and  his  death  is  recorded  as  having  taken  place  about  A.D.  548  ; 
and  the  king  represented  is  Diarmid,  son  of  Fergus  Cearbhall,  who  was 
slain  at  Rathbeg,  county  Antrim,  in  A.D.  565. 

Another  story,  that  of  Prince  Cano,  contains  references  to  the  use  of 
these  "  Minns ";  this  can  be  consulted  in  O'Curry's  "Manners  and 
Customs  of  the  Ancient  Irish,"  vol.  iii.,  p.  620.  It  brings  down  the 
date  of  their  being  worn  to  A.D.  620. 

Again,  in  the  wooing  of  Becfola,  in  the  reign  of  Dermot,  Aedh 
Slaine's  son  (see  "Silva  Gadelica"),  mention  is  made  of  "Three  Dia- 
dems of  Gold  that  I  left  in  keeping";  here  we  obtain  an  additional 
date,  for  the  death  of  King  Dermot  (the  second),  son  of  Aedh  Slaine 
the  Second,  took  place  from  the  Plague  called  "  Buide  Connaill,"  which 
happened,  as  stated  in  Rev.  J.  F.  Shearman's  "Loca  Patriciana,"  in  the 
year  A.D.  665  or  666. 

Superficial  erroneous  comparisons  have  sometimes  been  suggested 
between  these  golden  crescents  and  the  coronas  around  the  heads  of 
saints,  and  the  aureolae  of  Byzantine  mediaeval  painters.  The  latter  are 
obviously  drawn  around  the  head  of  the  personage  intended  to  be  repre- 
sented, or  placed  behind  it  for  supernatural  addition,  neither  belonging 
to  the  dress  itself,  nor  attached  to  the  body  of  the  individual  saint,  whilst 
lunulae  are  portions  of  ornamental  attire,  appropriated  to  decorate  the 
hair  of  the  possessor,  and  so  far  as  we  can  judge,  restricted  to  females  of 
position,  for  we  have  no  account  of  men  having  worn  them. 

Their  use  can  be  illustrated  by  comparing  representations  of  a  similar 
class  of  crescentic  ornaments  worn  by  Roman  Empresses,  such  as  are 
figured  on  the  denarii  of  Julia  Mamma3a,  wife  of  Alexander  Severus,  who 
was  assassinated  A.D.  235 ;  or  of  Marcia  Otacilia  Severa,  wife  of  Philip 
the  Elder,  who  died  subsequent  to  the  year  A.D.  249  :  nor  was  their 
employment  restricted  to  this  period  of  Roman  history,  for  we  find 
similar  lunulae  represented  on  some  of  the  family  denarii  preceding 
the  Caesars,  such  as  a  coin  of  L.  Buca,  probably  Quaestor  under  Sulla, 



tmd  on  one  belonging  to  the  Didia  Gens,  of  P.  Fonteius  Capito,  which 
•displays  the  veiled  head  of  the  goddess  Concordia  wearing  a  crescent 
head-dress.  rThese  references  are  sufficient  to  show  that  golden  decora- 
tions of  similar  shape  were  worn  by  females  in  Italy  as  well  as  in 

The  only  recorded  analysis  of  a  gold  lunula  is  that  which  Mr.  J.  W. 
Mallet  has  given  in  the  Trans.  R.I.A.,  vol.  xxii.     It  yielded — 

Gold,  87-67.     Silver,  11-05.     Copper,  0-12. 

The  specific  gravity  was  17-528.  This  result  which  he  obtained  differs 
materially  from  the  analyses  and  specific  gravity  of  genuine  specimens 
of  county  t  Wicklow  gold,  which  appears  to  have  a  very  definite  composi- 
tion. The  specific  gravity  closely  agrees  with  my  determination  of  a 
lunula  belonging  to  Sir  M.  Chapman,  Bart.,  which  I  ascertained  to  be 


91-00     7- 

S.  A  Ichorn,  Mint  Master  in  London  in  1 796       Gold.    Silver, 
(see  Phil.  Trans,  for  that  year),  cal- 
culated  from    analysis    of   a    penny- 
weight which  he  examined, 
Professor  Forbes  in  1869,         .  .  91-01     8'85 

Professor  Church,         .  .  .  92*36     6-17 

J.  W.  Mallet,  92-32     6-17 

|  Copper  and  j 
\  iron  traces.  ) 

Silica,     0-14 
Iron,       0-76 

Next  to  a  chemical  analysis,  the  specific  gravity  of  gold  affords  useful 
•data  for  estimating  its  purity,  particularly  in  the  absence  of  heavy 
metals,  such  as  platinum,  which  are  not  present  in  the  Irish  gold  of 
-county  Wicklow. 


Molesworth,  in  1796,  ascertained  that  Wicklow  gold  was  sp.  gr.  12  ; 
•compared  to  sterling  gold,  sp.  gr.  18. 

Dr.  Kirwan  at  the  same  time  gave  a  ratio  of  13  ;  compared  to  sterling- 
gold,  18. 

Forbes,  in  1869,  found  its  density  range  from  14-34  to  15-07. 

With  this  closely  agree  the  results  I  obtained  from  careful  estima- 
tion of  two  small  nuggets  in  my  possession;  they  were  sp.  gr.  15*01  and 

The  fine  nugget  of  Wicklow  gold,  weighing  336  grains,  in  posses- 
sion of  T.  H.  Longfield,  Esq.,  has  sp.  gr.  15-51. 

It  is  possible  that  the  specimens  examined  by  Molesworth  and  Kirwan 


were  either  porous,  as  native  gold  often  is,  or  contained  an  appreci- 
able amount  of  included  silica  or  oxide  of  iron.  Whether  we  consider 
the  results  of  analysis,  or  the  ascertained  specific  gravity,  both  are 
opposed  to  our  attributing  the  lunula  examined  by  Mallet  to  native  gold 
obtained  from  the  "Wicklow  mines. 

All  gold  ornaments  found  in  Ireland  may  be  satisfactorily  arranged 
into  three  well-marked  groups,  which  differ  in  relative  purity  of  metal  as 
follows: — Class  No.  1,  yielding  gold  mixed  with  18  to  23  per  cent,  of 
silver;  No.  2,  with  about  10  to  12  per  cent,  of  alloy,  chieliy  silver ;  and 
No.  3,  consisting  of  nearly  pure  metal. 

The  specimens  falling  under  the  first  and  third  classes  are  few  in 
number,  whilst  lunulae,  penannular  rings  of  all  kinds,  and  those  fine 
objects  with  expanded  cup-shaped  extremities  which,  collectively,  form 
the  great  bulk  of  our  antiquities,  belong  to  the  second  class,  and  have  a 
remarkably  definite  composition. 

As  for  the  first  class,  it  approximates  to  the  native  alloy  of  gold  and 
silver  called  electrum,  first  coined  about  500  years  before  our  era  in 
Asia  Minor,  from  gold  ore  obtained  in  the  Cimmerian  Bosphorus,  and 
which  gradually  extended  as  a  circulating  medium  through  Lydia  and  the 
Greek  settlements  of  Asia  Minor  westwards,  until  reaching  Sicily  it  was- 
issued  by  Agathocles  for  coin  in  that  island,  and  finally  spread  to  Gaul, 
and  the  Kentish  shores  of  Britain  before  the  descent  of  Caesar,  B.C.  55  ;. 
where  coins  struck  from  electrum  appear  to  have  circulated  previous  to 
the  striking  of  a  true  gold  coinage.  According  to  Kenyon,  the  earliest 
British  coins  were  made  150  B.C.,  and  were  debased  copies  of  pieces  struck 
by  Philip  of  Macedon. 

There  are  two  important  analyses  by  Mallet  of  fragments  of  gold 
torques  from  the  collection  of  the  Koyal  Irish  Academy,  with  the 
following  results  : — 

Gold.  Silver.  Copper.  Sp.  Gr. 

No.  1,  .  .  71-54  23-67  4-62  15-377 

No.  2,  .  .  79-48  18-01  2-48  15-444 

Another  analysis  recently  made  by  Mr.  E.  A.  Smith  (Proa.  R.  I,  A., 
May,  1896)  agrees  so  closely  with  No.  1  of  Mallet,  that  it  would 
appear  to  be  made  from  another  portion  of  the  same  fragment  of  a 

AVe  have  in  the  -'Book  of  Leinster"  a  poem  in  praise  of  the  Palace- 
of  Ailinn,  county  Kildare. 

deuipc  6ip  a  cipib  gall.     (H2  18,  f.  27,  a.  b.) 
("  The  Torques  of  Gold  from  foreign  lands.") 

O'Curry  (vol.  iii.,  p.  182),  terms  this  a  remarkable  passage  "  because- 
its  authority  states  that  the  articles  there  mentioned  were  of  foreign 

ON    GOLD    LUNULJE.  59 

manufacture."  Mallet,  as  the  result  of  his  researches  on  Irish  gold 
ornaments  generally,  admits  it  as  "  conceivable  "  the  gold  may  have  been 
found  here,  "  though  its  quantity  would  seem  to  indicate  foreign  com- 
merce as  the  more  likely  channel  by  which  it  was  procured."  Substituting 
foreign  raids  for  commerce,  of  which  we  have  little  or  no  evidence,  and 
putting  aside  the  exact  composition  of  the  metal  found  in  these  "torques" 
for  future  investigation,  I  believe  it  can  be  established  that  the  principal 
source  whence  our  gold  was  derived  for  making  personal  ornaments  was 
the  plunder  of  Roman  Britain  during  its  successive  recorded  devastations 
by  Irish  invasions,  and  the  metal  already  standardised  and  coined  into 
Roman  aurei  of  definite  weight,  was  subsequently  converted  into  rings 
and  other  decorative  objects.  As  coin,  it  would  be  useless  in  Ireland  where 
money  never  circulated  until  small  silver  pieces  were  struck  about  the 
tenth  century,  by  the  Danish  princes,  and  none  subsequently  until  this 
country  was  invaded  by  the  Anglo-Normans.  If  hereafter  clear  evidence 
is  obtained  that  these  torques  of  gold,  which  are  found  not  only  in  Ireland 
and  Britain,  but  in  many  parts  of  the  Continent,  are  formed  from  electrum 
gold  similar  to  those  examined  by  Mallet,  then  it  will  follow  that  they 
are  referable  to  an  earlier  date  than  other  gold  ornaments  of  purer 
composition.  This  will  demand  future  investigation  for  its  definite 
acceptance.  At  all  events  the  great  amount  of  gold  that  was  obtained 
by  Brennus  from  the  Roman  Senate  is  the  first  historic  record  of  its 
being  acquired  by  northern  races  in  sufficient  quantity  to  account  for  its 
subsequent  distribution  amongst  them,  from  Pannonia  possibly  to  Gaul 
and  the  south-east  of  Britain  where  it  circulated  as  money  previous  to  the 
invasion  of  Julius  CaBsar. 

Class  No.  2. — Th<3  next  series  of  analyses  made  by  Mallet  correspond 
with  that  of  the  lunula  he  examined  in  the  relative  amounts  of  gold  and 
silver — 

Gold.  Silver.        Copper.       Lead.         Sp.  Gr. 

Thin  gold  plate,        .        88*72         10-02         Ml  17-332 

Boss  of  diadem,          .        81-10         12-18         5-94         0-28       15-306 

Thin  ring,  .        81-72         12-14         1-16  17-258 

„  .        85-62          12-79          1-47  16-896 

It  is  from  gold  of  this  description  that  Irish  ornaments  appear  to  have 
been  fabricated,  with  few  exceptions.  It  agrees  closely  with  the  coins 
issued  by  Alexander  the  Great  and  his  successors,  and  was  of  the  accepted 
standard  for  purity  subsequently  adopted  by  the  Romans,  which  univer- 
sally replaced  the  electrum  coins  of  earlier  fabrication  and  those  of  almost 
pure  gold  made  by  Darius  and  by  Philip  of  Macedon. 

It  is  difficult  to  obtain  analyses  of  Irish  gold  ornaments,  for  that 
process  necessitates  the  destruction  of  at  least  some  portion  of  a  valuable 
article.  In  its  absence  we  find  the  specific  gravity  a  matter  of  impor- 
tance, as  it  depends  on  the  results  of  simple  accurate  weighing.  I 



append  a  list  of  those  densities  of  the  metal  contained  in  several  gold 
rings,  and  made  with  great  accuracy : — 

Weight  —  grains. 

Sp.  gr. 

Penannular  Rings, 
do.            do. 



do.            do. 



do.            do. 











130,  in  E.I.A. 

3,         ,, 
604  grains. 


Lunula  of  Sir  M.  Chapman, 

This  list  can  be  compared  with  the  specific  gravities  of  some  Roman 
aurei  in  my  possession,  determined  by  Professor  O'Reilly,  M.R.I. A.  : — 

Valentinian  II. 

Theodosius  II., 


Constantius  II., 
Leo,     . 
Justinian,     . 

Sp.  gr. 


Emperor  of  the  West,  A.D.  383. 

Assassinated,  392. 
With  Gratian,  379.     Died,  395. 

Emperor  of  West,  395.     Died  423. 
Augustus,  333.     Died,  351. 
Emperor  of  East,  457.     Died,  474. 
Sole  Emperor,  528.     Died,  565. 

Except  the  above  there  are  few  determinations  recorded  of  the 
specific  gravity  of  Roman  aurei.  Those  described  are  of  purer  metal 
than  we  find  in  Irish  gold  ornaments,  which  might  be  explained  by  the 
ease  with  which  gold^  on  re-melting,  can  be  debased  by  the  addition  of 
a  small  portion  of  silver,  with  profit  to  the  working  goldsmith.  Still 
the  list  is  too  limited  for  accurate  results,  and  the  special  coins  which  it 
is  desirable  to  estimate,  these,  of  Diocletian  and  his  successors,  are  not  in 
my  possession.  As  the  outcome  of  these  investigations,  I  can  assert, 
after  examining  a  large  number  of  gold  articles  of  all  descriptions,  that 
they  are,  without  exception,  derived,  as  to  weight,  from  aurei  of  72  or 
.70  grains  each,  such  as  were  current  from  the  reign  of  the  Emperor 
Diocletian  to  the  fall  of  the  Eastern  Empire,  the  heavier  articles  being 
usually  simple  multiples  of  aurei,  and  the  smaller  ones  either  of  similar 
weight,  or  obtained  from  the  fabrication,  two  or  more,  from  a  given 
amount  of  coined  metal. 

This  is  consonant  with  the  ordinary  practice  of  manufacturing  gold- 
smiths at  all  times,  for  it  was  easier  to  melt  down  coin  of  known  weight 
tmd  purity,  than  to  work  with  metal  in  the  form  of  ore;  and  the  laws  of 

ON  GOLD   LUNUI^E.  61 

all  countries  abound   Avith  restrictions,  of  little    avail,  to  prevent  the 
conversion  of  current  gold  coin  into  other  forms  for  ornaments. 

Class  No.  3. — In  the  following  instances  the  articles  examined  con- 
sisted of  nearly  pure  gold,  the  first  analysis  was  made  by  Mallet,  the 
second  by  Mr.  E.  A.  Smith  :  — 

Gold.     Silver.  Sp.  Gr. 

(Mallet),  twisted  gold  wire,   .  96'90     2'49  (trace  of  copper)     18-593 
(Smith),  fillet  from  sword,     .  98-02     1-98  19-103 

Objects  made  from  gold  of  this  exceptional  purity  are  rare.  The 
fine  chains  of  thin  twisted  wire,  such  as  that  found  attached  to  the 
Tara  brooch  and  similar  articles,  which  resemble  fine  Indian  workman- 
ship, are  probably  almost  pure  gold. 



1. — 7f  inches  across,  5^  inches  clear  in  the  inner  circle,  7£  inches 
high,  and  2£  inches  deep  in  the  broadest  portion.  Weight, 
1  oz.  lOdwt.  11  gr.  Purchased  from  a  dealer. 

2. — 9  inches  across,  5-f-  inches  in  clear  of  hollow,  part  of  which  is  a 
perfect  circle;  2-|-  inches  deep  in  widest  portion  at  top. 
Weight,  3  oz.  2  dwt.  3  gr.  Perfect,  with  the  exception  of 
slight  tear  at  upper  and  inner  edges.  Gold  of  paper  thin- 

•Believed  to  belong  to  the  Academy's  original  collection. 
Presented  by  Lord  Kenmare  in  1778,  and  described  in 
"  MS.  Minute  Book  of  Committee  of  Antiquities,"  vol.  i., 
p.  50.  Said  to  have  been  found  near  Killarney. 

For  description  •  and  woodcut,  see  Wilde's  "Catalogue  of 
Gold  Antiquities,"  p.  11 ;  it  is  also  photographed. 

3. — Wants  terminal  cross-plates,  8|-  inches  broad  by  8  inches  high, 
6£  inches  across  inner  circle,  2  inches  deep  in  broadest  part. 
Weight,  2  oz.  2  dwt. 

From  the  Daw  son  Collection.  Ornament  figured  in  "  Gold 
Catalogue,"  p.  15. 

4. — Half  of  a  small  lunula,  measuring  6£  inches  in  height.  Weight, 
'10  dwt.  11  gr.  Ornament  figured  in  "  Gold  Catalogue," 
p.  15, 

Found  with  JSTos.  8,  9,  and  15,  in  hard  gravel,  apparently 
the  remains  of  au  ancient  togher  or  road  through  a  boggy 
field,  in  the  parish  of  Dunfierth,  barony  of  Carbury,  cpunty 
Kildare.  Near  it  were  found  a  quantity  of  bones  of  large 

5. — The  largest  and  most  ornamented  lunula  in  the  Collection ;  perfect, 
but  in  seven  fragments;  measures  111  inches  broad  by  lOf 



inches  high,  and  is  4  inches  deep  in  the  widest  portions,  remark- 
ably small  in  the  clear,  which  is  only  5f  inches  across.  Weight, 
4  oz.  3dwt.  21  gr.  Ornament  figured  in  "Gold  Catalogue," 
p.  17. 

Found  near  Athlone,  county  Roscommon,  in  1842.  Pre- 
sented hy  Earl  de  Grey,  Lord  Lieutenant.  The  square  ter- 
minal plates  were  subsequently  purchased. 

6. — Perfect,  beautifully  decorated,  having  oblong  terminal  plates  in- 
stead of  circular,  7  inches  high,  6£  inches  across,  5-|-  inches 
in  the  clear,  and  If  inches  deep  at  widest  part.  Weight, 
18  dwt.  2gr.  Figured  in  "Gold  Catalogue,"  p.  14.  Got 
with  the  Dawson  Collection. 

7. — Perfect,  7-f  inches  wide  by  7  inches  high,  5%  inches  in  the 
clear,  and  If  inches  deep.  Weight,  13  dwt.  9  gr.  Pattern 
figured  in  "Gold  Catalogue,"  page  16.  Purchased  from  a 

8. — Found  with  Nos.  4,  9,  and  15,  in  county  Kildare.  Perfect.  It 
was  torn  across  at  the  widest  part,  and  the  second  portion  was 
not  procured  for  many  months  after  the  first.  A  small  portion 
had  been  cut  out  of  the  upper  edge  of  one  fragment  by  the 
finder  to  make  a  ring  for  a  pig's  snout,  fancying  it  was  com- 
posed of  brass. 

8|-  inches  wide  by  8^  inches  high,  6f  inches  in  the  clear,  and 
2f  inches  deep  at  top.  Weight,  2  oz.  4dwts.  14  gr.  See 
"Gold  Catalogue,"  figure,  p.  16. 

9. — Left  limb  of  a  small  narrow  lunula,  7-|  inches  long,  and  1  inch 
broad  in  the  widest  part.  Weight,  4  dwt.  2  gr.  Ornament 
figured  in  "  Gold  Catalogue,"  p.  15.  Found  with  Nos.  4,  8, 
and  15. 

10. — Perfect,  7f  inches  wide,  7|-  inches  high,  and  If  inches  broad  in 
widest  portion,  broad  in  lateral  diameter  of  cut-out  portion, 
and  also  wide  in  the  opening  at  terminal  plates.  Ornament 
figured  in  "Gold  Catalogue,"  p.  16.  From  the  Sirr  Collec- 
tion, stated  to  have  been  found  in  county  Galway.  Weight, 
1  oz.  3  dwt. 

11. — Perfect,  7-f-  inches  broad  by  7-J-  inches  high,  5^  inches  in  the  clear, 
and  2£  inches  deep  in  the  widest  portion.  Weight,  1  oz. 
7  dwt.  5gr.  Pattern  figured  in  "Catalogue,"  p.  16.  Pur- 
chased in  1852. 

12. — Complete,  torn  across  centre,  without  ornament,  terminal  plates 
oblong,  7i  inches  wide,  5^  inches  clear  in  the  opening,  and 
2£  inches  deep  in  the  widest  portion.  Weight,  18  dwt.  Pur- 
chased from  a  dealer  in  1853.  When  obtained  it  was  crumpled 
up  as  if  to  lessen  the  bulk. 

ON    GOLD    LUNULJ2.  63 


13. — Both  limbs  %  highly  ornamented  but  deficient  in  centre;  has  a 
peculiar  punched  ornamentation  ;  shown  in  "  Gold  Catalogue," 
p.  16.  8  inches  in  width  and  depth,  6  inches  wide  in  the  clear 
of  opening.  Weight,  14  dwt.  3  gr.  Analysed  by  Mr.  J.  W. 

14. — Perfect;  very  small  ;  unornamented ;  wide  in  the  opening,  which 
appears  to  have  been  stretched  ;  5f  inches  across,  6  inches  high, 
4i  inches  in  the  clear,  and  1£  inches  broad  at  widest  part. 
Weight,  15  dwt.  16  gr.  From  the  Dawson  Collection. 

15. — Left  limb  of  an  ornamented  luimla,  wanting  terminal  plate,  length 

9  inches,  1-J-  inches  wide  at  broadest  part.     Pattern  figured  in 
p.  15  of  "Gold  Catalogue."     Weight,  7  dwt.  19  gr.      Found 
with  Nos.  4,  8,  and  9  in  county  Kildare. 

End  of   Lunulae  in  Sir  W.  Wilde's  "  Catalogue  of  Irish  Gold 


16. — Greatest  width,  7|  inches.     Weight,   1  oz.   10  dwt.  2  gr.      Got 

with  Nos.  17  and  18  at  Banmore,  parish  of  Kilmoylic,  barony 

of  Clanmorris,  Kerry. 
17. — Greatest  width,  6f  inches,  in  two  pieces.    Weight,  1  oz.  7  dwt.  1  gr. 

Got  with  Nos.  16  and  18. 
18.— Greatest  width,  7-J-  inches.      Weight,    19  dwt.    16gr.      In  two 

pieces.     Got  with  Nos.  16  and  17. 
19. — A  fragment   weighing  2  dwt.     Bought  in   1868.     Measures  3^ 

inches  long. 

20.— Greatest  width,  6f§-  inches.     Weight,  1  oz.  6  dwt.  8  gr. 
"21. — In  two  pieces.    Greatest  width,  8-|-  inches.    Weight,  1  oz.  18  dwt. 

11  gr. 

•22.— Greatest  width,  6f  inches.     Weight,  1  oz.  1  dwt.  1  gr. 

123.— Greatest  width,  8i  inches.  Weight,  1  oz.  2  dwt.  14gr.  Found 
in  a  bog  near  Newtown,  Crossdoney,  county  Cavan,  at  a  depth 
of  6  feet,  between  two  oval  slabs  of  oak,  which  were  saturated 
with  moisture,  and  have  contracted  considerably  by  drying. 
Bought  April,  1884. 

24. — Greatest  width,    7-f  inches ;  height,   8i  inches.      Weight,  1  oz. 

10  dwt.  17gr.     Found  on  a  mountain  near  Trillick,  county 
Tyrone,  near  one  of  the  so-called  "  Danish  Forts,"  under  a 
large   rock    which    was    being    broken    up.       Purchased    in 

25. — Greatest  width,  8f  inches;  breadth,  2|  inches.  Weight,  1  oz. 
10  dwt.  Said  to  have  been  found  before  1820,  near  Mullingar. 
Bought  from  Rev.  Mr.  Burton,  Bective  Glebe,  Cavan,  in 



26.— Greatest  width,  8f  inches.      Weight,  2  oz.  5  dwt.  12  gr.     Found 

in  a,  bog  at  Carrowduff,  three  .miles  fronLEnnistynion,  county 

Clare,  May,  1877. 
27.— -Greatest  width,    7f  inches  ;   breadth  at  widest   part,    3  inches. 

Weight,  1  oz.  13  dwt.  5  gr.     Bought,  with  No.  28,  from  Mr. 

Perry,  Newtown  Park,  county  Dublin,  in  July,  1881. 
28. — Bought  with  No.  27,     Greatest  width,  61f  inches ;  breadth,   If 

inches.     Weight,  loz.  2  dwt.  12  gr. 
29.  —Greatest  width,  8-£-  inches.     Weight,  1  oz.  8  dwt.  logr.     Bought 

with  the  Petrie  Collection. 

30.— Greatest  width,  7-f-  inches;  height,  7£  inches.    Weight,  1  oz.  7  dwt. 
'  20  gr.    Said  to  have  been  found  May,  1886,  at  Trenta,  between 

Carrigans  and  St.  Johnston,  six  miles  from  Derry,  on  the  slope 

of  a  rocky  mountain,  beneath  a  great  boulder  recently  blasted 

together  with  a  large  flint  arrow-head. 
31. — Greatest  width,  8f  inches.     Weight,  1  oz.  11  dwt.  19  gr.    Found, 

in  1848,  near  Athlone.    Bought  January,  1893,  being  No.  143 

of  the  "Bateman  Collection." 
32. — Greatest  width,  8  inches;  height,  7^  inches ;  breadth  of  widest 

part  2i  inches  in  the  clear.    Weight,  1  oz.  7  dwt.  17  gr.    Found 

in  ploughing  in  the  townland  of  Ross,  barony  of  Kilkenny 

West,  county  Westmeath,  near  the  shores  of  Lough  Ree,  about 

half-a-mile  from  a  ruined  castle  named  Ballincliffs.    Purchased 

March,  1896,  from  Mr.  Edmpnd  Johnson,  Grafton-street. 


1. — Weighing  loz.  19  dwt.  5  gr.  Measures  9-^V  inches  wide/  Ob- 
tained from  Carnarvonshire. 

2. — Weighing  1  oz.  17  dwt.  6  gr.  9  inches  wide.,  Found  in  county 
Kerry,  at  Mangerton,  under  bog.  Formerly  in  possession  of 
Sir  Thomas  Tobin. 

3. — Weighing  1  oz.  1 1  dwt.  4  gr.    8-j4r  inches  wide.     From  Co.  Cavan. 

4. — Weighing  11  dwt.  3  gr.  A  fragment  5  inches  long.  From 
county  Cork. 

5. — Weighing  1  oz.  6  dwt.  6  gr.  8i  inches  wide.  Obtained  from 

6.— Weighing  2  oz.  4  dwt.  4  grs.  7f  inches'  wide!  From  Penwith, 
Cornwall.  Described  in  Minutes  of  the  Society  of  Anti- 
quaries, 1783. 

7.— Weighing  2oz.  1  dwt.  19  gr.     8  inches  wide.     From  Ireland. 

8,77- Weighing  2  oz.  12  dwt.  4  gr.    9^  inches  wide  ;  also  from  Ireland. 
'  .    9. — Weighing  1  oz.  6  dwt.  5  gr.     7^  inches  wide.  '  No  history. 
"10. — Weighing  13  dwt.  14  gr.     7  inches' wide.  Do. 

11. — Weighing  1  oz.  8  grs.     6f  inches  wide.  Do. 

ON    GOLD    LUNUL^E.  65 


1F.E. — Weighing  1  oz.  8  dwt.  13  grs.  Figured  in  "Catalogue." 
Ornamented  only  with  incised  lines  and  double  row  of 
punctures  along  its  borders.  From  Southside,  near  Coulter, 

2F.E. — A  considerable  portion  .of  one  side  wanting.  Ornamented 
with  parallel  and  angular  lines.  Found  '  near  Fochabers, 
Elginshire,  in  1873. 

3  F.E. — Weighing  4  oz.  1  dwt.  5  gr.  Ornamented  with  incised  lines 
and  double  row  of  punctures.  Deposited  by  His  Grace  the 
lute  Duke  of  Buccleugh.  Found  at  Auchentaggart,  Dum- 

1  F.  F. — Weighing  1  oz.  15  dwt.  With  finely  executed  ornamenta- 
tion of  bands  of  triangles  filled  with  parallel  lines.  Found 
in  Ireland,  and  purchased  with  the  "  Bell"  Collection. 


Greatest  width,  7£-  inches;  height,  7  inches;  1-f  inches  deep  in 
widest  part  at  top.  Weight  not  recorded.  Measured  from  a 
tracing  by  W.  H.  Patterson,  Esq.,  J.P.,  Belfast.  Obtained 
from  the  Benn  Collection. 


1. — In  possession  of  Sir  Montague  Chapman,  Bart.,  Killua  Castle, 
county  Westmeath.  Greatest  width,  7f  inches;  height,  7f 
inches.  Measurement  of  widest  part  at  top  slightly  in  excess 
of  2  inches.  Weight,  1  oz.  6  dwt.  Through  the  kindness 
of  its  owner  I  was  enabled  to  determine  the  specific  gravity ; 
it  is  17-34. 

2. — Belonging  to  Robert  Day,  j.  p.,  Cork.  This  was  recently 
exhibited  by  his  permission  to  the  Royal  Society  of  Anti- 
quaries, Ireland.  I  am  unable  to  give  its  dimensions.  It 
weighed  1  oz.  12  dwt.,-  and  was  found  at  Bally  bay,  county 

3. — Another  specimen  in  Mr.  Day's  collection.  Found  near  Enniskillen 
under  twenty  feet  of  peat.  Weight,  1  oz,  1  dwt.  10  gr. 

It  is  desirable  to  place  on  record  certain  lunulae  imperfectly  known, 
-some  of  which  may  possibly  be  now  in  public  collections,  and  others 
seem  to  have  disappeared  : — 

1. — Found  at  Dungiven,  county  Londonderry,  in  removing  a  tree, 
March,  1814.  7  to  8  inches  in  height,  and  at  widest  part  1£ 
inches  broad.  Figured  in  Mason's  "Statistical  Account  of 
Ireland,"  vol.  i.,  p.  304.  * 

JOUR.  R. S.A.I.,  VOL.    VII.,  PT.  I.,  OTH  SEU.  F 



2.— Co.  Sligo.  Found  in  a  bog,  March,  1847.  Weight,  1  oz.  6dwL 
1 1  grs.  Represented  in  Mr.  Windele's  Sketches  in  Library 
K.I. A.,  volume  ''Miscellanea,"  p.  206. 

3. — Co.  Cork.  Got  in  1867.  8£  inches  wide,  7f  inches  high,  and 
2f  inches  broad  at  top.  Shown  in  a  drawing  by  the  late- 
Mr.  Brash  in  a  scrap-book  of  Mr.  Clibborn's  in  It. I. A.  Library. 
4. — Co.  Cork.  Specimen  shown  in  a  drawing  in  same  book. 
5. — Co.  Donegal.  Shown  with  Lord  Londesborough's  Collection  at 
Dublin  Exhibition,  1872.  The  plate  of  gold  about  2£  inches- 
at  its  greatest  width.  ''Engraved  with  borders  of  small 
chevrons  with  lines  between,  on  inner  and  outer  edge,  and 
towards  the  ends  six  transversal  lines,  with  hatched  triangular 
ornaments."  In  "Miscellanea  Graphica,"  said  to  have  been 
found  at  Ardaragh. 

6. — Co.  Antrim,  townland  of  Cuirnlochran,  parish  of  Maheramesk. 
Three  crescents  turned  up,  rolled  together,  at  a  depth  of  about 
5  feet,  in  removing  a  fallen  cromlech  stone.  One  of  them 
weighed  4£  ounces.  See  Dublin  Penny  Journal,  volume  4, 
p.  295. 

7. — Co.  Clare  ;  found  in  a  ditch  at  Keyhole.    (See  Gough's  "Carnden," 
vol.  iv.,  p.  230,  referred  to  in  Ulster  Journal  of  Archeology, 
vol.  ix.,  p.  46.) 
8. — Co.  Tyrone;  found  in  a  bog.     Recorded  in  Campbell's  "Philos. 

Survey  of  Ireland,"  and  Ulster  Journal  of  Archceology. 
9. — A  small  lunula,  in  Piltown  Museum  in   1845,  weighing  16  dwt. 
15  gr.     It  measured  6£  inches  across,  and  1£  inches  in  height. 
(See  volume    of    "  Miscellanea,"    in    Koyal    Irish    Academy 
Library,  by  Mr.  Windele.) 


1. — Found  at  St.  Cyr  in  1805,  between  Valogues  and  Montebourg, 
It  was  melted  down,  but  a  drawing  was  made  and  figured  in 
"  Mem.  de  la  Societe  des  Antiquaires  de  Normandie"  (1827- 
1828) ;  also  see  "  L'Anthropologie,"  t.  v.,  No.  2,  for  1894. 

2. — Discovered  at  Saint  Potan,  Cotes  du  Nord.  Weight,  194-70 
grammes.  Found,  in  1890,  by  quarrymen,  and  sold  to- 
M.  Paul  du  Chatelier. 


[NOTE. — Those  marked  *  are  by  Members  of  the  Society. ,] 

*  Lambert,  of  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  as  an  Engraver  of  Book-Plates.  By 
J.  Yinycomb,  M.E.I.A.  (Newcastle-on-Tyne :  A.  Reid  &  Co.,  Ltd., 

THIS  work,  reprinted  from  the  "Journal  "  of  the  "  Ex  Libris  "  Society — 
revised  and  considerably  extended — has,  we  may  say  at  the  outset,  one 
most  serious  fault;  its  issue  is  limited  to  150  signed  and  numbered 
copies.  This  we  may  suppose  unavoidable,  but  we  regret  that  so  many 
enthusiasts,  in  the  gentle  and  artistic  paths  of  book-plate  collecting, 
should  be  debarred  from  possessing  this  dainty  little  volume.  The 
author,  Mr.  John  Yinycomb,  who  is  a  Member  of  Council  of  the  "Ex 
Libris"  Society,  carries  great  weight  in  all  questions  of  seals,  heraldry, 
and  similar  examples  of  engraving.  Asa  Fellow  of  our  Society,  besides 
less  direct  help  and  advice,  he  gave  us  a  learned  Paper  on  the  original 
device  upon  the  Seal  of  the  Deanery  of  St.  Patrick's  Cathedral,  Dublin, 
published  in  our  Journal,  1890-91,  p.  228;  and  later  on  (1893,  p.  69) 
an  interesting  article  on  the  ancient  Seals  of  Carrickfergus. 

Even  to  those  who  do  not  collect  book-plates,  especially  to  admirers 
of  Bewick's  engravings,  this  book  will  be  of  much  interest.  The  charming 
"tail-pieces"  of  Bewick's  "  Natural  History  "  are  vividly  recalled  by 
some  of  Lambert's  plates,  notably  those  on  p.  15,  and  plates  7,  16,  17, 
19,  and  31  ;  while  for  comparison,  both  with  Lambert's  work  and  the 
"Natural  History,"  Bewick's  book-plate  of  J.  B.  Dale,  on  p.  23,  is 

"  Mark  Lambert  was  one  of  Bewick's  apprentices,  but,  unlike  so  many 
pupils  of  that  great  master,"  he  "was  not  led  away  by  the  new  art"  of 
revived  wood-engraving,  but  continued  to  work  at  copperplate  and  silver- 
engraving,  founding  one  of  the  largest  engraving  and  printing  establish- 
ments in  the  North  of  England. 

Tn  1807  Lambert  commenced  business  on  his  own  account;  he  died 
in  1855  ;  his  son,  partner,  and  namesake  dying  so  lately  as  1893. 

The  volume  contains  58  selected  examples  of  book-plates,  with 
biographical  memoranda  relating  to  124  plates  engraved  by  Lambert, 
which  cannot  fail  to  be  of  interest,  especially  to  the  North  of  England 
families  referred  to. 

We  have  watched  with  interest  the  revival  of  this  (perhaps)  the 



youngest  branch  of  heraldry,  and  believe  that  the  work  of  Mr.  Vinycomb 
and  his  colleagues  has  done  much  to  improve  the  sterile,  tasteless  school 
of  book-plates,  so  much  in  vogue  in  this  country  during  the  last  forty  years. 
Nothing  that  tends  to  improve  taste  in  this  very  practical  generation  can 
be  despised,  and  a  work  like  Mr.  Viny comb's  is  a  valuable  corrective  at 
once  of  the  symbolic  complexities  of  some  of  the  modern  examples,  and 
of  the  dry  bones  of  heraldry  in  some  of  the  older  types  of  book-plate. — 
T.  J.  W. 

*  The  Story  of  an  Irish  Sept :  their  Character  and  Struggle  to  maintain 
their  Lands  in  Clare.  By  a  member  of  the  Sept  (N.  C.  Macnamara). 
(London:  Dent  &  Co.,  1896.) 

THE  study  of  tribal  history  has  received  much  less  attention  in  Ireland 
than  its  importance  in  relation  to  the  general  history  of  the  country 
merits.  With  very  many  clans  the  amount  of  material  at  hand  is  not 
encouraging  to  the  student.  This  is  not  the  case  with  the  tribe  whose 
story  is  told  in  these  pages. 

The  Ui  Caisin,  or  Clan  Choilen,  whose  chiefs  took  the  name  of 
Mac  Conmara,  and  ultimately  Mac  Namara,  formed  the  second  division 
of  the  great  Dal  Cais  family.  When  the  present  county  Clare  was 
conquered  by  the  Dal  Cais  in  the  fourth  century  after  our  era,  the 
Ui  Caisin  settled  in  the  newly- acquired  country,  giving  their  tribe-name 
to  a  district.  To  its  chief,  as  head  of  the  most  important  tribe,  belonged 
the  privilege  of  inaugurating  the  King  of  North  Munster.  The  place  of 
inauguration,  a  mound  still  known,  has  been  illustrated  by  Mr.  T.  J. 
Westropp  in  our  pages ;  and  his  view  is  reproduced  in  this  book. 

The  Clan  Choilen,  as  the  clan  was  now  more  usually  called,  followed 
their  king  in  his  wars,  taking  part  with  Brian  at  Clontarf.  After  the 
Norman  invasion  they  supported  O'Brien  against  the  invaders.  In  the 
following  century,  when  a  war  of  succession  arose  among  the  O'Briens, 
the  Clan  Choilen  was  the  principal  supporter  of  Tuiiough,  while  the 
Normans  aided  his  rival. 

This  prominence  of  the  clan  seems  to  have  excited  the  jealousy  of 
other  neighbouring  tribes.  Several  of  them  united,  and,  though  for- 
bidden by  O'Brien,  the  provincial  king,  attacked  and  defeated  the  Clan 
Choilen,  with  the  natural  result  of  again  encouraging  their  Norman 
enemies,  and  restoring,  for  a  time,  their  supremacy  in  Clare.  The 
Irish  allies  of  the  Norman  leader,  De  Clare,  were  overthrown  in  1318, 
and  the  last  stronghold  of  the  Normans,  Bunratty,  was  captured  by 
Mac  Namara  in  1332. 

After  the  overthrow  of  their  enemies  the  power  of  the  clan  increased, 
and  its  territory  extended  over  much  of  Eastern  Clare.  Following  the 

NOTICES    OF    BOOKS,  69 

example  of  the  Normans,  they  built  numerous  castles,  many  of  which 
still  stand.  Greater  power  and  territory,  however,  brought  internal 
dissensions,  and  before  the  end  of  the  fourteenth  century  the  clan  had 
divided  under  two  chiefs,  who  fought  each  other  vigorously. 

For  two  centuries  following  there  is  little  light  on  the  history  of  the 
district.  In  the  interval  their  tribal  state  had  come  to  an  end,  and,  at 
the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century,  the  Mac  Namaras  appear  as  landed 
proprietors  of  a  modern  type,  strongly  resisting  the  claims  of  the 
O'Briens  to  any  superiority.  This  position  was  maintained  until  the 
Cromwellian  confiscations  reduced  their  property  to  fragments  of  its 
former  importance.  The  subsequent  story  relates  to  prominent  indi- 
viduals of  the  family. 

Mr.  Macnamara  has  produced  a  book  which  can  be  read  with 
interest,  and  which  fairly  illustrates  many  points  of  Irish  history.  It 
fails,  however,  to  realise  the  main  purpose  of  a  tribe  history.  We  read 
only  of  the  doings  of  the  chiefs,  with  no  attempt  to  trace  the  life  of  the  tribe 
at  large,  except  by  generalising  from  outside  sources.  In  common  with 
too  many  Irish  local  histories,  it  gathers  its  matter  mainly  from  already 
well-known  published  works,  and  lacks  the  local  colour  and  the  light 
which  the  study  of  local  antiquities,  traditions,  and  writings  should 
bring  to  explain  and  illustrate  the  work  of  the  general  historian  and 
chronicler.  Mr.  Macnamara  gives  us  views  of  castles,  but  he  does  not 
tell  us  of  their  age  or  builders  ;  he  refers  to  ancient  deeds,  rent-rolls, 
and  inquisitions,  but  does  not  attempt  to  deduce  from  them  any  evidence 
which  they  may  contain  of  the  great  change,  the  most  important  in  the 
history  of  the  tribe,  by  which  the  patriarchal  chief,  dwelling  in  his  rath, 
developed  into  the  quasi-feudal  landlord  in  his  castle. 

In  matters  of  detail  the  book  needs  much  revision.  The  spelling  of 
Irish  names  is  very  uncertain  and  inconsistent.  Thus  the  name  usually 
written  in  English  Donogh,  appears  also  as  Donough,  Donchadh,  and 
Donchardh,  the  last  absurd  form  being  used  deliberately  and  most  often. 
One  cannot  help  sympathising  with  the  poor  English  compositor,  whose 
efforts  to  set  up  the  name  Domhnall  were  left  uncorrected,  and  lead  to 
such  results  as  "  Dunhual,"  "  Dunknal,"  "  Dornhuall."  After  this  we 
cannot  wonder  that  Vallancey,  Betham,  Campion,  and  Stamer,  are  con- 
verted into  Yallaney,  Bentham,  Champion,  and  Stain er  ;  nor  that  Ferns 
is  described  as  the  capital  of  Meath.  Unhappily  too  many  similar 
errors  might  be  pointed  out. 

The  book  is  very  well  turned  out,  and  is  illustrated  with  a  number 
of  views  of  antiquities,  and  some  good  reproductions  of  miniature 
portraits. — J.  M. 


The  Book-Plate  Annual  and  Armorial  Year-Boolc,  1897.  Edited  by 
John  Leighton,  F.S.A.,  Yice-President,  "  Ex  Libris"  Society. 
Royal  4to.  Price  2s.  6d.  (London  :  A.  &  C.  Black,  Soho-square,  W.) 

THIS  Annual,  now  in  its  fourth  year  of  issue,  is  not  devoted  entirely 
to  the  investigation  of  matters  connected  with  book-plates.  It  has  a  good 
deal  of  useful  information  on  subjects  relating  to  libraries,  books,  and 
bindings,  and  there  is  much  in  it  which  will  be  highly  prized  by  book- 
buyers,  lovers  of  literature,  and  collectors  generally.  There  are  two 
excellent  portraits  of  Lord  Leighton  and  Sir  John  E.  Millais.  There  are 
also  copies  of  the  heraldic  achievements  of  both  of  these  distinguished 
painters,  and  the  book-plate  of  Lord  Leighton  is  given,  as  also  one  etched 
by  Millais  in  1854.  There  is  a  portrait  of  George  du  Maurier  by  himself, 
as  well  as  a  characteristic  achievement  of  that  artist  and  author. 
Adverting  to  the  achievement  of  Lord  Leighton,  his  arms  has  supporters 
— horses  of  Helicon:  they  are  highly  appropriate  propositions;  and 
Lord  Leighton,  we  are  informed,  declined  the  supporters  suggested  by 
the  Heralds'  College,  and  was  designing  them  for  himself  at  the  time  of 
his  death ;  thus  these  additions  have  never  been  confirmed. 

A  very  interesting  and  suggestive  Paper  is  that  on  "  Jewish  Coats  of 
Arms,"  and  it  is  well  illustrated.  European  heraldry  only  became 
systematised  in  the  thirteenth  century ;  but  long  prior  to  that  date 
the  Jews,  in  common  with  other  nations  of  antiquity,  had  used  family 
and  tribal  emblems.  The  antiquity  of  heraldic  devices  among  the  Jews 
is  shown  by  a  verse  from  the  Pentateuch  (Numbers  ii.  2),  in  which 
"every  man  of  the  children  of  Israel"  is  instructed  to  "pitch  by 
his  own  standard,  the  ensign  of  their  father's  house."  There  are 
several  other  fascinating  chapters  all  lavishly  illustrated. 

Monument  at  Clonkeen,  Co.  Gal  way.  —  Mr.  "Wakeman  forwards  a 
rubbing,  and  a  reduced  drawing  of  an  inscription,  both  of  which  refer  to 
a  much  neglected  monumental  effigy  of  a  bishop,  now  lying  in  the 
•cemetery  of  Clonkeen,  near  Tiaquin,  Co.  Galway.  He  writes  :  — 

"In  Brady's  'Episcopal  Succession,'  vol.  ii.,  the  following  notice 
occurs:  —  '1718,  Edmond  Kelly  succeeded  "  per  mortem  ultimi  illius 

COD  EoroonD  Keay 

SoPbonne  FopmePLLy  Dean 

ty  1J  leap  GenePaLLoF  qoioc 


COUP  t  oF  "bienni  vLate 
Lopo  bishop  oFQonFepl 


Episcopi."  His  Brief  was  dated  in  February,  1718.  He  wrote  to 
Propaganda  on  the  14th  of  May,  1718,  to  announce  his  consecration, 
which  had  been  performed  in  Dublin,  with  three  bishops  assisting.  His 
faculties  as  bishop  were  granted  on  the  15th  November,  1718.  In  April, 
1733,  Clonfert  was  vacant.'  " 

Proposed  Destruction  of  Kilmallock  Castle.—  At  a  meeting  of 
the  Council  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries,  it  was  proposed  by 
Mr.  George  Coffey,  M.R.I.  A.,  seconded  by  J.  J.  Digges  La  Touche,  LL.D., 
and  passed  unanimously  :  —  "  That  the  Council  of  the  Royal  Society  of 
Antiquaries  of  Ireland  has  heard  with  regret  that  a  Presentment  has  been 
passed  by  the  Presentment  Sessions  for  the  Liberties  of  Kilmallock  for  the 
purpose  of  taking  down  the  King's  Castle  at  Kilmallock. 

"  The  Council  is  surprised  at  the  contemplated  act  of  vandalism,  inas- 
much as  the  preservation  and  protection  of  ancient  and  historic  monuments 
is  recognised  as  a  matter  of  great  public  interest,  and  trust  that  now 


public  attention  has  been  directed  to  the  subject,  the  presentment  will 
not  be  proceeded  with. 

"  The  Council  would  further  suggest  that  steps  be  immediately  taken 
to  place  this  interesting  monument  in  charge  of  the  Board  of  Works  for 
protection  under  the  'Ancient  Monuments  Protection  Act.'  " 

The  attention  of  Council  was  called  to  this  important  matter  by  letters 
from  Dr.  Joyce  and  Mr.  J.  G.  Barry  of  Limerick,  the  latter  enclosing 
cuttings  from  a  local  paper  detailing  the  proceedings  that  have  taken 
place.  He  is  in  communication  with  the  landlord  on  the  subject,  and 
will  oppose  the  confirmation  of  the  presentment  by  the  Grand  Jury. 
Dr.  Joyce  describes  the  King's  Castle,  the  old  city  gate,  which  it  is 
proposed  to  demolish,  as  "  one  of  the  most  characteristic  remains  of  the 
old  Geraldine  days." 

[The  Grand  Jury  has  rejected  the  presentment.] 

Inismurray. — It  having  been  reported  to  the  Council  of  the  Royal 
Society  of  Antiquaries  that  an  inscribed  stone  among  the  antiquarian 
remains  on  the  Island  of  Inismurray  has  been  recently  removed,  the 
Council  have  requested  the  Board  of  Works  to  investigate  the  circum- 
stances, and  beg  to  suggest  that  Mr.  Michael  Waters,  one  of  the  principal 
residents  on  the  island,  or  some  other  suitable  person,  be  appointed 
caretaker  of  the  remains. 

In  a  letter  to  Mr.  Wakeman,  Mr.  Michael  Waters  reports  that  "  some 
tourists  have  taken  away  a  slab  from  the  altar." 

Notes  on  the  Irish  Monasticons  and  the  Rev.  Mervyn  Archdall. — 
From  the  "Anthologia  Hibernica,"  1794,  I  find  that  the  Archdall  family 
is  descended  from  John  Archdall,  of  Norsom  Hall,  in  the  county  of  Norfolk, 
who  came  over  to  Ireland  temp.  Queen  Elizabeth,  and  settled  at  Castle 
Archdall,  in  the  county  of  Fermanagh,  about  1600,  having  purchased  an 
estate  from  Sir  John  Neale.  The  family  must,  therefore,  have  been  in 
wealthy  circumstances. 

The  author  of  the  "  Monasticon  "  was  born  in  Dublin,  April,  1723.  He 
passed  with  reputation  through  the  Dublin  University.  He  always 
showed  a  turn  for  archaeology,  especially  for  inquiry  into  the  monastic 
history  of  Ireland.  He  made  the  acquaintance  of  Harris,  the  editor  of 
"Ware's  Antiquities,"  C.  Smith,  the  county  historian,  Thomas  Prior, 
and  Archdeacon  Pococke,  When  the  latter  became  Bishop  of  Ossory  he 
bestowed  on  Mr.  Archdall  the  living  of  Attanagh,  his  domestic  chap- 
laincy, and  a  prebend.  This  made  a  comfortable  provision  for  him,  and 
enabled  him  to  pursue  his  antiquarian  studies  in  ease  and  retirement* 
His  generous  patron  and  friend,  Dr.  Pococke,  died  in  1765.  Mr.  Arch- 
•dallhad  by  this  time  prepared  records  of  our  monastic  foundations  to  the 
extent  of  about  two  folio  volumes.  These  records  had  reference  to  the 
original  donors  of  lands  and  buildings,  and  to  the  present  grantees  of  these 


at  a  subsequent  period  from  the  Crown,  which  included  more  than  a  third 
of  Ireland.  This  was  the  outcome  of  a  labour  of  forty  years,  and  then, 
invaluable  as  these  records  were,  Mr.  Archdall  found  no  one  patriotic  or 
generous  enough  to  aid  him  in  the  publication.  He  was,  therefore, 
obliged  to  abridge  his  collections  into  one  volume  quarto,  and  thus 
appeared  the  "  Monasticon  Hibernicum,"  first  published  by  subscription 
in  1785,  4to,  Dublin,  Luke  "White.  In  the  preface  to  this  great  work 
Mr.  Archdall  explains  the  necessity  for  thus  epitomising  his  work,  and 
says  : — "  The  public  are  certainly  losers  by  the  defalcation;  for  scarce  a 
family  of  note  in  England  or  Ireland  who  may  not  at  some  period  trace 
their  pedigree  in  the  subscriptions  to  our  monastic  charters  and  donations, 
and  find  remains  of  their  property,  both  before  and  after  the  dissolution 
of  these  societies."  What  has  become  of  the  remainder  of  the  invaluable 
manuscript  ? 

Mr.  Archdall's  next  work  was  an  edition  of  "Lodge's  Peerage  of 
Ireland,"  published  in  1789,  in  seven  volumes,  8vo.  There  is  a  story  told 
that  Mr.  Lodge  had  left  numerous  additions  to  his  work  in  MS.,  but 
written  in  a  cipher  inexplicable  to  every  one  ;  and  so  about  to  be 
given  up  in  despair,  until  Mrs.  Archdall  applied  herself  to  their  decipher- 
ment, and  happily  discovered  the  key.  These  valuable  notes  were  thus 
brought  into  use,  and  greatly  enriched  the  new  edition. 

Previous  to  Archdall's  time  several  notices  of  the  Irish  monastic 
establishments  appear.  In  Dugdale's  "Monasticon  Anglicanum"  we 
find  references  to  thirty -five  regular  houses  in  Ireland  with  some  of  their 
foundation  charters.1  Ware,2  in  his  "  Monasteriologia,"  gives  an  outline 
of  the  abbeys  and  monasteries,  noting  the  places,  founders,  times, 
assignees,  and  grantees  of  the  several  establishments.  In  Harris's 
edition  are  given  eighteen  fine  copper-plates  illustrating  the  religious 
and  military  habits  of  the  different  orders. 

In  1690  M.  Allemande  collected  and  arranged  materials  for  a  monastic 
history  which  was  published  in  12mo  at  Paris  in  that  year  under  the 
title  "  Histoire  Monastique  d'Irlande."  This  work  was  translated  and 
enlarged  chiefly  from  Colgan,  Wadding,  Ware,  &c.,  by  Captain  John 
I'.CUIF.  tic  p.llnl  <«',  in  one  volume,  8vo,  London,  1722,  under  the 
title  "Monasticon  Hibernicum."  Both  works  are  now  scarce.  This  latter 
is  also  illustrated  with  eight  plates  of  costumes,  and  contains  an  excellent 
clearly  printed  map  of  Ireland  "by  Herman  Moll,  Geographer,"  giving  all 
the  principal  towns,  roads,  distances  from  town  to  town,  archbishoprics, 
bishoprics,  boroughs,  &c.  The  matter  of  the  book  is  arranged  according 
to  the  respective  religious  orders. 

Archdall's  "Monasticon"  is  arranged  geographically,  and  has 
eighteen  plates  of  costumes  the  same  as  those  in  Harris's  "  Ware  "  ;  they 

1  Vide  end  of  vol.  ii.,   "  Monasticon  Anglicanum." 

2  Harris'   "  Ware,"  vol.  ii.,  pp.  262  et  seq. 


were  probably  printed  from  the  copper-plates  of  the  latter  re- 

A  splendid  edition  of  this  "Monasticon  "  by  the  Most  Rev.  Dr.  Moran 
appeared  in  1873  (Kelly,  Dublin)  in  3  volumes.  4to,  embellished  with 
many  full-page  illustrations  of  churches  and  monastic  ruins,  with  chro- 
moliths  in  gold  and  colours  of  the  costumes  of  the  Orders,  by  Marcus 
Ward.  The  text  is  verbatim  from  Archdall,  but  the  very  valuable  copious 
notes  by  the  editor  and  other  distinguished  antiquaries  much  exceed  the 
bulk  of  the  original.  It  is  really  a  grand  work,  and  the  manner  of  its 
production  as  to  paper,  type,  and  illustration,  is  highly  creditable  to 
Irish  workmanship.  I  have  the  five  Monasticons  now  before  me,  viz. : — 
Dugdale's,  folio  ;  Ware's  (Harris),  folio  ;  Allemande's  (Stevens),  8vo  ; 
Archdall's  (original),  4to  ;  and  Archdall's  (Moran),  4to,  and  can  have  no 
hesitation  in  stating  that  the  last  is  in  all  respects  the  best.  The  notes 
give  a  vast  amount  of  antiquarian  information  on  the  subject  of  the 
work,  both  historical  and  topographical.  The  learned  editor  corrects 
many  errors  on  these  points  which  appear  in  the  original.  My  copy  of 
the  1786  edition  belonged  to  the  late  Mr.  Cooke,  of  Birr,  a  well-known 
antiquary  ;  it  has  numerous  marginal  notes  by  him  giving  corrections 
and  additions,  with  several  etymologies. 

It  is  a  curious  coincidence  that  the  first  edition  of  the  "  Monasticon 
Hibernicum"  was  prepared  under  the  fostering  care  of  a  Protestant 
Bishop  of  Ossory,  and  nearly  a  century  afterwards  the  last  edition  ap- 
pears with  loving  care  from  the  hands  of  a  Roman  Catholic  Bishop  of  the 
same  diocese. — C.  WINSTAN  DUGAN. 

Principal  Gateway,  Merrion-square. — Mr.  P.  Kenny  writes : — 
"  I  beg  to  submit  a  note  from  a  very  intelligent  man  who  takes  a  great 
interest  in  the  doings  of  our  Society.  Would  it  not  be  possible  that  a 
communication  from  the  Press  would  stir  up  the  Commissioners  of  that 
square  to  take  action  in  this  matter,  and  have  the  inscription  freshly 
coloured,  and  the  shrubs  removed  at  very  little  cost  to  themselves  ? — 

' ' '  Could  anything  be  done  to  preserve  those  beautiful  stone  carvings  over  the 
ancient  gateway  into  Merrion-square,  west  side  ?  They  are  really  beautiful.  Perhaps 
if  you  called  attention  to  the  matter,  something  could  be  done  that  would  prevent 
their  being  altogether  destroyed.  They  are  decaying  a  little.' 

"  There  is  an  inscription  in  Irish  characters  on  a  mural  slab  close  to 
the  doorway  of  Dalkey  churchyard.  Would  it  not  be  worth  while 
having  copy  and  translation  made." 

Marble  Box. — I  have  in  my  possession  an  old  marble  box — probably  a 
relic  box — got  some  years  ago  from  Mr.  Cooke's  (Birr)  Collection.  It  is  of 
solid  white  marble  beautifully  inlaid  with  coloured  marbles,  the  arched 
top  also  inlaid  in  a  curious  manner.  It  is  about  8  inches  square,  with  a 
marble  lid  inside.  Mr.  Cooke  considered  it  a  great  treasure,  and  his  son 
said  it  was  found  in  the  river  Brosna,  near  Roscrea. — C.  W.  DUG  AN. 


Monumental  Inscriptions  from  the  Cathedral,  Jamaica. — The  four 
inscriptions  given  below  were  copied  and  sent  to  me  by  my  brother 
Lord  George  Fitzgerald,  who  is  Private  Secretary  to  Sir  Henry  Blake, 
Governor  of  Jamaica.  They  are  to  be  found  on  monuments  in  the 
Cathedral  of  St.  Catherine,  at  Spanish  Town,  which  was  the  old  capital 
of  Jamaica ;  and  as  they  relate  to  natives  of  Ireland,  they  may  be  of 
interest  to  the  descendants  of  the  families  named  on  the  slabs. 





HE     WAS    A    MAN    OF    STRICT    VIRTUE 







HE    DIED    DECEMBER    THE    IITH    1742 

AGED    48    YEARS." 

Black  marble.  Arms  :  Party  per  pale  indented,  two  spears'  heads 
erect.  Crest,  a  goat's  head  erased.  Motto — "  Tout  ou  Bien." 

"  TO    THE    MEMORY    OF 


A    NATIVE    OF    THE    KINGDOM    OF 

OF    THIS    TOWN    IN    THE    GENERAL    ASSEMBLY    OF    THE    ISLAND.        HE 







Below  the  Inscription,  Arms  :  argent ;  three  chevronels,  or. 




BORNE     IN     THE     CITY     OP     COLRAIN 

YEAR     1633 




DYED    THE     1 8    DAY    OF   AUGUST 


Arms  :  three  hautboys,  between  as  many  cross  crosslets. 

On  a  black  stone.     Crest,  an  unicorn's  head  couped,  bridled ;  on  his 
breast  a  crescent.     Motto — "Dare." 



MAJOR    OF    THE    2ND    WEST    INDIA    REGM 


ON    THE    27™    OF   MAY    1808. 
HIS    CONDUCT,     AS     A     MAN    AND    A    SOLDIER 







OF    THE     CITY    OF    DUBLIN 

AGED    80    YEARS   NOV    12™    l8lO. 

THE    LORD    GAVE    AND    THE    LORD 


JOB     IST  CHAP    2IST    VERSE." 


Old  Latin  Poem. — Having  purchased  some  time  ago  a  portion  of 
the  library  of  the  late  Mr.  Thomas  Gooke,  of  Birr,  a  well-known  anti- 
quary, I  found  in  one  of  the  books  an  old  quarto  manuscript  poem  in 
Latin.  It  occupies  fifteen  pages,  having  a  total  of  468  lines,  and 
is  written  in  a  seventeenth-century  hand.  The  following  is  the 

title  :— 

"  Hyberniae  Sub  Cromwello 
Tyranno  Ingemiscentis 

The  first  line— 

•'  Ilia  ego  Christicolae  non  ultima  portio  gentis." 

The  last  line— 

"  Carle  veni,  prohibet  plura  referre  dolor." 

The  poem  contains  several  references  to  the  Stuarts,  Cromwell  and 
his  generals,  their  cruelties,  &c.  The  MS.  is  in  a  very  cramp  hand,  and 
bears  much  similarity  to  the  Latin  poems  of  Lynch,  author  of  "  Cam- 
brensis  Eversus."  Can  any  of  your  readers  give  me  information  relative 
to  this  old  poem  ? — C.  W.  DUGAN. 

Identification  of  "  The  Ascetic's  Church,"  Leana,  Co.  Clare. — In 

the  description  given  in  the  "  Caithreim  Thoirdhealbhaigh,"  of  the 
march  of  Dermot  (son  of  Turlogh)  O'Brien,  and  Maccon  (son  of  Loch- 
lain)  Macnamara,  with  their  followers,  to  "break"  the  battle  of 
Oorcomroe  (A.D.  1317)  upon  Donogh  O'Brien,  grandson  of  Brian  Roe, 
and  his  adherents,  it  is  stated  by  John  Mac  Rory  Magrath,  who  wrote 
circa  1350,  that  the  army  halted,  after  the  first  day's  march,  at  Coradh- 
mic-Dalhoireann,1  and  there  encamped  for  the  night.  Next  morning 
they  tramped  over  Bothar-na-mac-Righ*  across  Mullach-Gaoil*  through 
u  Leana? s*  rich  dairylands,"  past  Cill-mic-Ui-Donain,  the  Ascetic's 
Church,  on  through  Crioch-mhailf  until  they  arrived  at  the  Abbey  of 
Corcomroe,  where  they  put  up,  in  anxious  expectation,  doubtless,  of 
the  morrow's  battle. 

For  some  years  I  had  been  searching  for  this  old  church  of  Cill-mic- 
Ui-Donain,  but  to  no  purpose.  I  knew  that  its  ruins,  if  existing, 
should  be  somewhere  between  Leana  and  Crughwill.  However,  in 

1  Coradh-mic-Dabhoireann  =  the  weir  of  the  son  of  Davoren,  now  ' '  Kells  Bridge  "on 
the  6 -inch  Ordnance  Map.     It  was  generally  known  until  recent  times  as  Curravick- 
burrion.     At  this  place  the  waters  of  the  Fergus  disappeared  underground,  before  the 
drainage  diverted  the  river  into  another  channel. 

2  Bothar-na-mac-liigh  (=  the  road  of  the  King's  sons),  between  Corofin  and  the  old 
Church  of  Kilnaboy. 

3  Mullach-Gaoil,  now  a  rough  limestone  hill  in  the  townland  of  Eunnagat  South, 
north  of  the  old  church  of  Kilnaboy. 

4  Leana,  Ordnance  Survey,  Sheet  17,  in  parish  of  Kilnaboy. 

5  Crioch-mhail — Crughwill,  parish  of  Carran,  barony  of  Barren. 



July,  1896,  it  came  to  my  ears  that  there  was  a  curious  stone  at  Leana, 
with  a  human  face  carved  upon  it.  I  visited  the  place  on  the  27th  of 
the  same  month,  and  found  what  convinced  me  that  I  had  at  last 
discovered  the  "  Ascetic's  Church,"  mentioned  in  the  "  Caithreim 

It  is  now  known  as  Coulnamraher,1  and  is  marked,  but  not  named, 
on  the  6-inch  Ordnance  Map.  About  5  feet  high  of  the  walls  were 
standing  forty  or  fifty  years  ago,  and  were  pulled  down,  soon  after  that 
time,  by  the  tenants,  for  the  purpose  of  making  boundary  walls.  They 

did  their  work  only  too  well,  not 
leaving  a  stone  upon  a  stone,  their 
only  excuse  being  that  they  did  not 
know  it  was  a  church. 

From  people  who  saw  it  I  learned 
that  its  dimensions  were  about  20 
feet  by  15  feet,  and  that  its  orienta- 
tion was  somewhat  south  of  due  east. 
Built  into  the  fences  of  the  field  in 
which  the  old  church  stood,  are 
numerous  stones,  cut  and  uncut, 
which  once  belonged  to  it.  Among 
these  are  seven  well-cut  jamb-stones, 
each  with  a  scotia  moulding  6  inches 
wide  in  one  angle.  A  similar  stone 
is  built  into  another  wall  in  a  field 
more  to  the  west.  This  latter  has  a 
human  head  carved  in  alto-relievo  at 
top  of  the  scotia ;  and  three  of  the 
others  have  a  more  or  less  conical 
ornament,  also  at  the  top  of  the 
moulding.  All  the  cut  stones  have 
practically  an  equal  "  rake,"  which, 
when  in  position,  would  give  jambs 
with  an  incline  from  the  perpen- 
Inclined  jamb  of  door.  dicular  of  H  inches  to  the  foot.  I 

could  not  discover  any  evidence  of  burials  either  in  the  church  or  its 
vicinity  ;  but  the  whole  place  has  been  tilled  many  times.  There  is  not  a 
single  cut  arch-stone  among  the  debris,  but,  of  course,  there  may  have  been 
one  or  more  arches  in  the  building  made  of  rough  hewn  stones.  The 
character  of  the  jambs,  however,  incline  me  to  the  belief  that  all  the 
opes  had  probably  horizontal  lintels.  Two  of  the  stones  are  better  cut, 
and  have  the  moulding  shallower  (6  x  £  inch)  than  the  rest.  These  are 

1  Coulnamraher — Cabhal-na-mfirathar  =  "  The  ruined  house  of  the  Friars."   CabJtal 
is  a  word  commonly  used  in  Clare  to  denote  a  house  of  any  kind  in  ruins. 


the  one  with  carved  head,  and  another  with  plain  scotia ;  which, 
undoubtedly,  correspond,  and  are  shown  in  tne  accompanying  sketch. 
The  other  stones  are  more  coarsely  cut,  and  have  the  scotia  deeper 
(6  x  1-|-  inches).  The  three  of  the  latter  style,  with  conical  ornament, 
formed  at  least  part  of  three  jambs,  for  they  are  all  top-stones,  and  none 
of  them  could  have  formed  a  base.  They  are  evidently  parts  of  the 
inclined  jambs  of  door,  window,  or  chancel. 

Mr.  T.  J.  "Westropp,   who  visited  the  place  recently,   fully  agrees 
with  me  that  it  can  be  no  other  than  the  "  Ascetic's  Church." 

About  250  yards  N.  E.  of  the  site  of  the  church  are  the  much 
dilapidated  remains  of  a  roughly-built  house, 
now  locally  known  as  Teach-na-mBrathar,  or 
"The  House  of  the  Friars,"  where,  probably, 
the  priests  who  officiated  in  Cill-mic-Ui-Donain 
once  resided.  It  measures  on  outside  30  feet 
by  20  feet,  and  has  rounded  quoins.  The 
walls  are  2  feet  thick ;  and  the  doorway,  about 
3  feet  wide,  is  in  the  western  wall  about  its 
centre.  Some  80  feet  N.W.  of  this  ruin  is  a 
very  curious  "bullan,"  with  two  well-cut  cir- 
cular hollows,  and  part  of  another.  There  are 
also,  on  two  or  three  large  boulders  to  the  S.W., 
some  artificial  cup-shaped  hollows,  a  few  inches 

in  diameter.  The  "bullan"  would  appear  to  have  been  useful  for  the 
purpose  of  bruising  corn,  or  nuts,  into  coarse  flour ;  and  the  cups  on 
the  rocks  would  be  extremely  handy  for  cracking  hazel-nuts,  which,  in 
the  season,  are  very  plentiful  in  these  parts. 

I  brought  the  existence  of  the  ruins  tinder  the  notice  of  the 
Ordnance  Survey,  the  officers  of  which  took  great  pains  in  having  them 
correctly  named  and  located. — GKORGE  U.  MACNAMAUA,  Local  Secretary 
for  North  Clare. 

Ogham  Inscription  in  Co.  Cork. — The  Rev.  Edmond  Barry,  P.P. 
(Hon.  Local  Secretary  for  East  Cork]  writes  from  Rathcormac  : — "On 
the  29th  of  November,  1896,  in  searching  for  Ogham  inscriptions  at 
Rathcanning,  in  the  parish  of  Dungonrney,  barony  of  Imokilly,  and 
county  of  Cork,  the  Rev.  James  Green,  B.D.,  c.c.,  Dungourney,  Mr.  John 
B.  O'Higgins,  of  Boston,  U.S.A.,  and  myself,  examined  two  clayslate 
flags  that,  for  eighty  years,  have  served  as  entrance  pillars  to  a  Mr.  John 
Colbert's  car-shed ;  and  on  one  edge  of  one  of  these  stones  I  found 
Ogham  characters. 

"  The  inscribed  stone  is  5  feet  10  inches  long,  2  feet  3  inches  broad,  and 
10  inches  thick  ;  and  is  only  a  lower  or  an  upper  fragment  of  its  former 
self.  Similarly  the  inscription,  which  is  only  22  inches  long,  breaks  off 


in  the  middle  of  the  second  word,  read  downwards,  or  of  the  first  word, 
read  upwards.     The  inscription  is  : — 

which  may  he  read  downwards,  as  ILUNA  MUC[OI  ....],'  [the  headstone] 
of  Illann,  son  of  [...]';  or  upwards,  as  [.  .  .]su  MAQU  DI,  '  To  [.  .  .]sa, 
*on  of  Dia.' " 

Recent  Find  of  Early  Silver  Coins,  Co.  Mayo.— About  the  beginning 
of  last  October  a  countryman  brought  to  Dublin  a  canvas  bag,  contain- 
ing about  fifty  silver  coins  of  the  kings,  &c.,  named  below.  He  stated 
to  my  informant  that  he  had  found  them  in  the  bag,  within  a  box, 
buried  in  a  bog,  in  this  county  ;  but  any  further  particulars  of  the 
locality  I  was  unable  to  ascertain.  He  also  stated  that  nothing  else  had 
been  found  with  them,  but  that  his  brother  had  discovered  more  coins 
near  the  same  place  about  twenty  years  since. 

The  box  in  which  the  coins  and  bag  were  found  he  described  as  "  a 
real  old  one."  They  consisted  chiefly  of  groats  and  half-groats,  and 
were  all  in  a  very  good  state  of  preservation  : — 

Edward  II. — A  penny  of  Canterbury. 

Henry    VI. — (Cantor),  Archbishop  Morton's  initial — M. 

Edward  IV. — A   groat,     "  Dorninus    Hifcc^ftiae."'      (See   A.  Smith, 

No.  76.) 

,,    ,   „  ,,     (London)  ;  M.  M. 1  a  sun. 

,,        ,,  ,,  ,,  ,,      a  pierced  cross. 

,,        ,,  „     (Dublin). 

„        „  „     (Drogheda).     (See  A.  Smith,  No.  40.) 

,,        ,,  ,,3  crowns,  in  pale.     (See  A.  Smith,  No.  70.) 

Eio.hard  III. — %  groat  (Irish) ;  Kildare  arms. 
Henry  VII.—  £  groat  (York).- 

,,  ,,  ,,      Cantor.     Arched  crown. 

,,  ,,       Groat  (Dublin)  ;    tressure    all   round  ;    M.  M.    a   ^. 

(See  A.  Smith,  No.  29.) 

Henry  VIII. — ^  groat;  M.  M.    a   pomegranate,    and   letter    K,    for 

Katherine  of  Arragon.     (Archbishop  Warehani.) 

,,  ,,       M.  M.  Lys.     First  coinage,  the  head  of   his   father, 

Henry  VII.,  being  used. 
Elizabeth.     —Id.  (Irish)  of  1601  ;  M.  M.  a  star.    . 

P.  D.  V. 

1  M.  M.  (Mint  mark). 


Irish  Church  Plate.— I  am  now  engaged  in  collecting,  for  publica- 
tion, particulars  of  the  Church-plate  in  use  in  this  country,  in  the 
churches  of  the  various  denominations,  and  I  shall  feel  much  obliged  for 
any  particulars  that  may  be  sent  to  me  concerning  the  same.  Verbatim 
copies  of  any  inscriptions,  descriptions  of  "  Hall"  and  other  marks  on  the 
several  articles,  and  information  as  to  whether  they  are  silver,  plated, 
brass,  or  pewter,  with  height  and  diameter,  and,  if  possible,  weight ; 
as  well  as  sketches  or  photographs  of  flagons  and  chalices,  will  be  most 
thankfully  received. 

The  constant  sale  of  ancient  Church-plate,  and  its  loss,  from  one 
cause  or  another,  make  it  very  desirable  that  such  a  list  as  I  propose 
making,  should  be  prepared  and  printed. — PHILIP  D.  VIGORS,  Colonel, 
F.R.S.A.I.,  Holloden,  Bagenalstown,  Co.  Carlow. 

P.S. — It  is  particularly  requested  that  an  account  of  any  Church- 
plate  in  possession  of  families  may  be  sent  to  me. 

The  Firmer  Cairn. — Parliamentary  language,  especially  the  dialect 
spoken  by  officials  in  reply  to  unpleasant  questions,  appears  to  be  admir- 
ably adapted  to  its  purpose.  Ordinary  language,  we  are  told,  was  given 
to  man  to  conceal  his  thoughts  :  the  patois  spoken  by  Under-Secretaries 
of  State  seems  to  have  been  given — certainly  it  is  sometimes  used — for 
the  misrepresentation  of  facts.  A  youthful  officer,  laying  out  a  rifle-range 
for  Thomas  Atkins,  proceeds  to  destroy  a  prehistoric  cairn  at  Firmer, 
county  Donegal  (which  would,  in  no  way,  have  interfered  with  the  flight 
of  Thomas's  bullets).  Questioned  on  the  subject  by  an  Irish  Member 
of  Parliament,  the  Tinder-Secretary  of  State  for  War  replies  that  there 
was  no  cairn  in  the  place  at  all.  There  was  only  a  "  natural  limestone 
formation,"  from  which  twelve  cubic  feet  of  loose  stones  had  been 
taken.  However,  there  was  a  thing  there  called  "  Muldoon's  Grave," 
which  was  not  in  the  way,  which  had  not  been  "  touched"  (and  about 
which,  let  us  add,  he  had  not  been  asked  for  information). 

We  understand  that  the  local  Press  has  spoken  out  freely  on  the 
subject,  and  that  local  antiquaries  have  even  succeeded  in  teaching  the 
officer  in  charge  of  the  range — whose  motto  appears  to  be  "rien  n'est 
sacre  a  un  Sapeur" — that  a  sepulchral  cairn,  of  great  antiquarian 
interest,  is  not  a  ''natural  limestone  formation  of  loose  stones."  Our 
contemporary,  the  Donegal  Independent,  quotes  the  following  passage 
from  Colonel  Wood-Martin's  "Rude  Stone  Monuments  of  Ireland," 
page  160  :— 

"About  two  miles  from  Bundoran,  on  the  Ballyshannon  side,  and  in 
the  townland  of  Finner,  there  are  the  remains  of  a  cairn  with  exposed 
and  circle  of  upright  stones.  A.  W.  Foot,  M.D.  (who  on  this 
occasion  accompanied  the  writer),  ventured  into  the  chamber,  and 
emerged  bearing  with  him  several  human  hones.  A  few  years  ago 

JOIJU.   U.S. A. I.,  VOL.   VII.,   VT.  I.,   OTH  S-ER.  G 


Colonel  F.  J.  Folliott,  of  Hollybrook,  had  given  directions  for  the 
erection  of  a  wall  on  this  portion  of  his  estate,  and  the  workmen 
employed  utilised  the  materials  of  this  cairn.  After  some  time  they-- 
came  upon  a  large  stone,  which  they  smashed  to  pieces,  when  the  cist 
became  exposed  to  view.  It  contained  a  large  quantity  of  human  bones, 
amongst  which  were  several  skulls  in  fine  preservation.  Before,  how- 
ever, any  intelligent  person  had  been  made  aware  of  the  discovery,  the- 
place  was  invaded  by  a  number  of  treasure-seeking  roughs  from  Bally - 
shjinnon,  who  broke  the  crania  in  pieces,  and  scattered  the  other 

The  following  circular  letter  has  been  addressed  to  each  of  the  Hon. 
Provincial  and  Local  Secretaries  of  the  Society : — 

"  DEAR  SIR, — I  have  the  honour  to  inform  you  that  you  have 
been  nominated  Hon.  Local  Secretary  for  the  year  1897.  I  am  desired 
by  the  Council  to  direct  your  attention  to  Rule  18  of  the  General  Rules. 
The  Society  relies  on  your  carrying  out,  to  the  best  of  your  ability,  the 
duties  as  therein  denned,  and  that  you  will  the  more  particularly  give 
me  timely  notice  of  the  discovery  of  any  Objects  of  Antiquity  in  your 
neighbourhood,  and  of  injury  done  to,  or  likely  to  be  done  to,  Ancient 

"  It  is  further  suggested  that  [as  far  as  possible]  the  Local  Secretaries 
should  make  themselves  acquainted  with  the  Folk-lore  and  Folk-Customs 
(for  instance,  May-day,  Harvest,  Funeral  Customs,  &c.)  of  their  respective 
Districts,  and  note  particulars  not  previously  published.  The  distribution 
of  customs  is  also  of  archaeological  interest,  and  it  is  important  to  record 
new  localities  for  customs  already  published  for  other  counties  or 

"  Paragraphs  of  Historical  and  Archaeological  interest,  Notices  of 
Finds,  &c.,  frequently  appear  in  the  local  daily  and  weekly  newspapers, 
and  these  may  be  cut  out  and  forwarded  with  note  thereon,  and  verifi- 
cation where  necessary.  A  means  will  thus  arise  for  preserving  the 
information  in  the  pages  of  the  Journal  for  the  benefit  of  Antiquaries, 
which  otherwise  would  be  lost. 

"  It  is  not  desirable  that  Hon.  Provincial  and  Local  Secretaries  should 
make  official  communications  to  the  Press,  or  summon  Local  Meetings,  &c.,. 
without  first  obtaining  the  permission  of  the  Council  through  the  Hon. 
General  Secretary. 

"  The  favour  of  your  reply  is  requested  before  8th  March  next,  and 
if  you  are  unable  to  act  for  the  Society,  you  might  be  good  enough 
to  suggest  the  name  of  a  Member  likely  to  undertake  the  duty  for  the 
current  year. 

"  Yours  faithfully, 

"  ROBKRT  COCHRANE,  Hon.  Gen.  Sec. 
"24th  February,  1897." 


RULE  18. — The  Council  may  appoint  Honorary  Provincial  Secretaries 
for  each  Province,  and  Honorary  Local  Secretaries  throughout  the  country, 
whose  duties  shall  be  denned  by  the  Council,  and  they  shall  report  to  the 
Honorary  General  Secretary,  at  least  once  a  year,  on  all  Antiquarian 
Remains  discovered  in  their  districts,  investigate  Local  History  and  Tra- 
dition, and  give  notice  of  all  injury  inflicted,  or  likely  to  be  inflicted,  on 
Monuments  of  Antiquity  or  Ancient  Memorials  of  the  Dead,  in  order  that 
the  influence  of  the  Society  may  be  exerted  to  maintain  and  preserve 

Archaeology  in  Limerick. — In  a  report  of  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the 
Limerick  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  published  in  the  Limerick  Chronicle,  we 
observe  with  great  satisfaction  that  a  proposition  of  Mr.  J.  Grene  Barry, 
seconded  by  Mr.  J.  Frost,  for  the  establishment  of  an  Antiquarian  section 
of  the  Club,  was  carried  unanimously.  It  will  be  called  "  The  Limerick 
Historical  and  Archasological  Society,"  its  objects  will  be  the  examination, 
preservation,  and  illustration  of  the  ancient  monuments  of  the  city  and 
county  ;  "the  diffusion  of  valuable  information  regarding  the  past  of  the 
county  and  city ;  the  collection  of  manuscripts  and  printed  records  of  the 
past ;  and  of  oral  traditions  which  survive  and  are  becoming  scarcer  day 
by  day."  The  section  will  be  affiliated  to  the  Club,  will  meet  quarterly, 
and  publish  a  Journal,  which  the  Photographic  section  will  aid  in  illus- 
trating. Under  the  able  guidance  of  Messrs.  Barry  and  Frost,  and  with 
the  material  which  Limerick  abundantly  supplies,  the  new  section  will, 
we  are  confident,  soon  rival  Cork  in  the  production  of  good  work.  We 
trust  that  similar  movements  will  be  made  in  other  counties — abo^e  all, 
in  Clare. 


THE  ANNUAL  GENERAL  MEETING  of  the  Society  for  the  year  1897  was 
held  (by  permission)  in  the  Royal  Dublin  Society's  House,  Kildare- 
street,  Dublin,  on  Tuesday,  12th  January,  1897,  at  4  o'clock,  p.m.  ; 

COLONICL  PHILIP  D.  VIGORS,   Vice-President,  and  subsequently  THOMAS 
DKEW,  R.H.A.,  F.R.I.B.A.,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  following  took  part  in  the  proceedings  : — 

Felloivs  : — William  Frazer,  F.H.C.S.I.,  M.U.I.A.,  Vice- President ;  S.  F.  Milligan, 
M.U.I. A.,  V ice- President ;  Robert  Cochrane,  F.S.A.,  M.R.I. A.,  Hon.  General  Secretary 
and  Treasurer;  G.  D.  Burtchaell,  M.A.,  M.R.I. A.  ;  J.  G.  Wandesford  Butler; 
George  Coffey,  B.A.I.,  M.R.I. A.  ;  John  Cooke,  M.A.  ;  the  Rev.  J.  F.  M.  ffrench, 
M.R.I.A.  ;  John  R.  Garstin,  M.A.,  B.D.,  F.S.A.,  M.R.I. A.  ;  George  A.  P.  Kelly,  M.A.  ; 
G.Henry  Kinahan,  M.R.I.A.  ;  Deputy  Surgeon -General  King,  M.A.,  M.B.,  M.H.I. A.  ; 
W.  J.  Knovvles,  M.U.I. A.  ;  Richard  Langrishe,  F.R.I. A.I.  ;  J.  J.  Digges  La  Touche, 
.M.A.,  LL.D.,  M.R.I.A.  ;  T.  J.  Mellon  ;  James  Mills,  M.R.I.A.  ;  W.  R.  Molloy,  M.R.I.A.  ; 
M.  M.  Murphy,  M.R.I.A.;  Count  Plunkett,  M.R.I.A.;  Countess  Plunkett ;  J.  G. 
Robertson,  Hon.  Fellow ;  the  Rev.  Canon  Stoney,  D.D.  ;  Major- General  F.  W. 
Stubbs  ;  T.  J.  Westropp,  M.A.,  M.R.I.A.  ;  Robert  Lloyd  Woollcombe,  LL.I>.,  M.R.I.A.  ; 
E.  P.  Wright,  M.D.,  M.A.,  M.R.I.A. 

Members : — The  Rev.  William  F.  Almeut,  B.D.  ;  Newton  B.  Ashby,  United  States 
Consul;  F.  Elrington  Ball,  M.R.I.A.  ;  the  Rev.  John  Woods  Ballard ;  H.  F.  Berry,  M.A.  ; 
0.  H.  Braddell;  J.  B.  C.  Bray;  M.  J.  C.  Buckley;  the  Rev.  R.  A.  Burnett,  M.A.  : 
the  Rev.  J.  W.  R.  Campbell,  M.A.  ;  the  Rev.  W.  W.  Campbell,  M.A.,  R.N.  ;  John 
Carolan;  Anthony  R.  Carroll;  James  Charles,  M.I.J.  ;  R.  W.  Christie;  M.  Edward 
Con  way ;  Henry  A.  Cosgrave,  M.A.  ;  the  Rev.  George  W.  S.  Coulter,  M.A.  ;  Miss  M. 
Cunningham;  Miss  S.  C.  Cunningham;  E.  R.  M'C.  Dix ;  Mrs.  Drew  ;  the  Rev. 
Anthony  L.  Elliott,  M.A.  ;  Frederick  Franklin  ;  Major  G.  F.  Gamble ;  Surgeon 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Greene,  M.B.  ;  Thomas  Greene,  LL.K. ;  Mrs.  Thomas  Greene ;  A. 
C.  Haddon,  F.L.S.  ;  the  Rev.  Denis  Hanan,  D.D.  ;  the  Rev.  John  Healy,  LL.D.  ;  W. 
A.  Henderson  ;  Henry  Hitchins  ;  Miss  II.  Hughes  ;  the  Very  Rev.  Henry  Jellett, 
D.D.,  Dean  of  St.  Patrick's;  the  Rev.  Canon  Keene,  D.D.  ;  Patrick  Kenny  ;  Miss  K. 
L.  King;  the  Rev.  H.  W.  Lett,  M.A.,  M.R.I.A.;  the  Rev.  William  O'N.  Lindesay, 
M.A.  ;  the  Rev.  F.  J.  Lucas,  D.D.  ;  the  Rev.  H.  C.  Lyster,  B.D.  ;  the  Rev.  A.  B.  W. 
Mack,  M.A.  ;  Francis  M'Bride  ;  P.  J.  McCall ;  the  Rev.  George  McCutchan,  M.A.  ; 
Miss  11.  G.  Manders  ;  Morgan  Mooney  ;  Joseph  H.  Moore,  M.A.  ;  D.  J.  O'Donoghue; 
Patrick  O'Leary ;  William  P.  O'Neill,  M.R.I.A.;  P.  J.  O'Reilly;  Miss  Peter ;  the 
Rev.  A.  D.  Turefoy,  M.A.  ;  Miss  Reynell ;  the  Rev.  J.  J.  Ryan,  v.r.  ;  Mrs.  J.  ¥. 
Shackleton;  William  J.  Simpson;  E.  Weber  Smyth;  Mrs.  E.  W.  Smyth;  V.  E. 
Smyth ;  Bedell  Stanford,  B.A.  ;  Mrs.  Stoker ;  the  Rev.  Professor  Stokes,  D.D., 
M.R.X.A.  ;  F.  P.  Thunder;  H.  P.  Truell,  M.B.,  D.L.  ;  J.  Walby  ;  Charles  J.  Wallace, 
M.A.  ;  the  Rev.  George  R.  Wedgewood;  the  Rev.  S.  de  Courcy  Williams,  M.A. 

The  Minutes  of  the  previous  Meeting  were  read  and  confirmed. 


The  following  Candidates,  recommended  by  the  Council,  were 
declared  duly  elected: — 


Clarke,  William  Usher  (Member,  1889),  Bridge  House,  Teddington,  Middlesex: 
proposed  by  G.  D.  Burtchaell,  M.A.,  M.K.I. A.,  Fellow. 

Crawley,  W.  J.  Chetwode,  LL.D.,  D.C.L.,  F.R.G.S.,  F.G.S.,  F.R.  HIST.  s.  (Member, 
1894).  3  and  4,  Ely-place,  Dublin:  proposed  by  G.  D.  Burtchaell,  M.A.,  M.R.I.A., 

Hickey,  the  Rev.  Michael  P.  (Member,  1894),  Professor  of  Gaelic  and  Lecturer  on 
Irish  Archaeology,  St.  Patrick's  College,  Maynooth  :  proposed  by  G.  D.  Burtchaell, 
M.A.,  M.U.I.A.,  Fellow. 

Marsh,  Frank  S.,  B.A.  (Dubl.),  35,  Holies-street,  Dublin,  and  Brown's  Barn, 
Co.  Kilkenny  :  proposed  by  Richard  Langrishe,  F.R. I.A.I.,  Fellow. 

Mellon,  Thomas  J.,  Architect,  Rydal  Mount,  Milltown,  Co.  Dublin:  proposed  by 
Robert  Cochrane,  F.S.A.,  Fellow,  Hon.  Gen.  Sec. 

Murphy,  J.  H.  Burke,  The  Agency,  Cultra,  Holy  wood,  Co.  Down:  proposed  by 
Edward  Allworthy. 

McGreeney,  Very  Rev.  Patrick,  Canon,  P.P..  Crossmaglen,  Co.  Armagh: 
proposed  by  S.  K.  Kirker,  Fellow. 

O'Neill,  "William  Purcell,  C.E.,  Eden  Vale,  Conyngham-road,  Dublin  :  proposed 
by  Charles  C.  Ormsby,  Felloiv. 

Warren,  the  Rev.  Thomas  (Member,  1890),  Belmont,  29,  Gipsey  Hill,  London, 
S.E. :  proposed  by  T.  J.  Westropp,  M.A.,  M.R.I.A.,  Fellow. 


Brodie,  Mrs.  Waldegrave,  Ballmahinch,  Tulla,  Co.  Clare  :  proposed  by  Thomas 
J.  Westropp,  M.A.,  M.R.I. A.,  Fellow. 

Byrne,  Miss,  19,  Main-street,  Blackrock :  proposed  by  W.  F.  Wakeman,  Hon. 

Conan,  Alexander,  Mount  Alverno,  Dalkey  :  proposed  by  Henry  F.  Baker. 

Courtney,  Charles  Marshall,  Mount  Minnitt,  Ballybrood,  Pallasgreen  :  proposed 
by  Jnmes  Grene  Barry,  J.P. 

Cunningham,  Miss  S.  C.,  Glencairn,  Belfast:  proposed  by  Seaton.F.  Milligan, 
M.R.I.A.,  Vice- President. 

Dixon,    Henry,   jun.,    5,    Cab ra- terrace,    Dublin:  proposed  by    George   Coffey, 

K.A.I.,   M.U.T.A.,  Fellow. 

Dowling,  Jeremiah,  sen.,  M.D.,  Nelson -street,  Tipperary  :  proposed  by  the  Rev. 
Denis  Hanan,  D.D. 

Elliott,  Rev.  Andrew,  The  Bar,  Trillick  :  proposed  by  Seaton  F.  Milligan,  M.K.I.A., 
/ 'ice  -  Presiden  t. 

Faren,  William,  Mount  Charles,  Belfast :  proposed  by  Seaton  F.  Milligan,  M.R.I.A., 
Vice- President. 

Field,  William,  M.P.,  Blackrock,  Co.  Dublin  :  proposed  by  W.  F.  Wakeman, 
Jfun.  Fellow. 

Field,  Miss,  Blackrock,  Co.  Dublin  :  proposed  by  W.  F.  Wakeman,  Hon.  Fellow. 

Goddeu,  George,  Phoenix  Park,  Dublin  :  proposed  by  the  Rev.  A.  D.  Purefoy. 

Gore,  John,  58,  Rutland-square,  Dublin  :  proposed  by  E.  Reginald  M'C.  Dix. 

Goodbody,  Henry  P.,  Obelisk  Park,  Blackrock:  proposed  by  the  Rev.  Professor 
Stokes,  D.D.,  M.K.I. A. 

Goodbody,  Miss,  Obelisk  Park,  Blackrock  :  proposed  by  the  Rev.  Professor 
Stokes,  D.D.,  M.K.I. A. 


Goodman,  Peter,  44,  Rutland-square,  Dublin  :  proposed  by  the  Very  Rev.  Canon 

Greaves,  Miss,  12,  Rathgar-road,  Dublin  :  proposed  by  "W.  F.  "Wakeman,  Hon. 

Griffin,  J.  J.,  M.D.,  Waterloo  Villa,  Greengate,  Plaistow,  London,  E.  :  proposed 
by  John  Cooke,  M.A.,  Fellow. 

Hall,  Rev.  Alexander,  B.A.,  Drogheda:  proposed  by  the  Rev.  W.  T.  Latimer,  B.A., 

Hemphill,  Rev.  Samuel,  D.D.,  Birr  Rectory,  Parsonstown  :  proposed  by  the  Rev. 
Denis  Hanan,  D.D. 

Henderson,  William  A.,  Belclare,  Leinster-road  West,  Dublin:  proposed  by 
E.  Reginald  M<C.  Dix. 

Higgins,  Patrick,  Town  Clerk's  Office,  Town  Hall,  Waterford :  proposed  by 
G.  D.  Burtcliaell,  M.A.,  M.R.I. A.,  Fellow. 

Julian,  James,  Lismore  House.  Tralee :  proposed  by  Miss  A.  M.  Rowan. 

Keith,  James,  Inspector  of  National  Schools,  The  Mall,  Westport  :  proposed  by 
W.  H.  Welply. 

Lucas,  Rev.  Frederick  John,  P.D.,  5,  Breffni-terrace,  Kingstown  :  proposed  by 
S.  A.  Quan- Smith. 

Lynch,  Rev.  James  Fetherston,  B.A.,  Cahirconlish  Rectory,  Pallasgrean  :  pro- 
posed by  James  Grene  Barry,  J.P. 

M'Ciill,  Patrick  J.,  T.C.,  25,  Patrick -street,  Dublin  :  proposed  by  D.  J. 

Meehan,  Rev.  Joseph,  c.c.,  Belhavel,  Dromahaire,  Co.  Leitrim:  proposed 
by  the  Rev.  James  O'Laverty,  P.P.,  M.R.I.A.,  Vice-President. 

Musgrave,  James,  D.L.,  Drumglass  House,  Belfast:  proposed  by  G.  D.  Buitchaell, 
M.A.,  M.R.I. A.,  Fellow. 

O'Malley,  Joseph,  B.E.,  10,  Glentworth-street,  Limerick:  proposed  by  Michael 

O'Meara,  the  Rev.  Eugene  H.,  Incumbent  of  Tallaght,  The  Vicarage,  Tallaght, 
Co.  Dublin:  proposed  by  the  Rev.  J.  F.  M.  ifrench,  M.R.I.A.,  Fellow. 

Ryan,  Thomas  V.,  Solicitor,  46,  St.  Stephen's-green,  Dublin :  proposed  by  E. 
Reginald  M'C.  Dix. 

Sandford,  Rev.  Herbert  JE.,  M.A.,  Drogheda:  proposed  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Healy. 

Speth,  George  William,  F.R.  HIST,  s.,  La  Tuya,  Edward  Road,  Bromley,  Kent: 
proposed  by  W.  J.  Chetwode  Crawley,  LL.D.,  D.C.L. 

Tallon,  Thomas,  T.C.,  Drogheda  :  proposed  by  Anthony  Scott. 

Tuite,  James,  M.P.,  14,  Greville-street,  Mullingar:  proposed  by  Patrick  J. 

Wallace,  Major  Robert  H.,  Downpatrick :  proposed  by  M.  J.  Nolan,  M.D. 

The  Report  of  the  Council  was  then  brought  forward,  and  read  as 
follows : — 


During  the  year  18U6,  137  new  names  were  added  to  the  Roll  of  the  Society. 
Deducting  the  names  of  those  who  have  died,  resigned,  or  been  struck  off  for  non- 
payment of  Subscriptions,  the  Roll  now  contains  the  names  of  200  Fellows,  and 
1146  Members — in  all  1346  names,  being  36  more  than  at  the  close  of  the  preceding 

The  deaths  of  six  Fellows  were  reported  during  the  year : — Francis  Edmund 
Currey,  J. p.,  William  John  Gillespie,  the  Most  Rev.  Dr.  Gregg,  Lord  Primate  ;  the  Earl 
of  Limerick,  K.P.  ;  the  Rev.  Denis  Murphy,  s.j.,  Vice  -  President  ;  and  the  Right 
Rev.  Dr.  Wynne,  Bishop  of  Killaloe. 


The  death  of  the  Rev.  Denis  Murphy  has  deprived  the  Society  of  one  of  its  most 
-active  and  useful  Members.  He  was  elected  a  Member  in  1878,  and  a  Fellow  in 
1890,  and,  at  the  same  time,  a  Member  of  the  Council,  of  which  he  continued  an 
•ordinary  Member  until  elected,  a  Vice -President  in  1894.  A  Memoir  and  Portrait 
have  been  published  in  the  Journal  for  1896,  p.  181.  The  following  Papers  by  him 
have  appeared  in  the  Journal : — 

"  Mungret  Abbey,  Co.  Limerick  "  (1889),  "  The  Wogans  of  Rathcoffey  "  (1890), 
"  The  Castle  of  Roscommon  "  (1891),  "  The  Shrine  of  St.  Caillin  of  Fenagh  "  (1892), 
"  On  the  Ornamentation  of  the  Lough  Erne  Shrine"  (1892),  "  The  College  of  the 
Irish  Franciscans  at  Louvain  "  (1893),  "Notes  on  Tara"  (1894),  in  conjunction 
with  Mr.  Westropp,  and  "  The  De  Verdons  of  Louth  "  (1895).  He  also  edited  "  The 
Annals  of  Clonmacnoise,"  issued  last  year  as  an  Extra  Volume. 

Mr.  Carrey  was  for  forty  years  a  Member  of  the  Society,  having  been  elected  in 
1855  ;  he  was  advanced  to  a  Fellowship  in  1871.  A  Paper  by  him  on  "  St.  Bridget's 
Church,  Britway,  Co.  Cork,"  was  published  in  the  Journal  for  1894. 

The  deaths  of  twenty  Members  have  been  reported,  and  the  resignations  of  four 
Fellows  and  twenty-nine  Members  have  been  accepted.  As  many  as  forty-one  names 
are  liable  to  be  removed  from  the  Roll  in  consequence  of  owing  more  than  two  years' 
subscriptions,  and  seventy-four  Members  have  not  paid  any  subscription  for  1896. 

The  Quarterly  Meetings  for  the  year  1897  have  been  fixed  as  follows  : — The 
Annual  General  Meeting  in  Dublin,  on  Tuesday,  the  12th  of  January  ;  the  Second  in 
Kilkenny  on  Easter  Monday,  19th  April;  the  Third  in  Mnnster  in  June  or  August; 
and  the  Fourth  in  Dublin  in  September.  In  connexion  with  these  Meetings  there 
will  be  an  Excursion  to  Drogheda  on  13th  January,  the  day  following  the  Annual 
General  Meeting,  and  excursions  will  be  arranged  in  connexion  with  the  other 
Meetings.  A  sea-trip,  the  particulars  of  which  are  given  hereafter,  has  been  arranged 
for  the  Munster  Meeting. 

On  the  1st  of  December  the  following  nominations  were  duly  made  for  the 
honorary  offices  now  falling  vacant,  in  accordance  with  the  Rules  of  the  Society : — 
For  President— Tli e  Right  Hon.  The  0' Conor  Don,  M.R.I.A.  For  Vice- Presidents — 
Thomas  Drew,  K.H.A.  (retiring  President),  for  Leinster;  W.  J.  Knowles,  M.H.I. A.,  for 
Ulster;  the  Rev.  J.  F.  M.  ffrench,  M.B.I. A.,  and  the  Right  Hon.  A.  H.  Smith-Barry, 
M.P.,  for  Munster  ;  and  Edward  Martyn,  D.L.,  for  Connaught.  For  seats  on  the  Council 
—Deputy  Surgeon -General  King,  M.A.,  M.B.,  M.R.I.A.,  Fellow;  W.  R.  Molloy,  M.R.I.A., 
Fellow,  and  J.  J.  Digges  LaTouche,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  M.R.I.A,  Fellow.  Also  as  Honorary 
President— His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Devonshire,  K.G.,  Fellow.  As  the  nominations 
have  not  exceeded  the  number  of  vacancies,  no  Ballot  will  be  necessary. 

The  Rev.  Canon  Courtenay  Moore,  who  was  elected  a  Member  of  the  Council  at 
the  last  Annual  General  Meeting,  finding  that  it  would  not  be  possible  for  him  to  give 
a  constant  attendance,  resigned  his  seat  on  the  12th  of  February,  which  was  filled,  on 
the  26th  of  February,  by  the  co-option  of  the  Rev.  Professor  Stokes. 

During  the  year  1896  the  Council  met  twelve  times,  and  the  Members  attended  as 
follows:— Mr.  Cochrane  (Hon.  Secretary],  12;  Mr.  Coffey,  9;  Mr.  Westropp,  9; 
Dr.  Wright,  9  ;  Mr.  Mills,  8  ;  Dr.  Joyce,  8 ;  Mr.  Drew  (President),  7  ;  Mr.  Cooke,  7  ; 
Mr.  Kelly,  7  ;  Mr.  Moore,  6;. Mr.  Langrishe,  5  ;  Rev.  Dr.  Healy,  4;  Rev.  Professor 
Stokes,  4  ;  Rev.  Mr.  ffrench,  3. 

The  financial  condition  of  the  Society  is  satisfactory.  Messrs.  Cooke  and  Robertson 
have  been  nominated  as  Auditors  of  the  Treasurer's  Accounts  for  1896,  and  their  Report 
will  be  laid  before  the  Second  Quarterly  Meeting,  in  accordance  with  the  Rules. 

Adjourned  Meetings  have  been  held  in  Dublin  in  connexion  with  the  last 
Quarterly  Meeting  of  the  Society,  for  the  purpose  of  reading  and  discussing  Papers 
unavoidably  held  over  from  the  Ordinary  Meeting.  These  have  proved  most  success- 
ful, and  it  is  proposed  to  pursue  the  same  course  during  the  winter. 

The  Council  hope  to  have  the  active  co-operation  of  the  Hon.  Local  Secretaries  who 



will  be  appointed  for  1897,  in  reporting  to  the  Hon.  General  Secretary  upon  all 
Antiquarian  finds  in  their  districts,  and  on  the  state  of  monuments  of  antiquity  in 
their  several  localities,  with  a  view  to  having  those  structures,  so  requiring  it,  brought 
within  the  provisions  of  the  Ancient  Monuments  Acts. 

Names  removed  from  the  lloll  in  1896  : — 

Deceased  (26). 

FELLOWS  (6).— F.  E.  Currey,  Member,  1855;  Fellow,  1871;  W.  J.  Gillespie, 
Member,  1873;  Fellow,  1888;  The  Most  Rev.  R.  S.  Gregg,  D.D.,  Lord  Primate, 
Member,  1875;  Fellow,  1889;  The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of  Limerick,  K.P.,  Fellow, 
1877  ;  The  Rev.  Denis  Murphy,  B.J.,  LL.D.,  Member,  1878  ;  Fellow,  1890;  The  Right 
Rev.  F.  R.  Wynne,  D.D.,  Bishop  of  Killaloe,  Eilfenora,  Clonfert  and  Kilmacduaghr 
Fellow,  1894. 

MEMBERS  (20).— Rear  Admiral  Alexander,  1892;  C.  H.  Brien,  1890;  J.  F. 
Calderwood,  J.P.,  1895;  John  Campion,  1889;  M.  J.  Clery,  J.P.,  1889;  Henry 
Edwards,  1892  ;  The  Dowager  Lady  Fitz  Gerald,  1889  ;  John  M.  Fitz  Gibbon,  1894  ; 
The  Rev.  Professor  Goodman,  M.A.,  1880;  C.  A.  Johnstone,  L.B.C.P.I.,  1891;  The 
Rev.  J.  J.  Keon,  P.P.,  1891;  J.  J.  Laffan,  1890;  J.  V.  Legge,  1892;  Denis 
M'Cormack,  1878;  Arthur  M'Mahon,  J.P.,  1889;  Miss  May,  1890;  John  R.  Mus- 
grave,  D.L.,  1890;  The  Very  Rev.  Francis  O'Brien,  P.P.,  M.U.I.A.,  1885;  The  Very 
Rev.  Canon  E.  O'Neill,  1894  ;  Edward  Tipping,  J.P.,  1895. 

Resigned  (33). 

FELLOWS  (4).— J.  G.  Barton,  Fellow,  1894  ;  His  Honor  Judge  Fitz  Gerald,, 
Fellow,  1893;  F.  M.  the  Right  Hon.  Viscount  Wolseley,  K.P.,  G.C.B.,  Fellow,  1891  ; 
W.  E.  Wilson,  Member,  1888  ;  Fellow,  1889. 

MEMHERS  (29).— Miss  Honor  Brooke,  1892;  the  Very  Rev.  T.  Btmbury,  D.D., 
1889  ;  the  Very  Rev.  F.  Burke,  M.A.,  1891  ;  James  Caverhill,  1895  ;  Miss  Chamney, 
1895;  the  Rev.  J.  H.  Cole,  B.A.,  1890;  the  Rev.  W.  Colquhoun,  M.A.,  1896;  the 
Rev.  J.  W.  Coulter,  B.A.,  1895;  Alderman  John  Coyle,  1889;  T.  C.  Dickie,  1889; 
the  Rev.  F.  S.  Gardiner,  M.A.,  1891  ;  J.  E.  Geoghegan,  1894  ;  R.  H.  Geoghegan, 
1894;  Mrs.  T.  G.  Houston,  1890;  John  Langan,  1889;  the  Newberry  Library, 
Chicago,  U.S.A.,  1892  ;  H.  V.  Macnamara,  D.L.,  1894  ;  the  Rev.  F.  H.  J.  M'Cormick, 
1889  ;  the  Rev.  J.  H.  Mervyn,  M.A.,  1891  ;  Andrew  Moore,  1890  ;  James  O'Connor, 
1895  ;  M.  W.  O'Connor,  J.P,,  1891  ;  the  Rev.  J.  J.  O'Grady,  1889  ;  the  Rev..  L.  A. 
Pooler,  M.A.,  1892;  J.  H.  Robinson,  1893,  the  Rev.  R.  Caledon  Ross,  1895;  Miss 
Rowan,  1888;  the  Rev.  P.  R.  Staunton,  P.P.,  1891  ;  J.  H.  Weldon,  J.P.,  1889. 

The  following  Members,  being  upwards  of  two  years  in  arrear,  have 
been  taken  off  the  list  of  those  receiving  the  Society's  Publications,  but 
will  be  reinstated  on  payment  of  the  amount  due  :  — 


1890  Atkinson,  Henry  J.,  Michigan,  U.S.A.,  ..       1894-1896 

1893  Brew,  T.  F.,  F.R.C.S.I.,  The  Cottage,  Ennistymon,     1895-1896 

1894  Clancy,  John,  T.C.,  Dublin,  . .  . .  . .        1895-1896 

1894     DeCourcy,  William,  J.P. ,  Urlingford,  ..       1895-1896 

1889  Dixon,  W.  MacNeile,  D.  LIT.,   Mason  College, 

Birmingham,  .. 

1894     Egan,  The  Rev.  S.,  c.c.,  Rush, 

1891  Gallagher,  P.  M.,  Donegal, 

1893     Goldon,  J.  W.,  M.D.,  Parsonstown,     .. 

1893     Hamilton,  Captain  J.  D.,  Lagos,  West  Africa, 

1890  Harris,  John,  Gal  way, 

1888     Hudson,  Robert,  M.D.,  Dingle, 
1890     Langan,  The  Rev.  T.,  D.D.,  Athlone, 

1895-1896      .. 



1895-1896     .. 



1895-1896     .. 



1895-1896     .. 



1895-1896     .. 



1894-1896     .. 



1895-1896     .. 



1895-1896      .. 









Lynch,  The  Rev.  P.  J.,  c.c.,  Monaghan, 


..      1 




Mac  Dei-mot,  C.  E.,  B.  A.,  Dublin, 


..      1 




MacNeill,  J.  G.  S.,  Q.C.,  M.P.,  Dublin, 


..      1 




M'Cartan,  M.,  M.P.,  Ulster  Buildings,  Belfast, 


..      1 




M'Girr,  The  Rev.  P.,  Aum.,  Westport, 


..      1 




M'Grath,  The  Rev.  T.,  P.P.,  Clogheen, 


..      1 




M'Kenna,  Very  Rev.  E.  W.,  P.P.,  V.F.,  Cumber 

Claudy,  Co.  Derry, 


..      1 




Mercer,  Rev.  W.Wilson,  Stradbally,  Queen's  Co., 


..      1 




Nash,  Ralph,  Limerick, 


..      1 




Nolan,  Rev.  C.,  c.c.,  82,  Summer-hill,  Dublin, 


..      1 




0'  Carroll,  F.  J.,  B.A.,  Hazelhatch, 


..     2 




O'Connor,  C.  A.,  M.A.,  Q.C.,  50,  Upper  Mount- 

street,  Dublin, 


..      1 




Orr,  Cecil,  Blackrock, 


..      1 




Powell,  F.  Y.,  M.A.,  Prof.,  Christ  Church,  Oxford, 


..      1 




Power,  Rev.  G.  B.,  B.A.,  Kilfane  Glebe,  Thomas- 



..      1 




Pure  ell,  M.,  Solicitor,  41,  Lr.  Sackville-st,  Dublin, 


..      1 




Ridgevvay,  W.,  M.A.,  Feu  Ditton,  Cambridge, 


..      1 




Roe,  W.  E.,  Mountrath, 


..      1 




Sealy,  J.  H.,  J.P.,  Kilbrittain, 


..      1 




Shanley,  Michael,  M.D.,  Atlilone, 


..      1 




Smith,  Rev.  Charles,  M.A., 


..      1 




Smith,  Christopher,  3,  Bellevue-  place,  Clonmel, 


..      1 




Smyth,  T.   J.,   I.L.B.,  Burrister,  28,  Goldsmith- 

street,  Dublin, 


..      1 




Sullivan,  Herbert,  J.P.,  Charleville,  .. 


..      1 




Sutherland,  P.    F.,   Municipal  Buildings,   Cork 

Hill,  Dublin, 


..      1 




Taylor,  The  Rev.  G.  B.,  LL.B.,  Clontarf, 


..      1 




Ward,  F.  E.,  Belfast, 


..      1 




Whayman,  Horace  W.,  Bellevue,  Newport,  Ken- 

tucky, U.S.A.,                .. 


..      1 



The  following  publications  were  received  during  the  year,  the 
donors,  where  not  specifically  named,  being  the  Councils  of  the 
respective  Societies:  — 

American  Antiquarian  Society  Journal,  vols.  x.  and  xi.,  Part  1  ;  Anthropological 
Institute  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  Journal,  vol.  xxv.,  Parts  3-5;  L'Anthropo- 
logie,  tomes  iii..  iv.,  v.,  vi.,  vii.  ;  and  "  Colonies  du  Mas  d'Azil ;  Association  for  the 
Preservation  of  Memorials  of  the  Dead  in  Ireland,  Report  and  Index,  1895  (Col.  P.  D. 
Vigors);  Belfast  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  Report,  vol.  iv.,  Part  3;  Bristol  and 
Gloucester  Archaeological  Society,  Transactions,  vol.  xix.,  Part  1  ;  Cambrian  Archaeo- 
logical Association,  Archaeologia  Cambrensis,  1896,  Part  50;  Cambridge  Antiquarian 
Society,  Proceedings,  vol.  ix.,  1894-95;  list  of  Members,  1896;  Chester  Architec- 
tural, Archaeological,  and  Historical  Society,  vol.  v.,  Part  4;  Cork  Historical  and 
Archaeological  Society,  Journal,  1896;  Hon.  Society  of  Cymmrodorion,  Transact  ions, 
1894-5;  Exeter  Diocesan  Architectural  and  Archaeological  Society,  Transactions; 
Geological  Survey  of  Canada,  Report,  vol.  viii.,  with  maps,  catalogue,  1893;  Geolo- 
gical Depaitment  United  States  of  America,  Report,  1892-3,  Monographs  xxiii.,  xxiv., 
Bulletins  118-122;  Historical  State  Society  of  Wisconsin,  Report,  December,  1895; 

90          ROYAL    SOCIETY    OF    ANTIQUARIES    OF    IRELAND. 

Institute  of  Civil  Engineers  of  Ireland,  vols.  xxiii.-xxv.  ;  Kildare  Archaeological 
Society,  Journal,  1895;  Numismatic  Society  Journal,  1895,  Series  iv.,  vol.  xv.,  Parts 
60-63;  Revue  Celtique,  vol.  xvi.,  No.  4,  vol.  xvii.,  Nos.  1-3;  Royal  Archaeological 
Institute  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  vol.  liii.,  Nos.  209,  210  ;  Hoyal  Dublin  Society, 
Scientific  Transactions,  August,  1894,  September,  1895  ;  Proceedings,  vol.  viii.,  Parts 
3  and  4  ;  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  Series  iii.,  vol.  iii.,  Nos.  1-20;  vol. 
lii.,  and  Calendar,  1896-97  ;  Royal  Institute  of  Cornwall,  vol.  xii.,  Part  2,  xiii.,  Part 
1;  Royal  Irish  Academy,  Transactions,  1896;  Proceedings,  Series  iii.,  vol.  iii.,  No.  4, 
The  Irish  Nennius;  St.  Albans  Architectural  and  Archaeological  Journal,  1893-4; 
Sheffield  Naturalists  Club,  Report,  1895;  Smithsonian  Institution,  Reports,  1883, 
1889-90,  1890-91,  1893;  List  of  Publications,  1894;  Monographs,  xxiii.,  xxiv. ; 
Bulletins  118,  122;  Chinook  texts  ;  Siouan  tribes  ;  Ancient  quarry ;  Investigations  on 
the  rivers  James  and  Potomac;  Societe  d'Archeologie  de  Bruxelles,  Annuaire  Tome 
vii.  x.;  livraison  1-4  to  January,  1896;  Societe  Royale  des  Antiquaires  du  Nord, 
Memoire,  Nouvelle  Serie,  1895;  Aarboger  for  Nordisk  Oldkyndighed  og  Historic, 
1895-6;  Foreningen  til  Nordisk  Fortidsmindesmerkers  Bevaring,  1844-94;  1892-3; 
1893-4  ;  Nonneseter  Klosterruiner,  Kunst  og  Haanverk;  Society  of  Antiquaries  of 
London,  Proceedings,  vol.  xv.,  Nos.  1-3  ;  Archaeologia,  Series  ii.,  vol.  iv.  ;  Society  of 
Antiquaries  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  Proceedings,  vii.,  21-22,  26-34;  Archaeologia 
Aeliana,  vol.  xviii.,  Parts  46-48,  Programmes,  &c.  ;  Society  of  Antiquaries  of 
Scotland,  Proceedings,  1894-5  ;  Society  of  Architects,  New  Series,  vol.  i.,  Nos.  8-10, 
vol.  iii.,  3-10,  vol.  iv.,  1  ;  Society  of  Biblical  Archaeology,  xvii.,  No.  8;  xviii.,  Nos.  1- 
7;  Surrey  Archaeological  Society,  vol.  xiii.,  Part  1;  "Watcrford  and  South -East  of 
Ireland  Society,  Journal,  vol.  ii.,  7-9  ;  "Wiltshire  Archaeological  Society,  Magazine, 
vol.  xxviii.,  Nos.  84,  85  ;  Abstracts  of  Inquisitions,  &c.  ;  Catalogue  of  Museum,  1896; 
Yorkshire  Archaeological  Society,  Parts  LIII.,  LIV.,  Excursion,  September,  1896 ;  The 
Artist,  January,  1896  (A.  Constable  &  Co)  ;  Le  Comte  de  Chambord,  Le  musee 
sociale  (President  de  Foffice  Irnperiale  des  Assurances  a  Berlin)  ;  British  and  American 
Archaeological  Society  of  Rome,  vol.  ii.,  No.  5.  (Secretary) ;  "  Castellani  de  Santelmo 
su  document!  inediti,"  by  Cavaliere  Lorenzo  Salazar ;  "  Storia  della  famiglia  Salazar," 
by  same  (The  Author)  ;  County  records  of  the  surnames  of  French,  &c.,  by  A.  D. 
Weld  ffrench,  Esq.  (The  Author)  ;  History  of  Irish  Almanacks  and  Directories 
(Peter  Roe,  Esq.) ;  The  Irish  Builder  for  1896  (Peter  Roe,  Esq.)  ;  The  Irish  Theo- 
sophist,  May,  1896  ;  Influence  of  Literature  on  Architecture,  reprinted  from  Journal, 
R.  I.  B.  A.,  by  A.  T.  Boltou  (The  Author)  ;  Through  the  Green  Isle,  by  M.  J.  Hurley 
{The  Author) ;  Guide  to  Youghal  and  the  Blackwater,  by  David  Comyn  (Messrs.  Purcell 
&  Co.)  ;  Youthful  exploits  of  Fionn,  translated  from  the  Psaltair  of  Cashel  by  David 
Comyn  (M.  H.  Gill) ;  The  Reliquary,  vol.  i.,  No.  3  ;  Folk -Lore  :  Royal  Society  of 
Literature  of  the  United  Kingdom,  1891.  The  permanent  photographs  given  to  the 
Society,  during  the  year  1896,  appear  in  the  Report  on  the  Photographic  Survey  in 
our  Journal,  December,  1896.— T.  J.  W. 

On  the  motion  of  Count  Plunkett,  Fellow,  seconded  by  Mr.  Garstin, 
Fellow,  the  Report  was  unanimously  adopted. 

The  following  nominations  having  been  received  by  the  Hon.  General 
Secretary  for  the  offices  falling  vacant  in  accordance  with  Nos.  16  and  17 
of  the  General  Rules  of  the  Society,  the  Elections  were  declared  as 
follows : — 


THE  RIGHT  HON.  O'CoxoR  DON,  P.C.,  LL.D.,  Member,  1869  ;  Hon.  Provincial 
Secretary  for  Connaught,  1876;  Fellow,  1888;  Vice- President,  1886; 
Patron,  1896. 



WILLIAM  JAMES  KNOWLKS,  M.R.I. A.,  Member,  1872;  Fellow,  1886  ;  Hon. 
Local  Secretary,  Antrim,  South. 


THOMAS  DREW,  U.K. A.,  F.R.I.B.A.,  Member,  1888;  Felloiv,  1889;  Vice- 
President,  1889-94  ;  President,  1894-97. 


THE  REV.  J.  F.  M.  FFRENCH,  M.R.I.A.,  Member,  1876  ;  Fellow,  1889  ;  Member 
of  Council,  1894;  Hon.  Local  Secretary,  Wicklow,  South. 



EDWARD  MARTYN,  D.L.,  Member,  1891 ;  Fellow,  1896  ;  Hon.  Local  Secretary 
for  Galway,  1892  ;  Hon.  Provincial  Secretary  for  Connaught,  1894. 


WILLIAM  R.  MOLLOY,  j. p.,  M.R.I. A.,  Member,  1870;  Fellow,  1871;  Member 

of  Council,  1892-94. 
DEPUTY    SURGEON-GENERAL    KING,    M.A.,    M.H.,   M.R.I. A.,    Member,   1883  ; 

Fellow,  1888;  Member  of  Council,  1891-96. 
JOHN  J.  DIGGES  LA  TOUCHE,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  M.R.I. A.,  Fellow,  1889  ;  Member  of 

Council,  1892-96. 


His  GRACE  THE  DUKE  OF  DEVONSHIRE,  K.G.,  P.C.,  M.A.  (Cantab.),  D.C.L., 
Lord  President  of  the  Council ;  Vice-President  of  the  British  Archaeo- 
logical Association,  Fellow,  1872  ;  Patron,  1895. 

The  Rev.  Professor  Stokes  moved,  and  Deputy  Surgeon-General  King, 
Felloic,  seconded  the  following  Resolution,  which  was  passed  unani- 
mously : — 

"  That  the  Society  regrets  to  have  heard  of  the  death  of  the  RKV.  DR.  STUBBS, 
Senior  Fellow  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  who  was  a  regular  attendant  at  all  its 
Meetings  and  Excursions,  and  requests  the  Rev.  Canon  Stoney,  the  Rev.  Mr. 
ffrench,  and  Dr.  Frazer,  to  represent  the  Society  at  his  funeral  to-morrow." 

The  Rev.  Canon  Stoney  said  that  as  the  Giant's  Causeway  was  an 
antiquity  of  Ireland,  and  an  attempt  was  being  made  to  close  it  and 
keep  it  from  the  people  of  Ireland,  he  would  like  to  know  if  it  would  be 
in  the  power  of  the  Council  to  vote  a  sum  of  money  towards  the  project 
for  keeping  opt-n  this  interesting  monument.  Similar  grants  had 
been  made  in  England. 

The  President  said  it  was  his  belief  that  it  would  be  in  the  power  of 
the  Council  to  vote  a  small  sum  for  the  purpose,  if  there  was  a  strong 
expression  of  opinion  that  such  a  thing  should  be  done.  It  would,  he 


was  sure,  be  a  national  misfortune  if  the  Giant's  Causeway  were  filched 
from  them. 

The  Rev.  Canon  Stoney  then  proposed  a  resolution  directing  the 
attention  of  the  Council  to  the  desirability  of  subscribing  a  sum,  to  be 
agreed  upon,  towards  the  movement  for  having  the  Giant's  Causeway 
kept  open  to  the  public. 

Dr.  Frazer,  who  seconded  the  motion,  said  he  thought  that  this 
would  be  a  proper  step  for  the  Council  to  take.  He  thought  the  gentle- 
men in  .Belfast  who  had  kindly  undertaken  to  fight  this  battle  on  behalf 
of  the  public  were  deserving  of  the  cordial  thanks  of  this  Society.  They 
should  all  strongly  protest  against  any  restrictions  of  the  rights  of  the 
public  in  connexion  with  the  Giant's  Causeway. 

The  motion  was  carried. 

The  following  Papers  were  read,  and  referred  to  the  Council : — 

By  MR.  KNOWLES — "  On   portion  of  an  Ancient  Harp  from  the  Crannoge  of 

Carncroagh,  Co.  Antrim." 
By  DR.  FRAZER— "  Irish  Gold  Ornaments." 
By  the  REV.  MR.  LETT—"  The  Dorsey,  Co.  Armagh." 
By  MAJ ou-  GENERAL  STUBBS,  R.A. — "  On  the  Monastic  History  of  Dromiskin,. 

Co.  Louth." 

The  Meeting  adjourned  at  5.30  p.m. 

The  Members  of  the  Dinner  Club,  with  several  other  Members  of 
the  Society,  to  the  number  of  41,  dined  together,  at  the  Shelbourne 
Hotel,  at  6  o'clock. 


•    .-;. 
After  Tea,  in  the  Council  Room  of  the  llo\  al  Dublin   Society,  the 

Society  again  met  at  8  o'clock,  p.m. ; 

THOMAS  DREW,  K.H.A.,  F.K.I.B.A.,  outgoing  President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  following  Papers  were  read,  and  referred  to  the  Council. 

By  the  REV.  STERLING  DE  COURCY  WILLIAMS — "The  History  of  Durrow,  King's- 

County."     Illustrated  with  Lantern  Slides. 
By  COLONEL  VIGORS — "Notarial  Signs  Manual." 
By  MR.  KNOWLES — "  Survivals  of  the  Palaeolithic  Age  among  Irish    Neolithic 


The  Meeting  then  adjourned  to  "Wednesday  evening,   the  24th  of 
1'ebruary,  at  8  o'clock. 


An  adjourned  Meeting  of  the  Society  was  held  on  Wednesday 
•evening,  24th  February,  1897,  in  the  Royal  Dublin  Society's  House 
(by  permission),  Kildare- street,  at  8.15  p.m.  ; 

The  President,  THE  RIGHT  HON.  O'CoNon  DON,  in  the  Chair. 

The  following  Vice-Presidents,  Fellows,  and  Members  were 
present :  — 

Fellows  :— Rev.  J.  F.  M.  ffrench,  M.K.I.  A.,  rice  -  President ;  Lord  Walter  Fitx 
Gerald,  Vice- President ;  Thomas  Drew,  PV..H.A.  Vice- President  ;  Col.  Philip  D.  Vigors, 
J.P.,  V ice- President ;  llobert  Cochrane,  Hon.  General  Secretary  ;  Robert  Lloyd  Wooll- 
combe.  LL.D.,  M.K.I. A.;  Thomas  J.  Westropp,  M.A.,  M.R.T.A.  ;  Henry  King,  M.A., 
M.B.,  M.U.T.A.  ;  E.  P.  Wright,  M.D.,  M.U.I. A.  ;  Wm.  R.  J.  Molloy,  J.P.,  M.K.I. A.  ; 
James  Mills,  M.R.I. A.  ;  George  Coffey,  B.E.,  M.R.I. A.  ;  Judge  Kane,  LL.D.,  M.R.I.A.  ; 
G.  A.  P.  Kelly;  Andrew  Robinson,  C.E.  ;  R.  Langrishe,  J.P.,  Kilkenny;  P.  J, 
Lynch,  C.E.,  Limerick;  J.  G.  Robertson,  Architect;  Dean  of  St.  Patrick's ;  J.  J. 
Digges  La  Touche,  LL.D. 

Members : — H.  F.  Berry,  M.A.  ;  Joseph  H.  Moore,  C.E.  ;  Miss  K.  L.  King ;  Francis 
P.  Thunder ;  Richard  J.  Kelly,  B.L.  ;  Valentine  Dunne ;  Richard  J.  Dunne ;  J. 
Charles;  Rev.  W.  W.  Campbell,  M.A.  ;  Mrs.  Shackleton;  William  C.  Stubbs :  H.  A. 
Cosgrave;  Mrs.  E.  W.  Smyth;  A.  H.  Braddell ;  Frederick  Franklin;  M.Edward 
Conway  ;  J.  Robertson  ;  Newton  B.  Ashley ;  S.  A.  Quan-Smith;  John  Carolin,  J.P.  ; 
J.  B.  Cassin  Bray;  Miss  Edith  Oldham  ;  D.  J.  O'Donoghue  ;  P.  J.  M'Call,  T.C.  ; 
J.  Poe  Dalton;  C.  J.  M'Neill ;  Joseph  Gough,  &c. 

There  was  a  large  attendance  of  Visitors. 

0' Conor  Don,  on  taking  the  Chair,  said : — 

LADIES  AND  GENTLEMEN, — My  first  duty  this  evening  must  be  the  very 
agreeable  one  of  thanking  you  for  the  honour  you  have  conferred  on  me 
in  unanimously  electing  me  as  your  President.  This  duty  ought 
probably  to  have  been  performed  at  an  earlier  date,  but  other  engage- 
ments left  it  out  of  my  power  to  be  present  at  your  Annual  Meeting 
when  my  name  was  first  brought  before  you.  The  compliment  paid  to 
me  by  this  selection  was  as  unexpected  as  1  fear  it  was  undeserved  ;  for 
although  I  have  been  a  Member  of  this  Association  for  over  a  quarter  of 
a  century,  circumstances  have  hitherto  prevented  my  taking  that  active 
part  in  your  proceedings  and  deliberations  which  I  should  have  wished 
to  do,  and  which  might  have  entitled  me  to  be  thought  of  when 
the  time  had  arrived  for  the  election  of  a  new  President.  Having 
thus  no  personal  claim  to  the  high  position  in  which  you  have  placed  me 
I  must  look  for  some  other  reason  for  my  selection,  and  I  may  find  it  in 
the  fact  that  I  have  been,  for  many  years,  one  of  the  representatives  on 
your  governing  body  of  the  distant  province  of  Connaught,  and  that  in 
selecting  your  Presidents  yOu  desire  to  show  that  the  Society  now 
embraces  every  portion  of  this  country.  As  we  all  know,  this  Associa- 
tion was  originally  founded  mainly  in  connexion  with  the  city  and 


county  of  Kilkenny;  it  next  extended  to  the  south-eastern  portion  of 
Ireland,  and  subsequently,  within  a  very  few  years,  it  took  within  its 
influence  and  labours  the  whole  of  our  country.  Notwithstanding  this, 
naturally,  for  many  years  the  majority  of  its  Members  were  connected 
with  that  portion  of  Ireland  where  the  Association  was  founded,  and 
your  first  Presidents,  and  the  acting  Members  of  your  Council  were 
mainly  taken  from  residents  in  the  eastern  and  south-eastern  districts. 
The  Society  has,  however,  now  become  a  national  one.  You  have,  I 
believe,  Members  from  every  county  in  Ireland,  and  the  interest  in  your 
work  is  propagated  and  maintained  in  every  portion  of  the  island, 
through  the  provincial  meetings  and  excursions  which  annually  take 
place.  I  may  then  safely  assume  that  in  selecting  your  President  on 
this  occasion  from  the  ancient  kingdom  of  Connaiight  you  desire  to  show 
the  extent  to  which  your  Association  has  become  national,  and  the 
compliment  you  have  paid  to  me  I  willingly  accept  on  behalf  of  my 
native  province.  Apart  altogether  from  the  merits  or  demerits  of  the 
individual  whom  you  may  select,  there  is,  however,  one  disadvantage 
connected  with  the  selection  of  your  President  from  a  distant  portion 
of  the  country,  and  that  is,  that  his  attendance  at  your  Meetings  cannot 
be  of  that  regular  and  constant  character  which  the  head  of  an  Associa- 
tion like  this  ought  to  give.  I  feel  this  particularly  in  my  own  case. 
My  other  avocations,  and  the  fact  that  I  reside  so  little  in  Dublin  will 
prevent  me,  I  fear,  from  taking  part  in  your  proceedings,  and  presiding 
at  your  Meetings  as  often  as  your  President  ought  to  do,  and  I  must  in 
the  very  beginning  prepare  you  for  this,  and  ask  for  your  forbearance. 
It  would  give  me  the  greatest  pleasure  to  attend  here  regularly,  and  I 
know  that  I  should  find  the  pursuit  and  study  of  your  archasological 
investigations  most  engrossing;  but  circumstances  will  not  permit  this, 
and  I  fear  that  whilst  your  President  hails  from  Connaught,  he  must  be 
represented  by  deputy  at  many  of  your  Meetings ;  but  whilst  absent  in 
person  I  can  assure  you  that  he  will  be  with  you  in  spirit,  and  that  any 
assistance  he  can  render  to  the  Association  will  most  willingly  be  given. 
When  notified  that  I  had  been  elected  as  your  President  my  first 
thoughts  turned  towards  my  duties  on  taking  the  chair,  and  I  hoped  to 
have  been  able,  in  an  Inaugural  Address,  to  have  laid  before  you  a  short 
account  of  this  Association  since  its  infancy,  of  the  progress  it  had  made, 
of  the  good  work  which  it  had  accomplished,  of  its  objects,  and  how 
they  had  been  attained.  This,  perhaps  ambitious,  programme  I  have 
been  obliged  for  the  present  to  lay  aside.  Probably  a  more  fitting 
opportunity  may  soon  be  given  for  its  realisation. 

Just  now,  beyond  returning  you  my  thanks,  I  shall  be  very  brief  in 
my  observations.  I  would,  however,  ask  you  to  remember  the  objects 
for  which  this  Association  was  formed.  They  were  clearly  defined  in 
the  beginning,  and  have  been  ratified  repeatedly  since  then.  They  were 
threefold,  viz.  : — To  preserve,  examine,  and  illustrate  all  ancient  monu- 


inents   of   the   history,   language,   arts,    manners,   and  customs   of   our 

I  will  not  now  stop  to  examine,  in  detail,  how  these  objects  can  be 
best  accomplished.  T  wish  to  deal  merely  with  one  of  the  most  effective 
means  towards  obtaining  the  end  which  we  have  in  view,  and  that  is  the 
dissemination  of  knowledge  amongst  the  peasantry  and  ordinary  popula- 
tion of  the  country,  in  regard  to  those  ancient  monuments.  I  regret  to 
say  that  I  fear  such  knowledge,  instead  of  increasing,  is  on  the  wane. 
It  may  be  true  that  at  the  top  of  the  social  and  literary  ladder  archaeo- 
logical knowledge  has  made,  and  is  making,  great  strides,  and  that 
amongst  learned  men  more  is  known  of  the  origin  and  true  use  of  the- 
ancient  monuments  scattered  over  the  land  than  in  former  days,  but 
amongst  the  population  at  large  I  fear  the  reverse  of  this  is  the  case. 
Strange  as  it  may  seem,  education,  popularly  so  called,  seems  to  be 
driving  out  all  local  traditions  and  all  local  knowledge  of  the  different 
interesting  and  wonderful  remains  connected  with  the  past  history  and 
manners  and  customs  of  the  former  inhabitants  of  this  island.  Some 
generations  ago  every  child  in  a  parish  knew  of  the  existence  of  the  old 
forts  and  raths  and  crornleachs,  of  the  ruined  castles  and  abbeys,  within 
that  parish.  Some  history,  some  legend,  some  tradition,  or  some  fairy 
tale  was  attached  to  each.  To  every  generation,  as  it  grew  up,  the 
traditions  of  the  past  were  handed  down,  mixed  up,  no  doubt,  with 
fabulous  and  mysterious  stories,  but  still  traditions  with  some  ground- 
work of  truth — traditions  that  kept  alive  an  interest,  a  wondering 
respectful  interest,  in  these  ancient  remains.  In  the  long  winter 
evenings  the  children,  gathered  round  the  fires  in  the  humble  cottages 
of  the  people,  were  entertained  with  marvellous  stories  of  the  past,  with 
histories  of  the  giants  of  former  ages,  and  of  the  wars  and  battles  waged 
in  their  own  particular  locality — histories  and  stories  often  intermingled 
with  the  sayings  and  doings  of  the  fairies,  or  the  "  good  people,"  and  all 
connected  in  some  shape  or  form  with  the  tangible  ruins  and  remains 
within  the  district.  Such  stories,  or  such  gossip,  containing  more  poetry 
than  prose,  yet  kept  alive  ancient  traditions,  and  preserved  a  local 
knowledge  which  unfortunately  is  now  fast  dying  out.  At  the  present 
day,  in  some  parts  of  Ireland,  1  may  say  there  is  scarcely  any  knowledge 
even  of  the  existence  of  those  ancient  monuments  in  the  localities  where 
they  are  to  be  found. 

Our  country  almost  everywhere  is  studded  over  with  most  interesting 
landmarks  of  its  past  history,  either  forts,  or  raths,  or  pillar- stones,  or 
ancient  castles,  or  ruined  churches,  beautifully  carved  crosses,  towers,  or 
sepulchral  remains,  yet  if  a  stranger  were  to  ask  the  present  generation 
of  the  inhabitants  of  some  of  these  districts  where  he  could  find  a  par- 
ticular monument  which  he  wished  to  examine,  he  would  obtain  little  or 
no  guidance  from  them.  The  child  every  day  passes  these  monuments 
going  to  and  coming  from  his  national  school,  he  never  gives  a  thought  to 


them,  lie  hears  nothing  of  them  at  school,  and  he  knows  more  about  the 
situation  of  the  rivers  in  South  America,  or  the  mines  in  Western 
Australia,  than  he  does  of  the  national  monuments  existing  within  a  few 
hundred  perches  of  his  father's  door.  The  evenings  are  now  spent  in 
preparing  the  school  work  for  the  next  day.  The  teachers,  as  a  rule, 
know  nothing  about  the  remains  of  the  past,  and  the  national  school 
children,  that  is  to  say  the  whole  rural  population,  are  now  growing  up 
in  absolute  ignorance  of  the  very  existence  of  any  monument  requiring 
explanation.  The  children,  no  doubt,  see  these  forts  and  raths  and 
sepulchral  remains  and  ruins,  but  they  see  nothing  in  them  to  inquire 
about.  They  pass  them  as  they  would  pass  a  field  of  grass,  giving  as 
little  thought  to  their  origin  as  they  give  to  the  wonderful  mystery  of 
how  the  grass  grows,  or  the  trees  and  shrubs  put  forth  buds  and  leaves 
in  the  spring  and  early  summer.  All  the  old  stories  and  traditions  and 
history  of  the  past  are  dying  out,  and  local  knowledge  of  the  local  events 
of  even  two  or  three  centuries  ago  is  almost  gone.  Well,  I  cannot  help 
thinking  that  this  is  a  great  misfortune,  and  that  through  it  one  of  the 
most  potent  means  of  preserving,  examining,  and  illustrating  our  ancient 
monuments  is  fast  slipping  out  of  our  hands.  Cun  we  do  anything  to  pre- 
vent this,  and  if  so,  might  not  some  of  our  energies  be  usefully  employed 
in  the  attempt  ?  We  have  heard  a  great  deal  lately  of  all  that  may  be 
learned  by  watching  sharply  and  imitating  the  example  set  by  the  Danes. 
Denmark  has  been  represented  as  a  country  very  much  like  Ireland  in 
regard  to  the  avocations  of  the  people,  and  Danish  butter  and  Danish 
bacon  have  been  driving  our  produce  out  of  British,  and  even  out  of  Irish, 
markets.  It  is  not  alone  with  regard  to  agricultural  pursuits  that  we 
may  learn  something  from  our  northern  neighbours.  Pig-sticking  and 
milk -skimming  are  not  the  only  pursuits  in  which  apparently  their  example 
may  benefit  us.  I  was  much  struck  lately  by  reading  an  account  given 
in  the  very  first  number  of  your  Journal  si  the  care  the  Danes  have  taken 
in  preserving  a  local  knowledge  of  their  ancient  monuments,  and  of  the 
success  which  has  attended  their  efforts.  With  your  permission  I  will 
read  a  few  extracts  from  the  observations  contained  in  this  Journal.  They 
are  as  follows  : — "  In  the  course  of  an  admirable  address,  delivered  to  the 
members  of  the  lloyal  Irish  Academy,  by  that  eminent  Danish  antiquary, 
Mr.  J.  A.  Worsaae,  it  was  stated  that  amongst  the  other  methods  used 
in  order  to  awaken  the  people  of  Denmark  to  a  sense  of  the  importance 
of  national  antiquities,  the  lloyal  Society  of  Northern  Antiquaries  in 
Copenhagen  had  published  illustrated  tracts  explanatory  of  popular 
antiquities,  with  instructions  as  to  the  best  way  of  preserving  them, 
many  thousand  copies  of  which  were  spread  gratuitously  over  the  face 
of  the  country,  amongst  the  clergy,  schoolmasters,  and  peasants.  This 
measure  has  been  attended  with  the  most  ample  success.  The  importance 
and  interest  of  the  ancient  monuments  of  Denmark  are  now  universally 


acknowledged,  and  the  formation  of  a  museum  of  national  antiquities  un- 
equalled in  Europe  has  been  the  result."  Your  Council  at  that  day, 
nearly  fifty  years  ago,  went  on  to  say  :  "It  was  much  to  be  wished  that 
this  admirable  example  had  long  ere  now  been  followed  in  this  country. 
The  Kilkenny  Society  feels  that  it  would  ill  discharge  one  of  the  chief 
ends  of  its  formation  did  it  not  endeavour,  as  far  as  its  limited  means  and 
humble  sphere  of  operations  will  admit,  to  diffuse  amongst  the  people  a 
spirit  similar  to  that  so  successfully  excited  in  Denmark,  and  by  the 
means  there  found  to  be  so  effective."  "  Neither  let  it  be  said  that  such 
subjects  as  fairy  lore  and  the  traditions  of  the  peasantry  are  trivial  and 
unimportant ;  on  the  contrary,  the  most  eminently  learned  men  of  this 
and  other  nations  have  acknowledged  their  great  value  in  connexion  with 
the  study  of  the  early  history  of  mankind,  and  in  assisting  to  unravel 
the  tangled  web  of  primeval  mythology."  Being  at  that  time  only  in 
their  infancy,  they  go  on  to  suggest  a  number  of  most  searching  and 
useful  queries  to  be  distributed  throughout  the  country  with  the  object 
of  obtaining  all  possible  local  information  as  to  the  existence,  situation, 
and  condition  of  the  various  ancient  monuments  scattered  over  the  king- 
dom. Nearly  fifty  years  have  passed  since  the  lines  which  1  have  read  to 
you  were  penned,  and  since  those  queries  were  drawn  out  for  distribution. 
During  those  years  a  vast  amount  of  information  has  been  collected.  Most 
valuable  papers  have  been  from  time  to  time  prepared  and  read  at  the 
various  meetings  of  the  Association,  but  the  information  contained  in 
these  papers  for  the  most  part  lies  buried  here,  there,  and  everywhere  in 
your  volumes,  and  if  anyone  wants  to  find  out  what  information  the 
Association  has  succeeded  in  obtaining  with  regard  to  the  historical 
monuments  of  any  particular  portion  or  district  of  the  country,  thousands 
of  pages  have  to  be  gone  over,  with  perhaps  an  unsatisfactory  result  in 
the  end.  Have  we  not  now  arrived  at  a  period  when  something  more 
might  be  done  to  utilise  the  information  already  gathered  together,  and 
to  make  it  more  generally  diffused  amongst  our  people  ?  It  seems  to  me 
that  if  our  funds  permitted  it,  much  might  be  done  by  a  reprint  of  many 
of  these  papers  to  which  I  have  alluded,  locally  arranged,  so  that  all 
dealing  with  a  particular  district  or  locality  might  be  placed  together ; 
and  if  such  were  published  in  pamphlet  form  and  distributed  through  the 
teachers  to  different  schools  in  country  places,  a  lively  interest  might 
be  created  in  the  monuments  daily  seen  by  the  pupils,  and  local  knowledge, 
which  is  so  slight  at  present,  might  be  revived.  I  throw  this  out  merely 
<is  a  suggestion  for  the  consideration  of  those  better  informed  than  I  am 
•as  to  the  possibilities  of  carrying  it  out.  But  certainly  I  am  of  opinion 
that  some  steps  should  be  taken  to  revive  that  local  interest  which  is  fast 
disappearing,  and  which  if  not  revived  will  soon  be  extinct.  I  said  in 
the  beginning  this  evening  that  my  remarks  should  be  brief,  and  I  must 
keep  to  that  engagement.  We  shall  soon,  I  trust,  be  celebrating  the 
jubilee  of  this  Association,  and  let  us  endeavour  in  the  short  time  that 

JOUR.  K.S.A.I.,   VOL.  VII.,  PT.  I.,   5'1'H   SER.  H 


will  elapse  before  that  event  to  do  everything  that  we  can  to  show  that 
the  Association  has  accomplished  some  of  the  objects  for  which  it  was 
founded,  and  that  it  can  worthily  and  with  pride  enter  on  such  celebration. 
The  following  Papers  were  read,  and  referred  to  the  Council  for 
publication : — 

"The  Tomb  of  Baine  and  the  Inscribed-stones  at  Knockmaney,  Co.  Tyrone." 
Illustrated  with  Lantern  Slides.  By  Mr.  George  Coffey,  M.R.I. A.,  Fellow. 

"  St.  Maiy's  Cathedral,  Limerick  :  its  Plans  and  Canopied  Tombs,"  by  Mr.  T.  J. 
"Westropp,  M.A.,  M.K.I. A.,  Fellow. 

The  Meeting  adjourned  until  the  19th  of  April,  1897,  at  Kilkenny. 

WEDNESDAY,  13th  January,  1897. 

LEAVING  the  railway  station,  in  a  few  minutes  ST.  MARY'S  CHURCH  was 
reached.  The  present  church,  founded  1807,  occupies  the  site  of 
an  older  church,  which  took  the  place  of  the  Carmelite  Monastery,  of 
which  a  small  portion  is  still  standing.  The  oldest  tombstone  is  dated 
1525,  and  bears  the  names  of  Delahoyd  and  Hill.  A  very  well-preserved 
portion  of  the  old  town-wall  of  Drogheda  bounds  the  churchyard  on  the 
southern  side.  On  the  eastern  side,  and  overlooking  "  the  Dale,"  the 
portion  of  the  wall  representing  "Cromwell's  Breach"  is  seen. 
"  Cromwell's  Mound "  stood  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Dale. 

Not  far  from  St.  Mary's  is  "the  MILLMOUNT."  A  martello  tower 
stands  on  an  ancient  tumulus,  usually  classed  along  with  Dowth  and  New 
Grange,  and  believed  to  be  "the  grave  of  the  wife  of  Gobban."  It  is 
conjectured  that  Turgesius,  the  Dane,  made  this  his  headquarters  (in  the 
ninth  century).  Here  Cromwell  put  the  garrison  to  the  sword,  llth 
September,  1649. 

THE  CASTLE  OF  DROGHEDA,  erected  in  the  twelfth  century,  shortly 
after  the  English  invasion,  stood  in  the  "Bull  King."  In  1234  a 
murage  charter  was  granted.  Further  subsidies  were  granted  in  1279, 
1296,  and  1316,  for  repairs  of  walls  and  towers. 

On  the  north  side  of  the  town,  and  close  to  "  Sunday's  Gate,"  is  the 
"  MAGDALENE  STEEPLE,"  remnant  of  the  Dominican  Abbey  of  St.  Mary 
Magdalene,  founded  in  1224  by  Lucas  de  Netterville. 

Here,  in  1395,  the  four  Ulster  chieftains,  O'Neill,  O'Donnell, 
O'Hanlon,  and  Mac  Mahon  did  homage  to  Richard  II.  In  1494 
"  Poynings'  Law  "  was  enacted  here  by  the  Parliament  of  the  Pale. 

In  the  COURTHOUSE  there  were  seen  :- — 

I.  THE  SEALS  OF  THE  CORPORATION  OF  DUOGHEDA. — These  are  three  in 
number :  the  largest,  ti  modern  round  steel  seal,  worked  by  a  lever,  has 
a  portion  of  the  arms  of  the  town,  with  the  legend,  "Municipal 
Corporation  of  Drogheda."  The  second  is  one  beautiful  piece  of  corne- 

1  By  the  llev.  Herbert  Sandford,  M.A.,  the  Rev.  E,  B.  Fitzmaurice,  O.S.F.,  and 
the  Rev.  Alexander  Hall,  K.A. 

I    1 


lian,  about  3  inches  long  by  £-inch  square ;  it  has  the  whole  of  the  arms 
of  the  Corporation  of  Drogheda,  with  the  motto:  "Deus  Praesidium. 
Mercatura  Decus."  The  engraving  of  this  seal  is  exquisite.  It  is  small, 
yet  every  line  and  letter  of  arms  and  motto  are  most  distinct.  The  third 
and  smallest  seal  is  likewise  one  piece  of  cornelian ;  it  has  the  cres  t  of 
the  town  (a  crescent,  with  a  star  between  the  horns),  and  the  ino  tto, 
"  Deus  Praesidium,"  etc. 

2.  THE  MAPS. — These  are  two.     The  better  one,  dated  1778,  made 
by  Taylor  and  Skinner,  is  very  clear  in  every  detail.     The  second  one, 
which  may  be  a  century  older,  is  the  celebrated  "  Newcomen  "   map, 
which  D' Alton  has  roughly  sketched  in  his   "History  of  Drogheda." 

3.  THE  SWORD  (Civic).  — This  in  itself  is  not  remarkable  as  a  work  of 
art.    The  blade  is  fastened  by  rust  into  the  scabbard,  which  is  of  leather, 
with  silver-gilt  mountings,  bearing,  at  intervals,  the  arms  of  the  Order  of 
the  Garter,  with  the  motto  "  Honi  soit  qui  mal  y  pense."    The  boss  of  the 
hilt  is  of  silver  gilt ;  the  bar  is  a  piece  of  silver  gilt,  with  some  wretched 
attempts  at  line-engraving.     No  date  can  be  assigned  to  this  sword,  but 
the  right  of  the  Mayor  of  Drogheda  to  have  it  borne  before  him,  dates 
back  to  the  year  1463  or  thereabouts,  when  Edward  IV.  was  king. 

4.  THE  MACE. — This  bears  its  date  upon  itself  in  the  letters  W  R, 
which  mean,  of  course,    WilJielmus  Rex,   or  William  III.     This  mace, 
which  is  one  of  the  finest  in  Ireland,  is  of  very  pure  silver  and  of  Irish 
manufacture.     The  ornamentation  about  the  knob  is  in  repousse  work, 
and  along  the  shaft  in  bad  engraving.     Portions  of  the  mace  which  were 
broken,  probably  by  some  former  careless  mace-bearer  returning  to  the 
Tholsel  after  some  banquet  at  the  Mayoralty  House,  were  cleverly  replaced 
in  lead  by  some  local  smith,  whether  silver,  black,  or  tin  smith,  history 
sayeth  not. 

5.  THE  CHARTERS. — These  are  two  : — One,  by  King  James  II.,  in  the 
year  1687  ;  the  other  by  King  William  III.  soon  after  the  Battle  of  the 

ST.  PETER'S  CHURCH  is  approached  through  very  massive  and  handsome 
wrought-iron  gates  of  modern  date.  The  churchyard  is  an  old  cemetery 
containing  several  interesting  tombs,  notably,  those  bearing  the  nam  es  of 
Goldynge,  Darditz,  and  Elcock.  The  church  itself  (1748)  is,  externally, 
rather  distinguished  for  massiveness  than  beauty,  the  architecture  being 
of  the  mixed  style  characteristic  of  many  of  the  churches  of  that  date. 
The  interior  of  the  church  is  fine,  with  pillars,  galleries,  and  wainscoting 
of  oak.  It  contains  several  objects  of  antiquarian  interest. 

The  Communion  Plate  is  very  fine,  having  been  presented  by  Sir 
Henry  Tichbourne  in  the  year  1667.  The  most  interesting  monuments 
in  the  church  are  those  of  Francis  Leigh,  the  Right  Hon.  Henry 
Singleton,  Rev.  John  Magee,  and  Bishop  Pullen. 

Lunch  was  served  at  2  p.m.,  in  the  Mayoralty  Rooms  (by  permission  of 
the  Mayor),  who  was  present  as  a  guest,  and  in  the  afternoon,  before  leaving, 
the  Members  had  tea  in  the  Rectory,  kindly  provided  by  Mrs.  Sandford. 



FOR  THE   YEAR  1897. 




earliest  mention  of  Dromiskin,  or,  as  it  would  be  more  correctly 
spelt  now,  Drumiskin,  is  the  establishment  there  of  a  church,  or 
monastery,  by  St.  Patrick  : — 

"  Extruxit  etiam  ecclesiam,  postea  celebrem,  quae  Druim-Inisclainn,1  ap- 
pellatuv,  in  regione  de  Delbna  ;  in  qua  etiam  duo  ex  ejus  discipulis,  nempe  Da- 
Luanus  de  Croebheach  et  Lugadius  ^Enghusio,  Natfraichi  filio,  Mumoniae  Rege, 
natus."  2 

to  which  Colgan  appends  this  note  :• — 

"  Nobile  Monasterium  de  Druim  inis  clinn  (Canonicorum,  ut  puto,  Regula- 
rium)  est  in  ea  Comitatus  Luthensis  parte  quse  hie  Delbna  appellatur,  et  est 
juxta  civitatem  Pontanam" — 

a  remark  which,  evidently,  misled  Archdall,  Lanigan,  and  others,  as  to 
its  position,  which  they  assigned  to  Drumshallon,  within  four  miles  of 
the  municipal  bounds  of  Drogheda.3 

1  Druim-Ineasglainn  .  .  .  The   place  is  now  called   in  English  Drumiskin,    but 
always  Druminisklin  by  the  natives  of  the  Fews  and  Cuailgne,  who  speak  the  Irish 
very  'fluently.— "  Ann.  Q.  M.,"  A.D.  788,  Note. 

2  Trias  Thaum.  Sept.  Vita  XII.     The  name  Delvin  is  now  limited  to  a  barony  in 
the  north  part  of  tbe  county  Westmeath. 

3  The   word  "juxta,"    used  by    Colgan,   might  be  applied  to  a  place   fourteen 
statute  miles  distant.     He  evidently  means  it  was  somewhere  near  the  civil  limits  of 

JOUlt.   U.S. A. I.,   VOL.  VII.,  I'T.  II.,   OTH   SKK. 


102          ROYAL    SOCIETY    OF    ANTIQUARIES    OF    IRELAND. 

The  neighbouring-  abbey  of  Louth  maintained  its  ecclesiastical  posi- 
tion much  longer  than  did  that  of  Dromiskin.  It  may  appear  improbable 
that  two  churches,  eacji  in  tended. -to-^ena  centre  of  missionary  work  in  a 
c ountry  on ly  diml^ illuminated  by  a  glimmer  of  Christianity,  should  have- 
been  established  and  built  about  the  same  time,  at  Dromiskin  and  at  Louth, 
within  six  miles  of  each  other,  but  it  is  really  not  so.  The  fertile  plain 
of  Muirtheimhne  was  a  granary  for  the  marsh  and  forest  country  on  its- 
west,  which  grew '  comparatively  little  corn,  and  for  the  mountainous 
districts  to  the  north,  which  mostly  reared  cattle.  The  beauty  of  its 
gently  undulating  surface  attracted  the  notice  of  the  apostle  as  he 
travelled  northwards  from  Munster,  after  his  seven  years'  sojourn  there. 
Dromiskin  lay  close  to  the  high  road  leading  to  Ulster,  along  the  shore 
of  Dundalk  bay.  It  seems  evident  that  the  founding  of  a  church  at 
Dromiskin  must  be  assigned  to  this  time,  for  the  first  presiding  bishop  or 
abbot  of  the  establishment  was  Lugaidh,  son  of  ^Enghus,  King  of 
Munster,  who  had  been  baptized  by  St.  Patrick,  at  Cashel,  while  he  was- 
in  the  South  of  Ireland.  Colgan  mentions  another  disciple  of  the  saint 
as  being  at  Dromiskin  at  the  same  time,  Dalua,  or  Molua  of  Creevah,1 
but  of  him  we  know  nothing  further  here.  Lugaidh  is  numbered  among 
the  saints  of  Ireland.  He  died  A.D.  515  or  516,  and  his  festival  is 
November  2nd.2 

Many  suppose  that  the  monastery  at  Louth  was  senior,  in  point  of 
time,  to  that  at  Dromiskin  ;  but,  as  St.  Patrick  seems  to  have  left  Ard 
Patrick3  for  Armagh,  while  Mochta  was  engaged  in  building  it,  there  is 
every  reason  to  conclude  that  Dromiskin  abbey  was  then  already  built, 
and  the  fact  that  a  son  of  the  royal  house  of  Munster  was  appointed  to 

1  "Do-Lue  of  Croibech,  and  Lugaid,  son  of  Oengus,  son  of  Natfraech,  it  is  they 
who,  of  Patrick's  household,  are  in  Druim  Inisclaind  in  Delbna." — "  Tripartite  Life,'* 
p.  77.     Colgan  Latinizes  tlie  name  as  Da-luanus. 

2  Colgan,  in  giving  a  list  of  those  saints  who  had  enlightened  Ireland  by  the- 
sanctity  of  their  lives,  mentions  Lugadius,  and  says  he  hud  two  festival  days — May 
12th  (Menologium  Geneal.  Martyr.  Tallaght :  Marian  0' Gorman)  ;  and  November  2nd 
(Marian  O'Gorman),  the  latter  being  the  day  celebrated  at  Drumiskin. — "  Acta  SS.,"" 
p.  162,  Note  1. 

3  This  may,  I  think,  be  gathered  from  that  part  of  the  "Tripartite  Life  "  (Trias. 
Thaum.,  chaps.  65-  67)  where  it  is  stated  that  St.  Patrick  came  to  the  people  of  Fer- 
Ross  (Carrickmacross),  and  proposed  building  a  church  at  Druimmor,  near  to  which  a 
church,  afterwards  called  Cluain  Chaoin  (Clunkeen),  was  subsequently  built,  when  an 
angel  admonished  him  that  not  there,  but  at  another  place  towards  the  north,  com- 
monly named  Macha,  the  Lord  was  pleased  that  his  church  should  be.     But  that  as 
Clonkeen  was  a  pleasant  spot,  a  foreign  saint,  native  of  Britain,   would  eivct  one 
there.     "  On  hearing   this,  Patrick  gave  thanks,  and  retired  to  a  certain  hill   not 
far  distant,  towards  the  east,  '  where  he  founded  a  church,  called  Ard  Patrick.'  "    While- 
there,  at  "the  monastery  of  Ard,  St.  Mocteus,  by  nation  a  Briton,  built  a  monastery 
in  a  neighbouring  place,  commonly  called  Lugnjha.  .   f  .  They  were  wont  to  meet 
each  other  often  near  a  certain  flagstone,  called  Leach  Mocth,  and  to  discourse  of 
things  relative   to  God."     St.  Patrick,  in  obedience  to  a  second  celestial  messenger, 
left  Louth   for  Armagh,  consigning  to  the  care  of  St.  Mochta  twelve  lepers.     So  far 
the  "Tripartite"  account.     Nothing  is  said  .about  the  monastery  at  Dromiskin,  but 
this  seems  to  show  that  it  was  then  an  established  centre  of  work.     It  never,  how- 
ever, was  as  large  as  Louth,  under  St.  Mochta,  seems  to  have  become.     An  ancient 


rule  over  it,  seems  to  show  that  it  was  intended  to  he  a  place  of  some 
importance.  There  could  not,  however,  as  far  as  the  records  tell  us, 
have  "been  much  difference,  in  point  of  time,  between  the  founding  of 
the  two  monasteries. 

The  next  abbot  at  Dromiskin,  of  whom  we  have  any  account,  though 
he  was  not  the  next  in  succession,  was  Ronan,  son  of  Berach.  Berach 
was  a  disciple  of  St.  Dagceus,  bishop  of  Inis  Chaoin  (Iniskeen),  about  the 
middle  of  the  sixth  century.1  A  miracle,  performed  by  him,  similar  to 
Elisha's,  in  2  Kings  iv.  42-44,  as  we  are  told,  caused  his  master  to  say 
he  was  unworthy  of  such  a  pupil ;  and  on  his  leaving,  Dagceus  gave  him 
a  short  staff  (Bacull  gearr),  and  a  bell,  which,  under  the  name  of  Clog- 
beraigh,  was  preserved,  as  a  relic,  at  Cluan  da  lochia.2  However  this 
may  be,  after  leaving  Iniskeen,  he  entered  into  the  monastic  state  at 
Glendalough,  and  died  Abbot  of  Cluain-Cairpthe,8  in  Roscommon. 

St.  Ronan  was  a  more  remarkable  character  than  his  predecessor, 
St.  Lugaidh,  of  whom  we  have  but  little  more  than  his  name  and  royal 
pedigree.  His  name  occurs  in  history  ;  he  was  venerated  for  a  long 
time  after  his  death,  and  is  still  remembered  by  a  holy  well  at  Dromiskin 
bearing  his  name.  He  is  said  to  have  suffered  an  indignity  at  the  hands 
of  Suibhne,  son  of  Colman  Cuar,  prince  of  Dalaradia,  whom  he  denounced; 
in  consequence  of  which  Suibhne  went  mad  after  the  battle  of  Magh 
Rath  (Moira).4  If,  according  to  Tighernach,  this  battle  was  fought  in 
A.D.  637,  St.  Ronan  must  have  been  abbot  before  that  year,  and  the  period 
of  his  rule  must  have  been  a  long  one. 

In  the  year  664  a  pestilence,  which  broke  out  first  in  England,5  made 

poem,  quoted  by  the  Q.  M.  (A.D.  534)  and  by  Colgan  ("Acta  Sanct.,"  page  734), 
describes  it  as  very  wealthy : — 

"  Not  poor  was  the  family  of  Mochta,  of  Louth's  fort, 
Three  hundred  priests  and  one  hundred  bishops  along  with  him, 
Sixty  singing  elders  composed  his  royal  noble  household, 
They  ploughed  not,  they  reaped  not,  they  dried  not  corn, 
They  laboured  not,  save  at  learning  only." 

Another  reading  for  Seanoir,  elders,  is  Searclaun,  youths.  Ard  Patrick  is  1200  yards 
S.E.  ot  the  Abbey.  It  never  was  a  parish,  and  the  church,  a  small  building,  the  walls 
of  which  are  only  a  foot  or  two  high,  completely  hidden  now  by  vegetation,  on  the  edge 
of  an  abrupt  slope  on  a  hill,  is  evidently  very  ancient. 

We  must  recollect  that  a  monastery  or  an  abbey  does  not  represent  a  sixth-century 
fact,  as  we  understand  the  mediaeval  term.  A  roughly-built  stone  church  of  moderate 
dimensions,  a  refectory,  cells,  built  of  stones  or  mud,  for  the  brothers,  multiplied 
as  their  numbers  increased,  and  an  oratory  for  their  superior,  enclosed  with  a 
stone  wall,  constituted,  piobably,  the  whole.  The  illustration  011  next  page,  of  the 
Oratory  of  St.  Mochta,  close  to  the  Louth  Abbey,  gives  a  fair  idea  of  such  a  building. 
It  is,  I  grieve  to  say,  still  unenclosed,  and  cattle  make  sad  havoc  of  one  of  the  most 
interesting  relics  of  St.  Patrick's  time.  Lord  Louth  told  me  he  would  endeavour 
to  have  it  railed  in,  bnt  the  farmer  on  whose  land  it  is  should  not  require  either 
inducement  or  instruction  to  have  this  done. 
"ActaSS.,"pp.  348  and  374. 

!  Trias  Thaum.     Now  Glendalough,  in  the  county  of  Wicklow. 

3  Now  Kilbarry,  parish  of  Termonbarry. — Lanigan,  xiv.  6. 
"  Battle  of  Magh  Rath,"  note,  p.  175. 

5  Lanigan,  xvii.,  note  162,  quoting  Bede,  L  3,  c.  27. 

I  2 

St.  Mochtv's  Oratory  at  Loutl). 


its  appearance  in  Ireland.  Irish  writers  call  it  Buidhe  Chonnuil,  or  the 
Yellow  Jaundice.  Among  its  numerous  victims,  St.  Ronan's  name  is 
recorded.  He  died,  November  18th.1  His  relics,  which  we  may  presume 
had  been  carefully  preserved  at  Dromiskin,  were,  one  hundred  and 
thirty-two  years  afterwards,  placed  in  a  shrine  of  gold  and  silver.2  But 
the  Danes  were  even  then  coming  into  Ireland ;  forty -three  years  after 
that  they  had  begun  plundering  in  Louth,  and  it  must  have  fallen  into 
their  hands  soon  after. 

The  names  of  only  five  other  abbots  are  recorded  in  the  Annals  as 
belonging  to  Dromiskin,  viz  : — 

Muirchiu,  .  .  , .  .  Died  826. 

Tighernach,  son  of  Muireadhach,  .  ,,     876  [878].3 

Cormac,  son  of  Fionamhail,  .  .  ,,     887. 

Muireadhach,  son  of  Cormac,        .  .  ,,     90S.4 

Maenach,  son  of  Muireadhach,     .  .  ,,978. 

The  last-mentioned  must  have  lived  in  very  troublous  times,  depend- 
ent as  he  was  for  his  existence  upon  the  Danes,  who  seem  to  have  held 
the  place  for  many  years.  He  was  probably  in  office  in  the  year  968, 
when  both  Dromiskin  and  Louth,  then  in  their  hands,  were  attacked  and 
plundered  ;  first  by  Muircheartach,  son  of  Domhnall  ua  Niall,  king  of 
Ireland,  and  then  by  Murchadh  ua  Flaithbheartaigh,  surnamed  Glunillar 
(of  the  eagle-knee). 

The  subsequent  history  of  Dromiskin  as  a  monastery  does  not  appear 
in  any  of  the  Annals.  No  more  abbots  are  recorded.  Its  position 
rendered  it  specially  liable  to  be  overrun  and  plundered.  The  buildings 
could  hardly  have  been  otherwise  than  in  a  ruinous  condition  by  the  end 
of  the  tenth  century,  and  the  monks  who  outlived  the  troubles  probably 
did  not  consider  it  advisable  to  restore  them,  and  we  may  suppose 
dispersed  themselves  among  other  places  which  afforded  them  better 
shelter  and  more  security.  Whatever  revenues  this  abbey  had  become 
possessed  of  lapsed,  as  we  will  presently  see,  to  that  of  Louth,  which 
managed  to  preserve  its  ecclesiastical  possessions  till  all  such  foundations 
were  dissolved. 

The  accompanying  plan,  p.  106,  will  show  the  relative  positions  of  the 
Cloigthc  ach  or  bell-tower  at  Dromiskin,  and  the  remains  of  the  old  church, 
which  stands  on  a  part  of  the  ancient  abbey,  probably  the  chancel  end. 

1  "  Acta  SS.,"  p.  141.  2  "  Ann.  Q.  M.,"  sub  anno  796. 

3  "Extenso  dolore  pausavit." — "Ann.  Q.  M." 

4  He  was  killed  in  the   refectory  of    Dromiskin   along  with    Gairbhith,  son   of 
faelmoidha,  Tanist  of  Conaille  Muirtheimhne  by  Conghalach,  lord  of  that  district. 

"  this  Abbot  it  was  said  :  — 

"Muireadhach,  who  does  not  lament  him,  0  ye  learned, 

It  is  a  cause  of  human  plague,  it  is  a  cloud  to  sacred  heaven, 

Great  loss  is  the  illustrious  man,  sou  of  Cormac,  of  a  thousand  charms, 

The  great  and  well  tested  relic,  who  was  the  lamp  of  every  choir  " 








£     CHURCH. 

t   CROSS. 


fe  DARVtR 



Maps  of  the  Parish  of  Droinislcin  and  places  adjoining. 




Not  long  ago,  some  men  in  digging  for  a  grave  came  upon  some  masonry 
which,  from  the  description  given  to  me,  seemed  to  be  part  of  a  wall  at 
the  junction  of  the  chancel  with  the  main  building,  but  it  was  covered 
up  before  I  could  get  down  to  examine  it.  A  spot  connected  with 
associations  of  the  great  Apostle  of  Ireland  is,  naturally  enough,  sought 
after  as  a  burial-place  by  all  who  can  establish  even  the  most  distant 

Round  Tower,  Dromiskin,  Co.  Louth.     (From  a  Photograph  by  Miss  Chamney.) 

right  to  interment  there.    So  that  it  is  not  likely  that  any  excavations 
will  bring  to  light  much  of  the  ancient  building. 

The  tower,  of  the  ninth  century,  is  unique  in  its  proportion,  being 
not  more  than  about  55  feet  high,  with  a  diameter  of  nearly  17  feet, 
and  a  height  sufficient  to  overlook  the  bay  and  surrounding  country. 
Above,  the  four  large  openings  command  views,  northward  towards 



Dundalk ;  southward,  and  across  the  bay  eastward,  from  which  points 
Danish  foes  might  be  expected;  and  westward  towards  Louth.  A  little 
below  the  western  one,  facing  W.N.W.,  is  a  small  angular-headed 
opening  like  that  in  the  Tower  of  Kells,  figured  at  p.  414,  Petrie's 
"  Round  Towers  of  Ireland."  The  conical  top  had  lost  some  few 
stones,  which  were  replaced  by  the  Public  Works  Department  in  1879. 
A  cabin  built  against  it  was  removed  about  1840,  and  a  doorway  had  at 
that  time  been  broken  into  it,  and  it  was  used  as  a  dwelling-place ;  but 
when  my  father  came  as  rector  to  the  parish,  he  evicted  the  tenant,  and 
the  opening  was  since  then  built  up.  The  doorway,  4  feet  3  inches  in 
height,  was  originally  flanked  by  two  pillars,  but  no  trace  of  these  has 
been  found.  A  fragment  of  a  spiral  pillar  in  the  graveyard,  part  of  the 
original  building  perhaps,  does  not  belong  to  the  tower.  Two  projecting* 
stones,  on  either  side  of  the  doorway,  level  with  the  spring  of  the  arch, 
must  have  once  been  carved,  but  they  are  too  much  weather-worn  to 
judge  what  form  they  bore. 

Next  to  the  tower,  the  most  ancient  object  is  a  broken  cross,  of 
which  an  illustration  is  given.  Only  the  arms  remain.  It  is  of  granite, 
brought,  I  should  think,  from  the  quarries,  still  worked  at  Goraghwood, 
a  junction  on  the  line  of  railway,  north  of  Dundalk.  It  was  said  to 
have  been  brought  from  the  seaside  at  a  place  formerly  known  as  Baltray, 
which  will  be  presently  adverted  to.  This  is  probable,  as  there  was  a 

burial-place  there  many 
hundred  years  ago.  I 
cannot  but  think  from 
the  figures  carved  upon 
it,  which  represent  war 
on  one  arm,  the  chase  of 
a  deer  on  the  other,  that 
it  was  set  up  to  mark 
the  spot  where  Aedh 
Pinnliath,  son  of  Mall 
Caille,  King  of  Temhair, 
and  Monarch  of  Ireland, 
was  laid  to  rest  : — '*  He 
died  at  Druim  -  inas- 
glainn,  in  the  territory 
of  Conaille,  on  the  12th 
of  the  Kalends  of  De- 
cember, on  the  6th  day 
of  the  week."1  This 

.  , .     n       ,  m  would    have    been    the 

Doorway  of  Dromiskin  Round  lower. 

21st  of  December,  8/9. 

The  cross  certainly  was  not  put  up  for  an  abbot,  and  Hugh  of  the  fair  beard 


1  "Chronicon  Scot.,"  p.  167. 



is  the  only  very  eminent  warrior  of  whose  death  here  we  are  told.    What 
we  know  of  him  shows  that  his  character  was  a  devout  one,  and  a  cross 

Front  of  Cross,  Dromiskin  Churchyard,  Co.  Louth. 

the  appropriate  monument  for  him.1  I  offered  a  reward  for  the  other 
portions  of  the  cross,  but  unsuccessfully.  It  lias  for  three  or  four 
generations  been  used  as  a  headstone  by  a  family  of  the  name  of  Lawless 

Keverse  Side  of  Celtic  Cross,  Dromiskin,  Co.  Louth.     (With  broken  parts  restored.) 

in  the  neighbouring  parish  of  Killincoole.     The  Public  Works  Depart- 
ment offered  to  set  it  up,  but  nothing  more  than  this  fragment  could  be 

1  His  victory  over  the  Danes  at  Cill  ui-n-Daighre  (Killineer)  is  described  as  due  to 
his  piety  ("Wars  G.  G.,"  p.  Ixxxviii)  ;  and  his  eldest  son,  Domhnall,  went  on  a 
pilgrimage  in  906  ("  Ann.  Q.  M.,"  hut  910  by  Ann.  Ult.). 


found  ;  the  family  which  had  appropriated  it  did  not  seem  very  anxious 
about  it,  and  the  proposal  fell  through. 

I  have  put  down  on  the  map  of  the  abbey  and  its  vicinity  two  spots 
where  there  may  have  been  cells  of  the  monks.  Only  an  examination 
of  them  by  excavation,  they  being  all  now  underground,  could  ascertain 
the  truth  of  this.  I  proceeded  on  a  merely  verbal  and  hearsay  descrip- 
tion of  what  were  evidently  small  square  stone  buildings,  some  con- 
nected together  by  a  passage. 

Round  the  larger  centres  of  church-work  other  smaller  centres 
gathered  themselves.  Independent  though,  in  some  instances,  they  may 
have  been,  they  naturally  became,  in  time,  portions  of  a  common  district. 
It  would  be  difficult,  if  not  impossible,  to  assign  a  date  for  the  formation, 
or  to  fix  the  exact  limits,  of  a  diocese  or  a  parish.  They  were  not 
created  by  the  act  of  any  one  body,  or  of  any  one  person,  but  grew  up  by 
degrees.  Some  clue,  however,  is  given  in  the  records  of  title  of  abbeys 
and  churches  to  the  tithes  and  other  ecclesiastical  dues  of  different 
places.  They  indicate  a  connexion  which  has  existed  between  them 
from  a  very  early  date. 


Nearly  a  mile  from  the  village  of  Dromiskin  there  yet  remains 
the  portion  of  a  wall,  3  feet  thick,  and  many  hundreds  of  years 
old.  It  forms  part  of  the  out-building  of  a  farm-house,  belonging  to 
a  Mrs.  M'Ginnis.  It  is  part  of  a  building  said  to  have  been  once  a 
chapel;  legend  called  it  a  "  penitentiary."  It  may  be  seen  on  the 
Down  Survey  Map,  as  a  ruined  castle,  and  it  may  have  also  served  as  a 
watch-tower  to  give  notice  of  the  approach  of  a  Danish  fleet  sailing  into 
the  bay.  The  field  adjoining  it  was  certainly  a  place  of  burial,  bones 
having  been  frequently  turned  up  by  the  plough.  Here,  if  old  reports 
were  true,  once  stood  the  granite  cross  before  described.  This  place  was 
once  known  as  Baltray.1  Its  ecclesiastical  dues  are  recorded  separately 
from  those  of  Dromiskin,  to  which,  however,  they  belonged. 


Nearly  three  miles  north-west  from  Dromiskin,  in  a  picturesque 
spot  in  Rossuuakay  townland,  and  overlooking  the  river  Fane,2 
stands  the  remains  of  what  is  marked  on  the  Ordnance  Map  as  an 
"  Abbey,"  once  a  parish,  but  as  far  as  can  be  known,  not  a  separate 

1  i.  e.  Strand-town,  called  "Seatowne"  in  an  Inquisition  taken  at  Termon- 
feckin,  6th  September,  20  James  I.  ;  and  in  another  taken  at  Gernonstown,  6th 
September,  1694. — Guild,  et  Mar. 

a  The  name  "Fane"  for  this  river  is  modern.  Below  it  was  sometimes  called 
"Dunduggan  river"  (see  note,  page  112).  It  seems  to  be  derived  from  Affane- 
Ath-mheadhon.  (See  Joyce's  "Names  of  Places,"  1st  Series,  p.  355.)  Three  prin- 
cipal roads  from  Dundalk  crossed  the  river,  leading  to  Louth,  Ardee,  and  Drogheda. 
The  "  Middle  Ford"  appears  on  Taylor  and  Skinner's  Map  as  "  Affane  Bridge." 


cure.  Rosmacha  was  always,  from  the  time  it  ceased  to  belong  to  the 
priory  of  Louth,  wholly  impropriate.  Its  original  status  appears  rather 
in  the  name  "Urney"  (Urnaidhe,  a  prayer-house),  by  which  it  is 
recorded  in  an  Inquisition,  13  James  I.  The  existing  remains  are 
the  eastern  side,  and  part  of  the  gables  of  a  building,  nearly  80  feet  in 
length.  A  large  open  fire-place  near  the  centre  seems  to  indicate  that  it 
was  a  refectory,  capable  of  containing  a  large  number  of  persons.  It 
certainly  was  not  a  place  of  worship.  There  was,  however,  a  church 
and  burial  ground  a  short  distance  north  of  this  building.  No  name  has 
been  recorded  as  having  ever  been  in  charge  of  the  parish.  It  may, 
therefore,  be  concluded  that  here  was  a  place  of  prayer,  originally  con- 
nected with  the  monastery  of  Dromiskin. 


About  three  miles  along  the  shore,  S.S.E.  from  Dromiskin,  the  rivers 
Glyde  and  Dee  uniting  fall  into  the  bay  of  Dundalk,  at  the  village  of 
Annagassan.1  The  small  townland  lying  between  the  Glyde  and  the 
shore  is  "  The  Linns"  ;  till  a  few  years  ago  part  of  the  parish  of  Dro- 
miskin, though  separated  from  it  by  that  of  Gernonstown  (Castlebelling- 
harn),  and  to  it  the  ecclesiastical  dues  belonged  from  a  very  early  period. 
While  the  site  of  the  village  was  called  Casan-Linne,  another  spot,  close 
to  or  identical  with  the  meeting  of  the  waters,  is  mentioned  frequently 
in  the  "Annals,  Q.  M.,"  as  Linn  Duachail,  the  demon's  pool.2  Early 
legend  gave  the  place  an  evil  reputation  as  the  haunt  of  a  mischievous 
demon  named  Uachall.3  Here,  however,  St.  Colman,  son  of  Luachan, 
of  the  house  of  JSiall  of  the  Nine  Hostages  came  :  a  man  eminent,  not 
only  on  account  of  his  descent,  but  also  for  his  sanctity,  which  in  legend 
gave  him  the  credit  of  subduing  the  demon. 

It  is  said  that  he  founded  a  monastery  here.  No  trace  of  it  remains, 
not  even  a  legend  as  to  its  position.  Only  a  holy  well  in  the  townland 
of  Salterstown,  about  two  and  a-half  miles  further  along  the  shore,  and 
in  the  old  impropriate  parish  of  the  same  name,  named  in  the  Ordnance 
Map  Tober  Hullamog,4  exists  to  attest  his  former  residence  here.  He 
died  March  30th,  699. 

1  Ath-na-gCasan,    «  Ford  of  the  Paths."— Joyce,  1st  Series,  p.  372  ;  2nd  Series, 
p.  408. 

2  The  late  Bishop  of  Down,  Dr.  Reeves,  identified  this  place  with  Annagassan. 
Dr.  O'Donovan  at  first  assigned  it  to  Magheralin,  county  Down.     The  connexion  of 
the  Linns  with  Dromiskin  has  not  baen  made  so  evident,  even  the  Ordnance  Maps  and 
Name  Ho  >ks  record  it  as  in  Gernonstown  parish  ;  but  as  the  rentcharge,  amounting  to 
£12  15s.  2d.,  is  at  this  moment  (1896)   calculated  in  the  income  of  the  Rector  of 
Dromiskin,  and  the  people  of  the  townland  claim  burial  on  the  site  of  the  monastery, 
the  connexion  of  the  two  places,  back  to  monastic  times,  does  not  admit  of  doubt. 

3  Quod  erat  nomen  doemonis  in  Cassan  Linnequi  nocebat  multisante  Colemannum. 
"  Acta  SS.,"  p.  793;  note  10. 

4  Persons  still  occasionally  make  pilgrimages  to  this  well  for  the  cure  of  detective 


The  names  of  the  six  following  abbots  of  this  place  are  recorded  in 
the  "Annals": 

Siadhail,  Abbot  of  Linn,               .             .  Died  752. 

Anfadan,  Abbot,               .             .             .  „  758. 

Suairleach,  Abbot,           ,             .             .  ,,  770. 

Thomas,  Bishop  and  Abbot,         .             .  ,,  803  [808]. 

Clemens,  Abbot,               .             .            ,.  „  826. 

Caemhan,  killed  and  burned  by  the  Danes,  ,,  841  [842]. 

Now  it  is  an  important  and  remarkable  fact  that  the  first  four  of 
these  names  are  not  contemporary  with  any  of  the  abbots  recorded,  as  of 
Dromiskin,  but  that  they,  with* St.  Colman,  fill  up  the  gap  between  the 
deaths  of  St.  Ronan,  in  664,  and  of  Muirchiu,  in  826.  This  would  seem 
to  imply  some  connexion  between  the  two  places ;  the  names  of  the 
fourth  and  fifth  being  Latin  ones,  and  not  Irish,  is  to  be  noted. 

Two  years  before  the  martyrdom  of  the  last  abbot,  Kevin,  the 
Danes  had  constructed  a  fortress  at  Linn  Duachail,1  whence  they  made 
raids  into  all  the  country  round ;  and  here  they  retained  their  footing 
till  the  year  925  [927],  when  they  left  it.  During  these  eighty-six 
years  they  seem  to  have  obliterated  every  trace  of  a  religious  institution 
in  and  about  Dromiskin,  except  what  the  ruined  walls  could  show. 

The  places  of  which  we  find  the  tithes  were  afterwards  in  the  hands 
of  the  Prior  of  St.  Mary,  at  Louth,  seem  to  include  all  that  belonged  to 
the  abbey  at  Dromiskin,  and  the  order  in  which  these  are  set  down  in 
two  inquisitions  taken  during  the  reign  of  James  I.,  shows  clearly  enough 
what  ecclesiastical  possessions  must  have  been  held  by  the  latter.  They 
are  as  follows  : 

Inq.  4  James  I. 






Milltown.2  6 

Newtown.2  7 


Inq.  13  James  I. 





le  Lynn  (waste). 



Baltra  (waste). 

Moreton,  or  Bosgravile's  Rath.8     Moreton  (waste). 

Mill  of  Dundogin.- 


Walterstown,  with  15  acres  of 
glebe  in  the  Urney. 

1  Probably  the  one  now  known  as  Lis-na-rann. 

3  Inq.  34  Henry  VIII.  has  these  only.     The  tithes,  Mary-gallons,  and  altarages  of 
Dromiskin  and  Newtown  are  expressly  added. 

3  Evidently  intended  for  Drumleck. 

4  Newrath  on  the  Ordnance  Map.     Neagra,  pronounced  like  Nyagra,  was  the  Iri>h 



It  thus  appears  that  though  the  monastery  of  Dronriskin  ceased  as 
such,  the  ecclesiastical  dues  of  these  places  passed  either  by  gift  or  by  a 
natural  process  of  gravitation  into  the  hands  of  the  prior  and  monks  of 
St.  Mary  of  Louth. 

Dromiskin,  with  a  considerable  extent  of  land  about,  became  one  of 
the  manors  of  the  archbishops  of  Armagh,  to  whom  the  right  of  presenta- 
tion to  the  parish  belonged  down  to  the  year  1870. 

form  within  my  recollection.  After  the  battle  of  Criona,  A.D.  248,  Tadhg  Mac  Cian 
received  from  Cormac  Mac  Art  a  territory,  afterwards  called  Cianaclita,  extending  from 
the  river  Liffey  as  far  as  "  Glais  Neara,  near  Druim-in-eas-cluinn."  This,  I  hold,  is 
the  present  Newrath,  surviving  modern  corruption,  and  the  mispronunciation  of  Irish 
which  Dr.  O'Donovan  said  ("  Ordnance  Name  Book")  was  habitual  in  Louth.  He 
could  say  so  now  for  a  very  sufficient  reason.  [The  same  corruption  of  the  same 
name  is  found  in  Wicklow.] 

5  Townland  of  Killincoole,  now  a  group  of  houses  bordering  on  Dromiskin  parish, 
once,  perhaps,  included  in  it,  Inq.,  9th  April,  1624.      Nic.  Gernon  gives  the  name 
Terpott.     Tarpod  is  the  present  pronunciation. 

6  Probably  the  present  townland  of  Milltown  Old. 

7  Probably  the  present  townland  of  Milltown. 

8  Moretown  is  the  present  Mooretown,  a  name  derived  from  tbe  family  of  Brent 
Moore,  last  representatives  of  whom  were  the  late  John  and  William  Armitage  Moore. 
Bosgravile  is  a  corrupted  form  of  Baskerville,  a  family  who  held  it  and  Dunduggan. 

9  Otherwise  Dundugan.     The  mill  was  close  to  the  road  (see  map)  on  the  river. 
A  tumulus,  bearing  the  same  name,  about  half  a  mile  up  the  river,  is  figured  in 
Wright's  "  Louthiana,"  Book  i.,  plate  v.     There  was  also,  in  1622,  an  impropriate 
cure  of  Dundugan  somewhere  hereabouts,  but  ils  limits  cannot  be  ascertained,  as  it 
never  had  any  other  status,  and  does  not  form  a  townland  of  itself. 



HPjEE  Crannoge  of  Carncoagh  is  the  same  as  that  frequently  described 
as  "  Lisnacroghera  "  in  the  Journal  of  this  Society;  but,  strange 
to  say,  some  mistakes,  have  been  made  regarding  this  crannoge.  In 
the  first  place  there  is  no  townland  in  the  district  known  as  Lis- 
nacroghera, and  if  any  one  went  to  the  neighbourhood  in  question 

and  inquired  for 
would  either  be  told 
place,  or,  perhaps, 
whom  the  inquiry 
the  sound,  might  ask 
Lisnacrogher.  The 
is  sometimes  called 
Lisnacroghera  may 
be  spelled,  but  in 
documents  ;  and  on 
name  and  townland 
spelling  is  Lisna- 
again  the  crannoge 
Lisnacrogher  is  only 
land.  How  these  mis- 

Li  snacroghera  "  he 
there  was  no  such 
the  persons  from 
was  made,  guided  by 
him  if  he  meant 
bog  in  that  townland 
"  Croghery  bog,"  and 
be  the  way  it  should 
all  legal  and  public 
farmers'  carts  where 
have  to  appear  the 
crogher.  But,  then, 
is  in  Carncoagh,  and 
a  neighbouring  town- 
takes  occurred  I  cim- 
they  uudoubtedl  y  are, 

not  tell,  but  mistakes 
and  should  be  corrected.  I  paid  little  attention  to  this  crannoge 
during  the  lifetime  of  our  lamented  friend  and  fellow  member,  Canon 
Grainger,  except  when  he  took  me  there  himself;  as  he  called  it  his 
crannoge,  and  was  very  jealous  of  anyone  interfering  with  it.  It  appears 
to  be  exhausted  of  its  treasures  now,  but  in  neighbouring  tenements  of 
bog  an  occasional  "  find  "  turns  up.  Two  objects  were  found  during  the 
past  year,  one  of  which  I  believe  is  a  portion  of  a  harp.  Just  as  we  find 
many  country  fiddlers  making  their  own  violins  in  a  homely  sort  of  way, 
so  these  early  inhabitants  of  Carncoagh  must  have  made  their  own  harps 



at  their  own  crannoge  fireside,  as  the  marks  of  the  knife  by  which  it  was 

wrought  into  shape  are  very  visible  on  several  parts  of  it.     It  was  found 

in  the  next  tenement  of  bog  to  that  in  which  the   crannoge  is  situated, 

but  quite  close  to  it.     The  portion  found,  if  I  am  correct  in  my  view, 

is  evidently  the   top   of  the   instrument,    and   is    13   inches   long,    by 

If  inches  broad,  and   fully  1  inch  thick.    It  has  a  peg 

wrought  at  one  end  for  fitting  into  a  hole  on  top  of  one 

of  the  sides,  and  a  hole  at  the  other  to  admit  a  peg  from 

the  top  of  the  third  leg.      There  are   13  holes  for  the 

strings.     The  peat-spade  of  the  finder  cut  into  it  in  the 

centre  causing  it  to  be  nearly  severed,  and  it  has  shrunk 

very  greatly  in  size  since  it  came   into   my  possession, 

which  was  immediately  after  being  found.     I  kept  it  for 

a  considerable  time  in  a  solution  of  alum  and  water,  during 

which  time  it  remained  in  its  original  shape  and  size,  and 

I  had  a  drawing  of  it  made  in  that  state  which  is  shown 

in  fig.  1.     I  also  give  an  imaginary  restoration  which  is 

shown  in  fig.  2. 

In  the  Introductory  volume  of  O'Curry's  "  Manners 
and  Customs  of  the  Ancient  Irish,"  a  harp  is  shown 
(see  fig.  72,  on  page  dxviii.)  It  is  taken  from  a  manu- 
script of  St.  Blaise,  considered  to  belong  to  the  9th  century. 
The  author  says,  so  far  as  there  is  any  certain  evidence 
at  all  on  the  subject,  the  precise  form  of  instrument  now 
called  a  harp,  seems  to  have  originated  in  the  British 
Isles.  The  figure  given  in  0' Curry  is  plain  in  the  part 
corresponding  to  that  found  at  Carncoagh,  but  as  the 
legs  of  the  former  are  ornamented  those  of  the  latter 
may  have  been  so  likewise,  and  therefore  it  may  not 
have  been  so  poor  an  instrument  as  one  would  think  judging  from  the 
portion  found.  The  specimen  figured  by  0' Curry  is  represented  as  having 
twelve  strings.  I  have  requested  the  owner  of  the  tenement  of  bog  to 
be  on  the  look-out  next  season  for  the  remaining  portions.  0' Sullivan, 
in  the  Introduction,  refers  to  a  rude  specimen  of  a  harp  of  the  ninth 
century  sculptured  on  the  cross  of  Ullard,  and  figured  by  Dr.  Ferguson 
in  his  Essay. 

A  second  obj.ect  was  found  during  the  past  season,  this  time  in  the 
neighbouring  townland  of  Lisnacrogher.  It  is  the  butt  of  a  spear  of 
bronze  with  9  inches  of  shaft  remaining  in  it.  I  had  this  object  also  drawn 
while  the  wood  was  damp  and  of  full  size.  It  is  shown  in  fig.  3. 
It  was  perfectly  cylindrical  and  smoothed  all  over,  showing  that  it  had 
been  cut  out  of  a  large  branch  or  trunk,  and  that  the  rings  of  annual 
growth  had  been  cut  through  as  we  would  see  in  an  ashen  spade-shaft 
in  the  present  day.  Several  similar  objects  were  procured  by  Canon 
Grainger,  and  have  been  figured  and  described  in  the  Journal  by  Mr. 
"W.  F.  Wakeman.  (See  vol.  vi.,  Fourth  Series,  p.  393.) 

Fig.  3. 

116          KOYAL    SOCIETY    OF    ANTIQUARIES    OF    IRELAND. 


(Continued from  page  369,  Vol.  VI.,  1896.) 


IV"OTTGH:A.VAL    (Ord.    Sheet    9). — Along    the   desolate   ridges   between 
Noughaval  and  Ballyganner   lie  a  group  of   forts  so  numerous 
and  implying  so  much  labour  that  we  may  conclude  that  an  actual 
city  and  considerable  population  occupied  this  lonely  site.1 

"  Their  raths  are  not  dwelt  in — 
Their  ancient  cathairs — 
"Whereon  great  duration  was  wrought — 
They  are  waste  .  .  .  like  Lugaid's  House."2 

Six  "  forts"  and  two  cromlechs  run  in  line  nearly  N.  and  S.  towards 

Fig.  1. — Plan  of  Noughaval  and  Ballyganner. 

the  summit  of  Ballygunner-hill.  Prom  Cahernaspekee,  and  the  last  of 
these,  five  more  lie  eastward  with  four  cromlechs.  Small  "  caves,"  cairns, 
circles,  and  hut-sites  abound  ;  and  near  the  N.  end  are  the  venerable 

1  Ten  fine  forts  stand  near  St.  Abb's  Head,  Scotland,  where  only  three  farm- 
houses are  now  inhabited.— Proc.  Soc.  Ant.,  Scot.,  1895,  p.  171.  "The  battle  of 
Mugh  Leana,"  p.  79,  also  mentions  a  group  of  "  three  strong  duns  .  .  .  three  lofty 
inurs  of  assembly,  and  three  strong  cathairs." 

'-  "Calendar  of  Oengus,"  p.  18. 


church  of  Noughaval1  with  two  crosses,  the  "  O'Davoren's  chapel"  and 
the  well  of  St.  Mogua  with  its  uncouth  and  ancient  ash  tree. 

At  the  south  end  are  the  huge  cromlech,  castle,  and  three  cahers  of 
Bally  gamier.  The  ridge  has  a  wide  view  over  Kilfenora,  while  Liscan- 
nor  Bay  is  visible  through  a  gap  in  the  hills,  from  the  gate  of  Cahercut- 
tine.  The  whole  site  abounds  in  beautiful  crag  flowers. 

Fig.  2. — Cahercuttine— Fort  aud  Cromlech,  from  south. 

CAHEB.KYLETAAN  (105  feet  x  120  feet). — A  straight-sided  fort,  walls 
4  feet  or  5  feet  high  and  10  feet  thick,  of  large  slabs;  it  has  a  cross 
wall  and  some  prostrate  pillar  stones,  but  no  trace  of  a  gateway. 

Fig.  3. — Plan  of  Entrance,  Cahercuttine. 

CAHKRCUTTINE  (137  feet  x  130  feet). — A  well  preserved  fort  on  the 
summit  of  the  ridge,  commanding  a  view  of  most  of  the  other  cahers  of  the 

,  the  latter  word  one  of  our  oldest  terms  for  a  monastery, 
"  Tripartite  Life,"  p.  civ.  A  "  Mughain,  virgin,  of  Cluain  Boirenn,"  is  given  under 
Dec.  loth,  in  Calendar  of  Oengus.  A  description  of  Noughaval  Church  appears 
in  the  "  Report  of  the  Society  for  the  Preservation  of  Memorials  of  the  Dead 
.(Ireland),  1896." 

JOUR.  R.S.A.I.,  VOL.  VII.,  FT.  II.,  OTH  SER. 




group  and  those  of  Boon  and  Bally  kin  varga.  Its  wall  is  11  feet  4  inches 
to  12  feet  6  inches  thick,  and  up  to  10  feet  high,  very  well  built,  of  large 
stones,  with  two  faces,  the  inner  having  a  plinth  9  inches  wide.1  The 
gateway  had  comer  posts  and  large  lintels,  removed  to  admit  cattle,  the 
main  lintel  was  8  ft.  6  in  x  2  ft.  x  1  foot ;  the  passage,  5  ft.  8  in.  within, 
widens  outward ;  it  faces  S.S.E.2 ;  near  it  to  the  west  is  a  fine  flight  of 
six  steps,  3  feet  9  inches  x  10  inches  x  4  inches  to  6  inches  tread  and 
2  feet  deep.  This  fort  is  a  veritable  garden  of  ferns,  harebells,  and  cranes' - 
bills.  In  the  field  to  the  west  are  a  small  cromlech  8  ft.  x  6  ft.,  a  ring  wall 
of  large  slabs  24  feet  diameter,  with  walls  3  feet  6  inches  thick,  and  a 
miniature  souterraiii.  A  cairn,3  semicircle,  and  pile  of  large  blocks  occur 

Fig.  4. — Steps  and  Gate,  Cahercuttine. 

in  the  same  field,  while  in  that  south  of  the  fort  are  another  cairn  and  an 
overthrown  cromlech  7  feet  x  12  feet.  A  small  oval  fort  stands  about 
200  yards  to  the  east.  It  is  featureless  and  defaced,  with  coarse  walls 
9  feet  thick,  and  an  enclosure  about  85  feet  long,  tapering  to  the  south.4 

CAHERWALSH  (162  feet  x  156  feet),  an  irregular  enclosure  of  large 
stretchers,  9  feet  thick.  It  is  late,  and  much  levelled,  and  several  house- 
sites  remain  in  the  garth.  A  slab  enclosure,  nearly  16  feet  square,  stands 

1  A  similar  feature  occurs  at  Morbihan,  Brittany,  "Revue  Archeologique,"  1895,. 
p.  64,  and  at  Cahergrillaun,  in  the  parish  of  Carran,  county  Clare. 

3  Canon  Philip  Dwyer  describes  this  caher  of  "  Knickknocktheen"  (Knockcottine), 
in  1876,  as  having  an  entrance  with  a  "  flat  single  stone  lintel"  in  excellent  preserva- 
tion.— "Handbook to  Lisdoonvarna,"  p.  57. 

3  Small  cairns  abound  near  the  stone  fort  of  Cair  Conan,  Cornwall  (Roytil  Inst.  of 
Cornwall,  1862,  p.  56),  also  at  Chun  Castle  in  same  shire. 

4  Compare  plans,  Journal,  1896,  p.  147,  fig.  19  to  23. 


outside  the  fort  to  the  west.     There  seems  to  he  part  of  a  small  caher 
farther  south,  hut  it  is  evidently  rebuilt. 

CAHERNASPEKEE  (105  feet),  a  circular  caher,  its  walls  8  feet  thick, 
with  a  terrace  "  veneered"  with  flat  slabs,  and  much  dug  up  by  rabbit 
and  treasure  seekers.  The  gate  faced  the  south,  in  which  direction  lie 
an  oblong  garth,  coarsely  built,  a  small  cairn,  and  a  ring  of  stones,  the 
latter  perhaps  was  set  to  mark  out  the  ground  for  an  intended  fort. 

We  now  turn  eastward,  and  meet  two  rude  enclosures,  with  a  grassy 
valley  between ;  the  western  surrounds  a  much  defaced  oblong  slab-hut, 
and  is  "veneered"  with  most  fantastic  water-fretted  blocks.  Beyond 
these  is  a  very  fine  cromlech,  25  feet  x  6  feet,  of  three  chambers,  the 
central  marked  by  four  pillars,  the  eastern  pair  being  5  feet  high  ;  they 
supported  a  lintel  now  fallen. 

Fig.  5. — Plans  of  Forts  near  Nougbaval. 

CAHERANEDEN  (100  feet),  a  fort  fairly  built  of  large  blocks,  often 
5  feet  long,  stands  eastward  on  a  low  ridge,  whence  it  is  named.  The 
wall  is  8  feet  thick,  with  very  small  filling  ;  the  face  towards  the  south 
is  removed,  and  only  three  courses  remain  along  the  ridge.  An  oblong 
slab-hut  stands  to  the  east;  it  is  12  feet  x  6  feet,  with  a  little  annexe  3  feet 
square.  A  green  road,1  formed  by  the  removal  of  the  top  strata  of  the 
crag,  leads  from  the  caher  southward  to  a  fallen  cromlech ;  two  of  its 
slabs  are  9  feet  6  inches  x  6  feet. 

We  then  ascend  a  slightly  rising  ground  to  the  east ;  on  the  summit, 
near  a  large  strangely-shaped  boulder,  are  a  late  and  badly  built,  oval 
iclosure  (140  feet  north  and  south)  a  small  ring  wall  surrounding  a 
>rt  of  cairn,  and  lower  down  the  slope  a  CAHER  (111  feet).     A  large 

1  Cormac's  "  Glossary  "  gives  Ramhat  "  an  open  space  or  street  which  is  in  front 
of  the  fort  of  Kings  "  ;  every  neighbour  was  bound  to  clean  it. 




cromlech  stands  inside,  partly  embedded  in  its  wall.  Probably  the 
followers  of  some  chief  laid  him  (like  Joab)  "in  his  own  house  in  the 

Eastward  in  the  valley  a  perfect  cromlech  stands  in  a  levelled  cairn. 
Turningfrom  it,  towards  Ballyganner  hill  and  castle,  we  pass  a  curious  rock 
basin,  forming  a  well,  and  reach  the  small  and  broken  castle  embedded  in 
the  ring  of  a  caher  (115  feet) ;  the  wall  of  the  latter  is  12  feet  thick,  and 
in  it  stands  a  late-looking  house-site,  41  feet  x  24  feet,  and  two  other 
enclosures.  Two  cahers  on  the  hill  top,  near  the  seventh  cromlech  (one 
slab  of  which  is  18  feet  6  inches  x  6  feet),  and  a  large  caher  on  the 
southern  slope,  are  greatly  broken  and  nearly  levelled ;  nor  are  three  or 
four  others  between  it  and  Lemeneagh,  nor  Cahermore  and  Caheraclarig, 
in  Sheshy,  near  Caherscrebeen,  in  much  better  condition.  The  unusual 

Fig.  6.— Caheraneden — Fort  and  Slab  Hut.2 

number  of  early  remains  in  this  district,  and  the  pains  taken  by  the 
present  staff  of  the  Ordnance  Survey  to  mark  the  same  accurately  on  the 
large  scale  maps,  lead  me  to  give  a  fuller  account  and  list  than  I  should 
otherwise  have  thought  of  doing. 

CAHEUMACNAUGHTKN  (Ord.  Surv.  Sheet  9),  127  feet  x  130  feet.  Two 
miles  north  from  Noughaval  stands  this  fine  caher,  noteworthy  as  being 
the  place  where  our  great  scholar,  Duald  Mac  Firbis,  studied  the  Brehon 
law  under  Donald  O'Davoren,  who  was  hirasolf  (in  the  earlier  years  of 
Elizabeth's  reign)  author  of  a  glossary  of  Irish  terms.3  We  have  also 
the  rare  but  welcome  aid  of  a  full  description  of  the  place  when  it 

1  "A  fort,  in  this  again  a  colossal  sepulchre."—  "  Silva  Gadelica,"  ii.,  p.  131.  Hely 
Button,  in  1808,  when  describing  Ballyganner,  mentions  "  the  remains  of  a  stone  rath 
in  which  part  of  a  covered  passage  is  still  visible." — "Statistical  Survey  of  Clare," 
p.  317. 

2  The  forts  in  the  background  are — 1.    The  oblong  garth;    2.    Cahernaspekee ; 
S.  Cahercuttine ;  and  4  (extreme  right),  Caher,  with  side  enclosure. 

3  O'Curry,  "Manners  and  Customs,"  iii.,  p.  322.     O'Donovan  sensibly  asks  (in 
the  "  Ordnance  Survey  Letters,"  E.I. A.,  p.  187)  "who  built  Caher  mac  Naughten? 
Did  the  Firbolgs  erect  all  the  Cahers  in  Bun-en  ?     Never."     (See  "  Ordnance  Survey 
Letters,"  vol.  i.,  for  ensuing  deed.— MSS.,  R.LA.) 


formed  the  centre  of  the  O'Davoren's  "  town  "  in  1675.  The  sons  of 
Gillananeave  O'Davoren  in  that  year  made  a  deed  of  family  arrange- 
ment which  their  father  confirmed  as  his  will. 

"The  following  is  the  partition  of  the  '  keannait,'  or  village  of 
Cahermacnaughten,  viz.,  the  site  of  the  large  house  of  the  caher  within, 
and  the  site  of  the  kitchen-house,  which  belongs  to  the  house  within  the 
caher,  and  the  site  of  the  house  of  the  churchyard  on  the  west  side  of  the 
caher  and  all  the  gardens,  extending  westward  from  the  road  of  the 
garden  of  Teig  roe  mac  Gillapheen  (not  including  Teig  roe's  garden),  and 
the  house  site  hetween  the  front  of  the  large  house  and  the  door  of  the 
caher,  at  the  north-west  (sic)  side  and  the  large  house  which  is  outside 
the  door  of  the  caher."  The  "  green  of  the  hooley,"  water  supply, 
and  several  townlands  are  also  distributed.  We  find  a  very  similar 
arrangement  recorded  in  the  "  Tripartite  Life  of  St.  Patrick."  A  "caher" 
'  fortified  monastery  being  surrounded  by  a  vallum,  and  having  a  "tech 
rnor  "  or  "  great  house,"  a  church,  an  "  aregal,"  a  kitchen,  a  "  pranntech" 
or  refectory,  a  guest-house,  and  a  graveyard. 

The  caher  consists  of  a  nearly  circular  wall  10  feet  high  and  thick, 
nearly  perfect,  and  of  massive  blocks,  many  4  feet  6  inches  x  1  foot 
3  inches,  the  longest  being  laid  as  headers,  bonding  into  the  filling  for 
>  feet.  The  gate  faces  E.S.E  ,  and  is  a  late  medieval  porch,  two  side 
walls  with  roof  corbels  ;  it  has  a  batter  of  1  in  8  ;  this  is  not  apparent  in 
the  dry  stone  wall.  The  foundations  of  the  houses  rise  but  little  above 
the  dark  earth  and  rich  grass  of  the  interior.  A  large  house  (48  feet 
N.E.  and  S.W.  x  15  feet  6  inches  internally,  the  walls  3  feet  thick) 
occupies  the  southern  segment ;  another  building  with  three  rooms  lies 
in  the  northern.  There  are  traces  of  two  other  small  huts  inside  and  of 
some  others  outside  the  caher,  but  no  "  churchyard  "  is  visible.  A  well 
lies  a  few  hundred  feet  to  the  S.W. 

CAHEBYHOOLAGH  (Cathair  Ui  Dhualachta,  O'Douloughty's  fort,  probably 
the  "  caherwooly  "  of  1641)  lies  in  a  state  of  great  dilapidation  on  the 
western  edge  of  the  townland  of  Cahermacnaughten. 

KILFENORA  (Ord.  Surv.  Sheet  9). 

BALLYEINVARGA  ("of  the  head  of  the  market"),  135  feet  x  155  feet. 
This  very  fine  fort,  possibly  the  "  Cathair  Fhionnabhrach,"  reserved  to 
the  King  of  Cashel  in  the  "Book  of  Eights,"  appears  in  O'Brien's 
Rental,1  about  1380,  as  "  bmle  cin  mapsaft."  It  is  first  described  by 
Eugene  O'Curry,  1839,  as  "a  very  large  caher  .  .  .  around  which  were 
formerly  a  great  number  of  stones  forming  a  circle  about  it."  S.  F. 
(?  Ferguson)  notices  it  thus  : —  "  Close  to  Kilfenora  is  one  of  those  stone 
plashed  cyclopean  fortresses  . .  .  Caherflaherty.  Its  dimensions  are  not 
comparable  to  those  of  the  great  Arran  citadel,  but  the  arrangement  of 

1  Trans.  R.I.A.,  xv.  (1828,  p.  37). 



the  ramparts  and  the  distribution  of  the  stone  caltrops  in  the  space 
between  the  body  of  the  fortress  and  the  outer  circumvallation  are  the 
same."1  Lord  Dunraven's  description  is  equally  misleading,  as  he  omits 
any  account  of  its  cfievaux  de  fHse,  monoliths,  and  hut  sites,  and  says 
its  wall  is  double  and  its  passage  curved,  which  is  not  the  case ;  he 

Fig.  7. —  1.  Cahermacnaughten.     2.  Glenquin.     3.  Ballykinvarga.     4.  Boon  Fort. 

only  calls  it  "one  (fort)  near  Kilfenora."  Mr.  T.  Foote  also  alludes  to 
it  in  a  letter  to  DuNoyer,  1862,  "  a  fort  that  has  pointed  stones  planted 
upright  all  around  it."2 

1  Dublin  Univernti/  Magazine,  Jan.  1853,  vol.  xli.,  p.  505,  «<  Caherflaherty  "is,  I 
suppose,  the  name  "  Caherlahertagh  ";  besides  this  mistake  we  have  "  the  outer  cir- 
cumvallation "  which  never  existed.     The  writer  seems  not  to  have  seen  the   6-inch 

2  "  Ord.  Survey  Letters,  Clare,"  vol.  i.,  p.  287.    Dunraven's  "  Notes,"  vol.  i.,  p.  18. 
"  Du  Noyer's  Sketches,"  B.S.A.I.,  vol.  vii. 


When  perfect  it  must  have  been  a  beautiful  specimen;  now  the 
vandal  country  lads,  rabbit -hunting  and  tearing  blocks  out  of  its  wall, 
must  soon  bring  it  to  complete  ruin.  It  is  well  built  of  large  blocks, 
3  feet  to  5  feet  long,  and  where  most  perfect  to  the  east,  is  15  feet  high. 
The  wall  consists  of  three  sections ;  the  central  4  feet  thick,  the  others 
5  feet ;  it  probably  had  another  terrace,  4  feet  6  inches  thick,  as  it  is 
19  feet  6  inches  thick  in  other  parts.  The  gate  faces  S.S.E.,  its  lintel, 
7  feet  9  inches  x  1  foot  4  inches  x  3  feet,  resting  on  side  walls  and 
corner  posts  j1  its  outer  face  was  blocked  ;  and,  as  I  saw  it,  the  space  was 
occupied  by  a  colony  of  hedgehogs.  A  walled  and  sunken  passage  led 
eastward  through  the  cJievaux  de  frise,  probably,  as  in  the  Greek  and 
Esthonian  forts,2  to  compel  assailants  to  advance  with  their  shield  arm 


Fig.  8. — View  of  Ballykinvarga  Cater,  near  Kilfeuo'-a. 

away  from  the  wall.  The  inner  enclosures  extend  in  a  fairly  regular 
band  round  the  western  edge,  where  the  wall  is  7  feet  high.  They  recall 
the  still  more  even  compartments  in  Castle  Chun.8  The  chevaux  de/rise* 

1  The  (alleged)  poem  by  Flan  Mainistrech  given  in  the  "  Book  of  Fenagh,"  p.  121, 
mentions  "the  pillar  stone  in  the  principal  door  of  the  cathair,1'  circa  1050.     Caher 
gates  were  sufficiently  familiar  to  furnish  illustrations,  even  in  legendary  literature, 
e.g.,  "  The  Hunt  of  Sliab  Truim,"  p.  115,  for  a  " piast  (monster)  with  ears  as  large  as 
the  gate  of  a  caker" 

2  At  Tiryns,  but  not  at  Mycenae.     Also  at  Mohne  in  the  Baltic. 

3  Compare  plans,  page  147,  Nos.  7,  8,  Journal,  1896,  and  1893,  page  288.     Possibly 
these  were  botn  enclosures  for  wooden  huts  and  to  pen  cattle.     Juchna  the  Firbolg 
kept  herds  of  cows  in  his  /».*«  ("  Silva  Gadelica,"  ii.,  p.   131),  and  each  of  the  stone 
forts,  stormed  and  burned  near  Ventry,  harboured  150  men,  besides  women,  children, 
horses,  and  dogs.     ('<  Cath  Fintraga,"  edited  by  Dr.  Kuno  Meyer,  p.  5.) 

4  (Jhevaujc    de    frise    also    occur    at    Dun    Aenghus    and    Dubh     Caher,    Aran 
(Dunraven's  "Notes,"    I.  pp.  6,  10.     Our  Journal,  1895,  pp.  257,  258,  and  266); 
Dunamoe,  Mayo  (Journal,  1889,  p.   182);   Pen  Caer  Helen,   Caernarvon  ("Archseo- 
logia  Cambrensis,"  series  iv.,  vol.  12,  p.  345,  and  vol.  14,  p.  192,  with  tine  views), 
"  large  stones,  with  sharp    slate    splinters,   set  between"   ("  Archaeolog.    Journal," 
xxv.,  p.   228.      The  writer  considers   this    fort   earlier  than  an   adjoining   Roman 
camp).      Cademuir   and  Dreva,  Peebleshire  (Proc.    Soc.  Ant.,  Scot.,   1866,  pp.   21, 
24).     The  "monumental  theory,"  in  "Pagan  Ireland,"  p.  186,  is  very  improbable. 
"  Archseologia    Cambrensis,"   1870,   p.   286,   describes  one  at  Castel  coz,  Finistere, 
France,  a  pre-Roman  fort  on  a  headland. 



is  in  two  sections ;  the  inner,  about  46  feet  wide,  thickly  set  with  pillnrs 
about  3  feet  high,  with  smaller  spikes  between,  and  still  nearly  impas- 
sible, save  to  the  south.  A  second  band  extends  for  50  feet  more,  but 
is  less  thickly  set  with  stones ;  it  has  a  border  mound  set  with  large 
blocks,1  one  nearly  7  feet  x  2  feet  7  inches  x  1  foot.2  A  Inrge  hoard  of 
silver  coins  "of  Edward  II."  were  found  at  the  foot  of  a  pillar  and, 
much  more  precious  to  the  occupants,  a  streamlet  wells  out  on  the 
southern  side.3  Several  groups  of  blocks  remain  in  the  adjoining  field. 

Fig.  9. — Gateway,  Ballykinvarga  Caher. 

I  am  not  satisfied  that  any  one  was  a  cromlech.  A  small  rude  fort,, 
overthrown  for  95  feet,  crowns  the  ridge  235  feet  to  the  N.E.  Two 
curved  walls  cross  its  garth,  and  a  two-doored  cloghaim  stood  in  the 

1  This  feature  occurs  in  a  prehistoric  fort,  or  "  baueiberge,"in  the  Island  of  Mb'hne, 
in  the  Gulf  of  Riga,  where  also  a  passage  runs  slantwise  to  the  gate. 

2  In  old  Irish  works  note  "  a  pillar-stone  on  the  green  before  a  rath"    (Tain  Bo 
Cuailgne).    Fergus  fights  a  battle  in  this  very  district  of  Burren  from  "  cloch  comuir 
to  the  stone  of  meeting  by  the  three  mounds  of  walled  fortresses  "  (Poem  of  Seanchan, 
circa  A.D.  647,  in  "  Book  of  Lecan  ").  Pillar-stones  were  erected  to  celebrate  victories, 
and  cairns  heaped  to  commemorate  slaughters  ("  Leabhar  na  h-Uidhri,"  p.  86),  &c.,  &c. 

3  This  is  not  unusual,  e.g.  Inismurray  (our  Journal,   1885,  p.   98),  Hillsborough, 
Devon   (Gentleman's  Magazine,   1865,  Part  n.,  pp.  715,  716),   and   several   Cornish 
i'orts  (Royal  Inst.  Cornwall,  1863,  p.  60).     "We  also  find  it  in  old  MF  liters  as  Adamnan, 
where    Columba   prophesies    the  well  near  a  fort   will  be  defiled    with  blood  ;  and 
"  Colloquy  of  the  Ancients"  for  a  hidden  well  on  the  south  side  of  a  fort  ("  Silva 
Gadelica,"  p.  195,  also  pp.  103,  131).     Capt.  O'Callaghan  Westropp  (Member]  suggests 
that  the  well  was  excluded  to  preserve  it  from  pollution. 



northern  loop.  From  its  roughness  and  choice  site  it  may  be  the  older 
fort  of  the  two.  There  must  have  been  some  danger  apprehended  from 
this  direction  as  an  addition  seems  to  have  been  made  to  the  cJievaux  de 
frise  at  the  same  side. 

Five  more  cahers  stand  within  2000  feet  east  of  the  great  fort. 
KiLCAMEKN  is  quite  levelled,  and  is  now  a  burial  place  for  children. 
It  stands  on  a  knoll,  and  has  a  few  rude  pillars  and  cairns,  and  two 
ancient  graves  marked  out  by  a  kerb  of  great  slabs,  like  the  sides  of 
a  cromlech ;  the  western  is  6  feet  long,  the.  eastern  9  feet,  and  traces  of 
,a  third  adjoin .  Tobercameeii  well  lies  in  the  depression  southward,  and  is 
dry  in  summer.  Beyond,  on  a  grassy  knoll,  a  few  scattered  stones  mark 
another  small  fort.  It  had  a  sharp  angle  to  the  S.E.,  and  12  hollows 
pit  its  eastern  slope.1  A  circular  fort,  also  in  CAHERMIFANE  (100  feet), 

Fig.  10. — Pillar-stone  and  chevaux-de-frise,  Ballykinvarga. 

has  a  well-built  wall,  with  two  faces,  8  feet  high  and  9  feet  thick.  They 
are,  I  think,  hammer  dressed2  in  places  to  take  angles  of  other  stones. 
The  gate  faced  S.E.,  and  had  corner  posts  and  lintels  7  feet  long ;  near 
it,  to  the  south,  two  steps  remain  in  the  inner  face  of  the  wall. 

CAHEKLAHERTAGH  (130  feet),  on  a  low  hillock,  near  the  road.  About 
5  feet  of  the  finely  built  wall  rises  over  the  heaps  of  fallen  blocks,  its 
top  level  with  the  garth,  which  was  divided  into  three  by  a  T-shaped 

1  Possibly  hut  sites,  as  at  Caherconree,  Kerry  (Ulster  Journal,  viii.,  p.  118)  ;  Eildon 
Hill  (Proc.  Soc.  Ant.,  Scot.,  1895,  p.  128,  and  "  Blackhill,"  p.  143)  ;  and  early  British 
villages  (Brit.  Archseol.  Assoc.,  184<>,  p.  155;  Prehistoric  "Annals  of  Scotland,"  and 
Soc.  Ant.,  Normandy,  1835,  p.  317).  They  also  occur  in  Pen-y-ddinasahove  Llandudno 
and  Penselwood  on  the  borders  of  Dorset,  Somerset,  and  Wiltshire,  where  many 
hundreds  occur  round  a  circular  fort. 

I  believe  that  traces  of  the  hammer  occur  at  Cahermore-Koughan,  Ballykinvarga, 
and  Caherminane,  all  border  forts  of  Burren. 


wall ;  an  oval  cloghaun  stood  in  the  north  section.     There  is  no  trace  of  a 
gateway.1     Beyond  the  road  is  a  cromlech,  the  top  slab  now  removed. 

BALLYSHANNY  (137  feet  x  132  feet),  much  defaced,  and  standing  on 
a  rocky  knoll  to  the  west.  The  wall  is  7  feet  thick.  There  are  some 
traces  of  a  souterrain  inside,  and  of  steps,  probably  leading  up  to  a  gate, 
on  the  south-east. 

CAHEREMON,  near  Kilfenora,  described  by  Petrie  as  "a  fine  remain," 
is  now  levelled  with  the  field;  it  was  of  no  great  size. 

DOON-  (296  ft.  x  310  ft.,  or,  with  fosse,  about  350  ft.  each  way,  Ord. 
Surv.  Sheet  16).  A  fine  fort,2  on  a  hill  450  feet  above  the  sea ;  it  is  of 
pear-shaped  plan,  surrounded  by  a  fosse  cut  in  the  shale,  with  a  regular 
curve  and  batter  to  each  side,  25  ft.  to  20  ft.  wide,  and  5  ft.  deep.  A  fence 
crosses  the  fort,  and  west  of  it  the  ramparts  are  better  preserved,  and  in 
parts  faced  with  stone,  rising  20  feet  above  the  fosse,  and  12  and  15  feet 
over  the  field.  They  have  three  gaps :  the  middle  one  has  a  mound 
across  the  fosse  ;  the  southern  faces  a  rectangular  block  of  shale,  probably 
for  a  plank.  The  only  feature  to  the  east  is  a  flight  of  seven  steps,  cut 
in  the  rock ;  the  entire  circuit  of  the  rampart  is  about  970  feet.  From 
this  bold  outpost  of  the  Old  World  we  see  Liscannor  Cliffs  and  castle, 
and  the  boundless  sea,  with  its  fringe  of  dazzling  foam ;  Kilfenora,  one  of 
the  earliest  villages  of  Clare,  and  Lisdoonvarna,  one  of  the  latest ;  the 
castles  of  Smithstown  and  Lemeneagh,  recorded  by  the  Four  Masters  ; 
and  the  inland  barriers  of  Callan  and  Glasgeivnagh,  with  Elva,  the 
legendary  battlefield  of  the  Firbolg  with  the  great  King  Cormac 
mac  Airt,  closing  the  view  on  the  north. 

This  Paper  having  far  outgrown  my  original  design,  I  must  for  the 
present  omit  the  forts  of  more  northern  Burren,  and  conclude  it  by  a 
brief  statement  of  the  facts  which  more  especially  forced  themselves  on  me 
during  my  researches.  (1)  The  key  to  the  origin  of  our  Irish  forts  lies 
as  much  in  their  congeners  over  the  rest  of  Europe  as  in  our  own  records. 
(2)  The  Firbolg  legend,  hitherto  so  unreservedly  adopted  to  account  for 
their  origin,  is  (if  not  entirely  mythical)  only  of  value  for  two  or  three 
forts.  It  does  not  even  touch  on  the  cahers-  of  Kerry,  Cork,  Mayo,  and 
Ulster,  still  less  on  the  British  and  Continental  examples.  (3)  The 
evidence  (so  far  as  it  goes)  shows  that  such  structures  were  built  and 
rebuilt  from  a  period  long  before  the  introduction  of  Christianity  to 
(probably)  the  14th  century.  (4)  Very  few  of  our  forts  were  defen- 
sive in  a  military  sense.  (5)  Their  arrangement  on  lines  and  in  groups 

1  This  is  not  uncommon  in  the  forts  of  Clare,  and  even  occurs  in  the  ancient  stone 
fort  on  a  peninsula  near  Sebenico,  in  Dalmatia  ("  Land  of  the  Bora,"  p.  56). 

2  Mac  Liag's  poem,  as  translated  by  Ossianic  Society  (vol.  v.,  p.  287),  says  :   "  They 
placed   Daelach  at    Dael,    Aenach  constructed  a  dan  in  his   neighbourhood."      Two 
tributaries  of  the  Daelach  rise  at  the  foot  of  this  ridge,  so  perhaps  this  fort  is  the  "  Tech 
nEnnach,"  see  supra,  our  Journal,  1896,  p.  143. 


also  occurs  all  across  Europe.  (6)  The  question  of  masonry  depends  on 
geological,  not  racial  conditions.  (7)  The  features  are  stereotyped  by  the 
materials.  (8)  There  seem  to  be  traces  of  the  work  of  the  hammer  but 
not  of  the  chisel.  (9)  Wood  was  probably  used  for  steps  and  lintels  in  a 
few  forts.1  (10)  Water  supply  was  deliberately  excluded  from  the  fort 
for  sanitary  reasons.  (11.)  This  and  most  other  features  existing  in 
our  forts  appear  in  the  body  of  Irish  literature  as  commonplace  pheno- 
mena of  the  buildings  of  the  earlier  middle  ages. 

It  is  greatly  to  be  hoped  that  some  of  these  cahers2  may  soon  be  vested 
as  National  monuments,  not  for  rebuilding  but  for  their  preservation ; 
this  is  of  urgent  need,  for  indescribable  destruction  is  carried  out  every 
year.  It  is  a  reproach  to  us,  as  a  nation,  that  we  treat  these  priceless 
ruins  as  mere  valueless  jetsam  of  the  sea  of  time.  We  make  the  forts 
our  quarries  and  cattle-pens,  the  cromlechs  our  hovels  and  pig- styes, 
defacing  and  destroying  for  our  sordid  gains  or  mischievous  pastimes. 
Would  that  we  could  utilise  our  pride  in  that  past,  whose  glories  we 
exaggerate,  to  the  more  practical  purpose  of  preserving  its  relics,  which 
we  are  helping,  by  direct  injury  or  inexcusable  apathy,  to  sweep  with 
unsparing  hands  into  the  limbo  of  forgetf  ulness.3 

1  Cahermackirilla  and  Cahergrillaun,  near  Carran,  have  ancient  gates  too  wide  for 
stone  lintels  :  and  Mullach,  in  Dabrien,   has  recesses  in  its  wall  and  terrace  only 
suitable  for  short  ladders.     See  also  Journal,  1896,  pp.  153  and  157. 

2  Ballykinvarga,  Ballynllaban,  Caherahoagh,  Cahercornniane,  Cahercuttine,  Caher- 
muc.naughten,  Cahershaughnessy,  Cashlaungar,  Glenquin,  Moghaue,  and  Langough ; 
all  of  the  greatest  interest. 

3  I  here  thank  Dr.  George  MacNamara  (Local  Secretary] ,  my  sister,  Mrs.  O'Callaghan 
(Member],  and  the  Rev.  J.  B.  Greer,  who  never  grudged  giving  their  time,  researches, 
or  personal  trouble  to  enable  me  to  work  up  the  Clare  forts,  Dr.   W.  Grazer  (Vice- 
President],  Mr.  Standish  Hayes  O'Grady,  and  Mr.  "W.  Borlase,  of  London,  who  gave 
me  many  valuable  suggestions  and  references,  and  Captains  Pery  and  Sloggett  of  the 
Ordnance  Survey,  who  gave  me  tracings  of  the  plans  of  the  forts  of  Doon,  Bally  - 
gunner,  and  Cahercuttine. 



F  SUPPOSE  most  of  us  are  familiar  with  the  quaint  lines  which  are  in- 
scribed on  an  old  tombstone  in  Melrose  Abbey  :— 

"  The  earth  goeth  on  the  earth 

Glistering  like  gold, 
The  earth  goes  to  the  earth 

Sooner  than  it  wold. 
The  earth  builds  on  the  earth 

Castles  and  towers, 
The  earth  says  to  the  earth 

All  shall  be  ours." 

These  words  which  harmonise  so  well  with  their  surroundings  in 
Xelrose  where  one  is  afraid  almost  to  touch  the  soft  stone  for  fear  of 
hastening  the  decay  which  is  proceeding  so  rapidly,  seem  likewise  to 
suit  the  subject  with  which  I  have  now  to  deal.  The  old  buildings 
which  formerly  helped  to  make  Burrow  famous  have  long  since  passed 
uway,  so  that  scarcely  a  vestige  of  them  now  remains.  Petrie  thought 
that  he  had  sufficient  evidence  to  prove  that  formerly  there  was  a  round 
tower  there,  and  he  believed  he  had  the  authority  of  Adamnan  to  support 
this  theory.1  But  it  is  at  this  time  made  a  question  as  to  whether 
such  a  round  tower  ever  existed.  The  castle  built  there  by  the  celebrated 
Sir  Hugh  de  Lacie  has  long  since  crumbled  away,  so  that  even  with 
respect  to  it  a  question  has  been  raised,  and  some  have  even  ventured  to 
assert  that  the  murder  of  Sir  Hugh  was  not  perpetrated  in  Burrow  at  all, 
but  at  another  castle  which  stood  about  a  mile  away,  and  which  is  known 
by  the  name  of  Shancourt  Castle  (of.  O'Connor  on  Durrow  Parish  in  1837, 
and  Lanigan's  "Church  History").  Even  when  we  come  down  to 
modern  times  we  find  that  the  old  house  which  stood  on  the  demesne 
where  the  Stepneys  lived  when  they  were  proprietors  of  Durrow,  has 
been  destroyed  by  fire.2 

•  oee  reme  s  ••  itounu  lowers,  p.  doi ;  also  Aaamnan  s  ••  JL,ne  01 
cap.  xv. : — "  De  Angelo  Domini  qui  alicui  fratii,  lapso  de  monasterii 
in  Roboreti  Campo,  opportune  tam  cito  subvenerat."  Apparently  very  s 

2  O'Connor,   in  las  correspondence  about  Durrow,  tells  how  one 

1  See  Petrie's  "  Round  Towers,"  p.  384  ;  also  Adamnan's  "Life  of  St.  Columba," 

ciilmine  rohuidl 
3ry  strong  evidence, 
one  John  Daly,  of 

Kilbeggan,  related  to  him,  when  on  his  death-bed,  that  "about  sixty  or  sixty-two 
years  ago"  (i.e.  about  the  year  1780),  "  extensive;  ruins  of  the  castle  of  Durrow  were 
extant  immediately  to  the  north  of  the  moat,  but  that  these  walls  were  pulled  down 
by  the  Stepney  family  to  build  a  mansion-house,  which  still  exists,  but  much  enlarged 
and  amplified,  by  the  present  proprietor,  Lord  .Norbury."  This  house,  which  O'Connor 
speaks  of,  was  afterwards  destroyed  by  fire,  one  wall  of  it  only  remaining,  where  it 
was  connected  with  the  amplifications  which  O'Connor  speaks  of  as  being  effected  by 
Lord  Norbury,  which  amplifications  now  form  the  present  mansion-house  of  Durrow 
Abbey.  I  regret  to  say  that  the  Stepneys  have  a  bad  record  in  archaeology,  as  they 
also  demolished  the  tine  Cistercian  Abbey  of  Owney,  to  build  AbingUm  House, 
county  Limerick. 


O'Connor,  in  his  Ordnance  Survey  Correspondence  written  in  1838, 
t(41s  how  he  visited  Durrow,  and  "  viewed  it  with  anxious  care  border- 
ing upon  pain,"  but  could  find  nothing  there  but  St.  Columba's  Cross, 
and  the  Holy  "Well.  Having  read  such  a  description  one  is  almost 
precipitated  into  a  feeling  of  pessimism  like  that  which  is  expressed  on 
the  tomb  of  Alderman  John  Bowers  of  Gloucester  fame,  who,  notwith- 
standing the  fact  that  he  had  nine  sons  and  seven  daughters,  has  these 
words  recorded  on  his  tomb: — "  VAYNE,  VANITIH — ALL  is  BUT  VATNE." 
And  yet  notwithstanding  the  devastation  wrought  by  the  hands  of  man, 
as  well  as  by  the  hands  of  time;  though  the  round  tower  is  almost 
a  myth  ; l  though  the  last  vestige  of  the  monastery  has  long  since  been 
obliterated,  and  the  strong  castle  of  the  valiant  Norman  been  levelled 
with  the  ground,  there  is  still  in  the  records  of  the  past,  and  in  the 
few  remains  which  still  exist,  something  to  cause  the  visitor  who  views 
Durrow  with  anxious  care  some  feelings  of  pleasure,  even  though  they 
be  mingled  with  pain  for  the  glories  of  the  past  that  have  faded,  and 
are  no  more  with  us. 


1  shall,  however,  begin  first  with  Temple  Kieran.  Some  of  us  visited 
it  last  summer,  in  connexion  with  the  Durrow  Excursion,  on  August  3rd, 
1896.  It  is  situated  about  three  miles  from  Tullamore,  and  an  equal 
distance  from  Clara,  and  it  lies  at  a  distance  of  about  a  mile  and 
a-half  as  the  crow  would  fly  from  the  site  where  the  monastery  once 
stood  at  Durrow.  I  have  called  the  place  by  the  name  given  on  the 
Ordnance  Survey  Maps,  but  why  it  is  so  called  I  have  never  been  able  to 
find  out,  and  1  firmly  believe  that  the  place  is  there  misnamed.  No  one 
in  the  neighbourhood  calls  it  by  this  name,  or  knows  it  by  any  other 
name  than  Tihilly,  or  as  they  pronounce  it  Teely.  This,  too,  is  the  name 
by  which  it  is  called  in  the  church  books  for  nearly  300  years.  In 
Archdale's  "  Monasticon,"  Tytylle  is  mentioned  in  connexion  with  an 
inquisition  made  in  the  twelfth  year  of  Queen  Elizabeth.  It  formed  one 

1  In  O'Connor's  Ordnance  Survey  Correspondence  for  Westmeath  in  1837,  the 
following  strange  story  is  referred  to  as  having  occurred  in  Rosdeala,  in  the  parish  of 
Durrow,  in  the  1 1th  century  : — "  A  cloigtheach  of  fire  (he  says)  appeared  at  night,  and 
round  it  flew,  and  on  the  top  of  it  perched,  a  number  of  birds,  and  among  them  ap- 
peared a  bird  of  extra  size,  under  whose  wings  the  smaller  ones,  scared  at  the  sight  of 
the  glowing  pillar  of  fire,  hid  their  heads.  These  birds,  after  having  amused  themselves 
with  this  fiery  pillar  (as  butterflies  fly  around  a  lighted  candle),  were  observed  by  the> 
astonished  inhabitants  to  fly  from  it  suddenly,  and  to  perch  on  the  branches  of  the 
oaks  of  a  neighbouring  roboretum,  of  which  the  large  bird  tore  the  largest  of  them 
from  the  roots,  after  which  he  seized  upon  a  greyhound  and,  flying  with  him  to  a 
sublime  height,  let  him  suddenly  drop  down,  and  killed  him.  Soon  after  these  birds 
(devils,  to  be  sure)  and  the  fiery  pillar  disappeared.  This  phenomenon  is  set  down  in 
the  '  Book  of  Ballymote '  as  one  of  the  thirteen  wonders  of  the  world,  and  is  referred 
toby  'John  Dalton,  Esq.,  ablest  antiquary  in  Ireland,'  as  a  proof  that  the  round 
towers  of  Ireland  were  fire  pillars."  See  also  "Annals  Four  Masters,"  1054,  and. 
"  Chronicon  Scotorum,"  1052. 


of  the  townlands  in  the  parish  of  Burrow,  and  consisted  of  two  mes- 
suages, four  cottages,  24  acres  of  arable  land,  60  of  pasture  and  bog,  and 
29  of  wood  and  copse.  Its  valuation  was  26s.  Sd, 

Tradition  in  the  neighbourhood  speaks  of  Tihilly  as  being  quite  as 
old  a  place  as  Durrow,  but  it  must  be  many  years  since  there  was  any 
religious  house  here,  or  since  its  ancient  church  was  used.  No  inter- 
ment has  been  made  in  the  graveyard  for  many  years ;  its  fence  has  been 
long  since  levelled.  A  holy  well  was  once  here,  but  it  has  been  filled 
up.  The  old  cross  with  its  quaint  figures  and  beautiful  ornamentation  is 
left  uncared  for  and  broken.  One  of  the  old  inscribed  tombstones, 
of  which  I  give  an  illustration,  I  found  in  three  pieces,  lying  in 
different  parts  of  the  field  which  once  was  a  churchyard.  There  is 
near  at  hand  the  remains  of  an  old  mill  which,  no  doubt,  was  long  ago 
connected  with  the  establishment,  and  just  behind  it  is  a  high  mound  full 
of  human  bones,  which  I  was  told  were  supposed  to  be  the  bones  of 
people  slain  in  a  battle,  but  my  informant  (who  seemed  to  be  about  forty 
years  of  age)  added  that  the  battle  took  place  long;  ago,  before  she  was 
born !  Now  as  regards  the  old  church  I  regret  to  say  that  it  is  very 
much  defaced,  so  that  there  is- not  much  to  go  upon  to  fix  its  date. 
Two  features,  however,  are  interesting ;  one  is  the  great  size  of  some  of 
the  stones  which  are  used ;  one  very  long  one,  which  I  measured,  was 
over  12  feet  in  length.  Another  interesting  feature  in  its  architecture 
is  the  fact  that  its  walls  have  two  faces,  one  for  the  inside  of  the  build- 
ing, and  the  other  for  its  outside.  So  that  this  long  stone  which  I 
speak  of  as  on  the  outside  face  does  not  appear  on  the  inside  of  the 
building.  The  church  itself  was  about  40  or  45  feet  long,  and  15  feet 
wide.  Near  its  west  end  stands,  in  a  very  dilapidated  condition,  an  old 
cross.  The  shrine-like  head  and  the  south  arm  have  vanished,  but  the 
north  arm,  with  fragments  of  the  ring,  remains  broken  from  the  head. 
This  cross  was  about  7  feet  high,  14  in.  broad,  and  7  in.  thick.  The 
following  are  the  figures  carved  on  it : — The  Crucifixion,  with  lance 
and  sponge  ;  Adam  and  Eve,  and  the  forbidden  fruit;  a  griffin  ;  and  on 
the  corresponding  panel  two  birds  with  their  necks  entwined  in  a 
very  peculiar  way.  Indeed,  each  of  the  sides  displays  panels  with 
skilfully  interlaced  monsters,  and  very  classic  fretwork — the  back  of 
the  head,  however,  was  only  ornamented  by  a  circular  boss,  and  the 
base  is  also  quite  plain.1  Now,  as  regards  the  tombstones,  I  have 
only  been  able  to  find  two,  and  unfortunately  the  inscriptions  are  almost 
gone,  only  a  trace  of  some  letters  remaining.  The  crosses,  however,  are 
exquisitely  cut,  and  the  design  is  particularly  beautiful  on  the  one  which 

1  Since  writing  the  above,  I  have  "been  told  of  some  very  interesting  examples  of 
carvings  of  animals  with  interlaced  necks.  On  a  pre-Norman  fort  at  Oughtmama, 
in  the  county  Clare,  stags  are  shown  in  this  way  ;  and  at  Limerick  Cathedral  there  is 
a  representation  of  animals,  in  a  like  position,  on  some  late  oak  seats  belonging  to  the 
15th  century.  It  also  occurs  in  some  English  romanesque  churches  as,  e.g.  Canter- 

Fig.  i._View  of  Cross  at  Tihilly,  King's  County,  South,  East,  and  North  faces. 


is  broken.  I  may  mention  that  I  found  another  stone  which  evidently  had 
once  been  a  tombstone,  but  all  engravings  of  any  kind  which  ever  had 
been  cut  on  it  were  worn  away.  A  story  is  told  in  the  neighbourhood  to 

Fig.  2. 

(1)  Tombstone  in  Tihilly  Churchyard.          (3)  Tombstone  found  in  ploughed  field. 

(2)  West  face  of  Tihilly  Cross.     '  (4)  Detail  of  south  face  of  Cross. 

the  effect  that  at  one  time  a  great  number  of  these  old  Irish  tombstones 
existed,  but  the  owner  of  the  mill  required  a  new  kiln  for  drying  his 


grain,  and  so  he  took  these  stones  which  seemed  so  suitable  for  his 
purpose,  and  broke  them  up  and  laid,  as  he  thought,  a  good  and  durable 
floor.  But  lo !  a  strange  thing  happened !  He  lighted  his  fire,  but  the  kiln 
would  not  work.  At  length  his  neighbours  persuaded  him  to  take  up 
.the  floor,  and  leave  back  the  hallowed  stones  in  their  place,  and  obtain 
fresh  stones  suitable  for  his  purpose.  This  he  did,  and  then  the  kiln 
worked  again  as  usual. 

Now  all  these  legends  and  facts  taken  together  convey  something  to  us. 
The  fact  of  the  old  church,  neglected  and  in  ruins,  the  desecrated  grave- 
yard, the  holy  well  filled  up,  the  sacred  cross  left  to  be  a  scratching  post 
for  the  cattle  that  graze  around  it — all  seem  to  tell  us  that  this  is  not  only 
an  ancient  place,  but  one  well  nigh  forgotten — so  much  neglected  that 
many,  many  years  must  have  elapsed  since  any  religious  house  or  church 
existed  there,  since  all  its  hallowed  associations  are  gone.  I  find  notices 
of  Tihilly,  however,  from  the  following  authorities: — In  Dr.  Todd's 
•edition  of  the  "  Martyrology  of  Donegal,"  p.  179,  occurs,  under  June 
25,  the  following  notice  : — "  Telle,  son  of  Seigin,  of  Tigh-Telle,  in  West- 
rneath.  He  is  of  the  race  of  Colla-Da."  Reeves  also,  in  his  edition  of 
Adamnan's  "Life  of  St.  Columba,"  p.  21,  in  a  note,  says  "  St.  Fintan 
founded  Teach-Telli,  now  Tihilly,  near  Durrow  "  ;  and  he  then  refers 
us  to  Codd.  Marsh,  fol.  127,  b.  b.,  where  we  get  an  account  of  St.  Fintan. 
Colgan  also,  to  whom  Bishop  Reeves  refers,  speaks  of  Tihilly.  telling  us 
how  the  Holy  Virgin,  Cera,  used  to  live  there.  Lanigan,  in  his  "  Eccle- 
siastical History,"  also  refers  to  St.  Fintan  (vol.  iii.,  p.  129).  He  tells 
us  that  the  Holy  Virgin,  Cera,  who  was  said  to  be  the  daughter  of  Dubhe, 
and  of  an  illustrious  family  of  Muskerry,  in  the  now  county  of  Cork, 
applied  to  St.  Fintan  for  a  situation  on  which  to  establish  a  nunnery,  and 
he  is  said  to  have  assigned  to  her  the  place  where  he  had  been  himself, 
afterwards  called  Teach-Telli.  This  St.  Cera  died  in  the  year  670.  Her 
memory  is  commemorated  on  January  5th. 

In  the  "Annals  of  Clonmacnoise  "  we  are  told  of  the  death  of  "St. 
Moylerwayn,  in  the  year  884,  who  was  Abbot  of  Dysart  Dermott, 
Killeaghie,  and  Tihellie,"  and  respecting  his  reputation  it  is  added  that 
""he  prophesied  many  things."  From  Rev.  D.  Murphy's  edition  we  also 
learn  that,  in  741,  M'Mdeferty,  Abbot  of  Tihilly,  died,  but,  in  a  note, 
the  editor  says  Tihilly  is  near  Clonmacnoise. 

In  the  "  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters  "  we  are  told  that  Teagh-Telli 
was  burned  in  the  year  670.  On  this  O'Donovan  gives  the  following 
interesting  note: — "Teagh-Telli,  i.e.  the  House  of  Telli,  the  son  of 
Segienus,  who  was  contemporary  with  St.  Fintan  of  Taghmon,  in  county 
Wexford.  In  O'Clery's  'Irish  Calendar'  the  festival  of  St.  Telli  is 
marked  25th  of  June  ;  and  it  is  stated  that  his  church,  called  Teagh- 
Teilli,  is  situated  in  Westmeath."  I  may  remark,  in  passing,  that  Tehelly 
is  not  more  than  half-a-mile,  at  the  furthest,  from  the  border  of  West- 
meath,  although  it  is  in  the  King's  County,  so  that  this  is  not  a  very 

JOUR.  K. S.A.I.,  VOL.  VII.,  PT.  II.,  OTH  SER.  L 

134          ROYAL    SOCIETY    OF    ANTIQUARIES    OF    IRELAND. 

serious  geographical  mistake.1  "  In  the  Gloss  on  the  Feilire •  JEnguis," 
O'Donovan  adds,  "it  is  described  as  in  the  vicinity  of  Daurmagh,  now 
Durrew.  Archdale  says  it  is  Telltown  ;  but  this  is  very  incorrect,  because 
Telltown  is  not  in  Westmeath,  but  in  the  celebrated  place  in  East  Meath 
called  Tailtin  by  the  Irish  writers.  Lanigan  ("Eccles.  Hist.,"  vol.  iii., 
p.  130)  states  that  Tech-Teille  is  in  the  now  King's  County,  but  he  does 
not  tell  us  where.  It  is  the  place  now  called  Tehelly,  situated  in  the 
parish  of  Durrow,  in  the  north  of  the  King's  County." 

In  7232  we  read  of  the  death  of  Rubyn,  chief  scribe  of  Minister.  He- 
was  the  son  of  Bryan  of  Tihill,  and  was  a  good  preacher  and  divine. 

In  865  we  are  told  of  the  death  of  Cosgrach,  scribe  and  anchorite,  of 
Teach-Teilli.  In  884  of  Maelruain,  Abbot  of  Desert  (castle)  dermot, 
and  Cill  Achaiadh,  and  Teach  Theille,  and  in  898  that  of  Scannall,  of 
Teach  Teille. 

The  last  notice  I  can  find  is  in  936,  when  we  read  that  Robhar- 
tach,  of  Teach-Teilli,  died  in  the  same  year  that  Dubthach,  successor 
of  Columcille  and  Adamnan,  in  Ireland  and  Alba,  died. 

These  notices,  it  is  true,  are  brief;  but  they,  nevertheless,  give  us 
some  information.  Tehilly  evidently  did  good  work  in  its  day  as  a  centre 
of  light  and  learning.  Like  many  other  religious  houses,  it  had  its 
anchorite  cell.  In  its  day  its  scribes,  no  doubt,  gave  the  world  manu- 
scripts like  the  "  Book  of  Durrow."  It  sent  forth  missionaries  who  were 
not  only  full  of  zeal,  but  men  of  erudition,  whose  theological  training 
gave  good  material  on  which,  to  base  their  fervid  eloquence. 


And  now  I  think  it  is  time  for  me  to  pass  on  to  the  second  ancient 

graveyard  in  my  parish.  The 
first  object  of  interest  which 
meets  us  there  is  the  old  church, 
which  continued  to  be  used  for 
divine  service  until  about  sixteen 
years  ago,  and  which  stands  on 
a  site  full  of  historic  interest. 
Over  the  west  door,  as  you  enter, 
you  see  a  curious  little  head 
carved  in  stone,  which  may  pos- 
sibly be  old.  There  are,  also, 
over  the  door  some  imitations  of 

Fig.  3. — Cross  on  gable  of  Durrow  Church. 

loaves  of  bread,  &c.,  in  stone,  which,  however,  are  too  Georgian  in  their 

1  How  little  importance  may  be  attached  to  a  mere  geographical  mistake  may  bo 
inferred  from  the  fact  that,  in  our  Museum  of  Irish  Antiquities  in  Dublin,  I  saw  a  notice 
last  year,  underneath  the  Durrow  crozier,  which  informed  visitors  that  Durrow  is 
situated  in  county  Meath. 

2A.D.  724,  in  "Annals  of  Ulster,"    "  Rubin  Mac  Conad  scriba  Muman  jft» 
Brocain  (de)  Thaigh  Theille  qui  magister  bonus  Evangelii  Christi  erat." 


appearance  to  allow  us  to  attribute  any  great  age  to  them.  On  the  east 
gable  is  a  very  curious  cross,  with  a  representation  of  the  crucifixion  on 
it  (fig.  3,  p.  134).  It  is  very  short;  the  legs  seem  to  be  broken  across; 
and  it  may  possibly  have  once  stood  in  the  socket  of  an  old  cross  which 
is  outside  the  graveyard  in  a  plantation,  to  the  S.E.,  and  which  is 
known  as  "the  headache  stone."  I  have  taken  the  measurements  of  the 
base  of  the  cross  and  the  socket  of  the  headache  stone,  and  the  two 
correspond  exactly.  I,  therefore,  think  it  not  unreasonable  to  suppose 
that  this  cross  may  have  been  placed  there  originally,  and,  after  it  had 
been  broken,  was  removed  to  its  present  position  at  some  time  when 
the  church  was  being  restored. 

"We  have  also,  I  think,  good  reason  for  concluding  that  the  present 
church  stands  on  the  very  site  that  a  church  has  stood  on  for  over  a 
thousand  years.  Probably  the  foundations  are  the  same  foundations  as  those 
which  were  first  laid  there  for  a  stone  church  consecrated  for  the  service 
of  God.  The  "  Chronicon  Scotorum  "  tells  us  that,  in  the  year  833,  the 
terrnon  of  Durrow  was  burned  to  the  church  door.  If  the  church  was  then 
built  of  wattles  or  wood,  one  can  hardly  think  it  would  have  escaped. 
The  "  Annals  of  Lough  Ce  "  again  tell  us  that  the  stone  church  of  Durrow 
\vas  broken  into  in  the  year,  1018,  and  Molloye,  King  of  Fearceall,  who 
seems  to  have  sought  there  the  right  of  asylum,  was  taken  out  of  it  by 
force  and  afterwards  slain.  The  "  Annals  of  Clonmacnoise "  give  a 
record  of  the  same  deed  of  violence,  but  make  the  date  of  the  profanation 
of  the  sanctuary  of  Durrow  five  years  earlier — 1013. 

In  Archdale's  "  Monasticon  "  we  are  told  of  an  inquisition  held  on 
28th  December,  and  the  twelfth  year  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  i.e.  1570, 
which  found  that  the  Abbot  of  Durrow  was  seized  of  the  abbey  and  the 
village  of  Durrow,  containing  the  site  of  the  abbey,  being  half-an.-acre, 
on  which  were  a  church,  hall,  and  other  buildings.  It  is  interesting  to 
observe,  with  reference  to  this,  that  the  church  and  churchyard,  at  present 
enclosed  by  a  wall,  just  occupies  about  the  same  space ;  also  that,  beside 
the  old  church,  there  is  a  space  where  no  interments  have  been  made, 
but  which  is  taken  up  with  broken  fragments  of  stone  and  pieces  of 
mortar,  which  seems  to  testify  that  some  structure  once  stood  there.  The 
graveyard  seems  to  be  raised  above  it  by  reason  of  frequent  interments  ; 
but  it  is  strange  to  find  that,  in  a  graveyard  which  is  so  much  over- 
crowded, this  space,  which  was  available,  was  never  used. 

In  my  account  I  have  skipped  over  a  period  of  five  hundred  years ; 
but  1  need  not,  I  think,  at  the  present  time,  draw  your  attention  to  the 
many  notices  of  Durrow  given  by  the  annalists  during  this  time,  which 
show  that  it  continued  all  along  a  centre  of  religious  life  and  learning. 
I  pass  on  to  more  recent  times. 

Prom  its  hall-mark  I  find  that  the  chalice  belonging  to  our  com- 
munion plate  bears  the  date  1631-1632  ;  this  brings  us  on  sixty  years 
further ;  and  it  seems  natural  to  think  that  some  restoration  was  effected 


136          ROYAL    SOCIETY    OF    ANTIQUARIES    OF    IRELAND. 

in  the  church  when  this  piece  of  plate  was  given  to  it.  The  period  just 
antecedent  to  this  date  seems,  indeed,  to  have  been  the  time  when  things 
in  Burrow  were  at  their  worst. 

In  1623  we  are  told  that  the  "Book  of  Durrow"  was  kept  in  tlio 
possession  of  an  ignorant  peasant,  who  used  to  pour  water  upon  it.  which 
was  given  as  a  cure  for  cattle  which  were  ill.1  The  "Book  of  Durrow'' 
was,  at  this  time,  taken  possession  of  hy  Henry  Jones,  who  was  then 
Bishop  of  Meath,  and  presented  to  Trinity  College,  Dublin. 

After  the  lapse  of  seventy  years  more,  \ve  find  another  interesting 
reference  to  the  church  of  Durrow  in  Bishop  Dopping's  return  to  the 
Lord  Lieutenant  in  the  year  1694.  After  stating  that  Durrow  was  n 
cure  with  a  salary  of  £20,  which,  at  that  time,  was  not  paid  "  by  reason 
of  ye  waste  of  ye  country,"  he  goes  on  to  say  that  there  is  a  church  ami 
chancel,  which  was  lately  in  repair,  but  much  out  of  order  by  reason  of 
"  ye  troubles  of  Sir  George  Herberte."  My  vestry-book  carries  on  the 
history  of  the  church  from  this  date  forward ;  telling  the  story  first 
of  its  dilapidated  condition,  and  then  of  its  gradually  being  provided, 
year  after  year,  with  the  requisites  for  the  proper  conduct  of  Divine 
Service,  until,  the  year  1880,  when  the  Hon.  Otway  Toler,  the 
father  of  the  present  proprietor  of  Durrow  Abbey,  built  a  new  church 
and  provided  a  new  graveyard,  for  the  use  of  members  of  the  Church 
of  Ireland,  in  memory  of  his  father,  Lord  JS'orbury.  This  was  the 
Lord  Norbury  who,  on  January  1st,  1839,  was  murdered  at  Durrow  ;  as 
a  mural  tablet  in  the  old  church  informs  us,  "  when  he  was  spending 
his  large  means  for  the  benefit  of  the  people  amongst  whom  he  had 
fixed  his  residence,  and  when  all  his  useful  projects  and  beneficent 
intentions  were  suddenly  cut  off,  not  in  the  ordinary  course  of  God's 
providence;  for,  as  a  man  falleth  before  wicked  men,  so  he  fell."2 

But  I  must  not  take  up  too  much  of  your  time  with  the  old  church 
of  Durrow,  lest  I  should  pass  over  other  objects  of  interest  that  are 
in  its  immediate  vicinity.  The  records  of  the  churchyard  of  Durrow 

1  See  "Annals  of  Clonmaonoise,"  where,  speaking  of  "  The  Book  of  Durrow,"  the 
writer  says : — "  He    [St.    Columba]  wrote  300  books  with   his   own   hand.      They 
were  all  New  Testaments.     He  left  a  hook  to  each  of  his  churches  in  the  kingdom, 
which  hooks  have  a  strange  property,  which  is,  that  if  they,  or  any  of  them,  had  sunk  to 
the  bottom  of  the  deepest  waters,  they  would  not  lose  one  letter,    sign,  or  character 
of  them,  which  I  have  seen  partly  by  myself  of  that  hook  of  them   which  is   at 
Dorow  [Durrow],  in  the  King's  County;  for  I  saw  the  ignorant  man  who  had  the 
same  in  his  oustodie,  when  sickness  came  on  cattle,  for  their  remedy,  put  water  on  the 
book  and  suffer  it  to  rest  there  a  while  ;  and  saw  also  cattle  return  thereby  to  their 
former  state,  and  the  book  to  receive  no  loss." 

2  The  Most  Rev.  Dr.  Healy,  from  his  language  in  comparing  the  character  of  Lord 
Norbury  to  that  of  Hugh  de  Lacie,  seems  to  confuse  the  Lord  Nor  bury  who  was 
murdered,  with  his  father,   the  celebrated  judge.      In  illustration  of  the  kind  and 
charitable  disposition  of  the  second  Lord  Norbury  (who  was  murdered),  an  amusing  story 
is  told  in  the  neighbourhood  of  an  old  shoemaker,  whom  his  lordship  used  to  employ  to 
make  boots  for  his  poor  people,  and  who,  after  his  death,  used  to  say  with  much 
emphasis  : — "Them  that  shot  Lord  Norbury,  shot  me  through  the  heart." 




involve  the  history  of  the  principal  families  connected  with  it. 
Let  me  first,  then,  call  your  attention  to  a  rude  old  tombstone 
which  lies  on  the  threshold  of  the  entrance  to  the  old  church.  It  bears 
the  following  inscription :  — 


Underneath,  the  coat-of-arms  is  half  cut ;  but,  for  some  reason,  is  left  un- 
finished. Perhaps  the  sculptor  himself  died  before  he  had  accomplished  his 
work.  Perhaps  the  next-of-kiu  of  Francis  de  Renci  were  dissatisfied  with 
the  work,  and  would  not  have  it  completed.  I  have,  however,  obtained 
an  illustration  of  it,  as  I  think  it  both  curious  and  interesting.  You  will 
observe  the  curious  formation  of  the  stags  on  the  crest,  the  initial 
W.  across  the  foremost  of  them  ;  also  the  curious  knot  and  lozenge- 
shaped  shield.  To  a  theologian,  also,  the  inscription  will  be  of  interest 
as  showing  that  the  relatives  of  Francis  de  Renci,  of  Tinicros,  were 
thoroughly  orthodox  in  their  belief  in  the  divinity  of  our  Lord.  I  have 
not  been  able  to  find  out,  though  I  have  been  at  some  pains  to  do  so, 
who  this  Francis  de  Renci 
was ;  but  there  can  be  little 
doubt  that  he  was  a  relation, 
perhaps  son,  of  the  celebrated 
Sir  Matthew  deRenzi,  to  whose 
memory  there  is  a  mural  tablet 
placed  in  the  church  at  Ath- 
lone,  which  tells  us  that  the 

"  Right  Worshipful  Mathew  de  Renzi,  Knight,  departed  this  life 
the  29  Aug.,  1634";  also  that  he  was  "Borne  at  Cullen  (sic),  in 
Germany,  and  descended  from  that  famous  renowned  warrior,  George 
Castriott,  als.  Scanderberge  (who,  in  the  Christian  war,  fought  52  Bat- 
tailes,  with  great  conquest  and  honour,  against  the  Great  Turke)." 
If  our  de  Renci,  of  Durrow,  had  any  of  the  talent  of  his  illustrious 
kinsman,  his  tombstone  fitly  occupies  a  prominent  position  in  Durrow 
amongst  the  remains  of  the  illustrious  dead  who  rest  there.  For  this 
Sir  Matthew  de  Renzi  laid  claim  to  be  "a  great  traveller,  and  a  general 
linguist."  He  "  kept  correspondency  with  most  nations  in  many  weighty 
affairs,  and,  in  three  years,  gave  great  perfection  to  this  nation  by  com- 
posing a  grammar,  dictionary,  and  chronicle,  in  the  Irish  tongue.'7 
Then,  again,  the  mortal  remains  of  a  number  of  heroes  must  have 
been  laid  to  rest  in  the  cemetery  at  Durrow,  though  we  cannot  identify 
the  exact  spot.  The  annalists  telt  us  of  many  celebrities  who  died  at 
Durrow,  though  they  do  not  say  in  so  many  words,  that  they  were 
interred  there.  But  there  are  others  to  whom  I  must  refer.  The 
"  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters"  tell  us  that,  in  758,  Domhnall,  son  of 

Fig.  4. — De  Renci  Arms. 



Murchadh  of  Diarmid,  after  he  had  been  King  of  Ireland,  died.  He  was 
first  King  of  Ireland  of  the  Clan  Colrnain,  and  he  was  buried  with  honour 
and  veneration.  Of  him  was  said  :  — 

"  Until  that  Domhnall  was  brought  to  Dearmhagh 
There  was  no  avenging  conflict  or  battle  on  the  plain  of  Breamhagh." 

The  death  of  another  Domhnall,  who  was  son  of  Magilla-Patrick,  is 
mentioned  in  the  "  Annals  of  Lough  Ce,"  which  tell  us  that  he  was 
killed  in  Dearmhagh  of  Columbkille  by  the  Conchobhair  Failghe  in  the 
year  1582.  In  connexion  with  this  I  wish  to  show  you  an  illus- 
tration of  an  old  tombstone  which  I  found  in  Durrow  a  couple  of  years 
ago.  The  top  is  broken  off  it,  and  unfortunately  I  have  been  unable  to 
find  it.  The  tombstone,  however,  has  an  interesting  cross  on  it,  and  an 
inscription  so  much  defaced,  that  I  have  not  been  able  to  make  it  out 

Fig.  6. — Tombstone,  south  of  Durrow  Church. 

further  than  to  get  the  letters  D,  o,  M.  It  is  merely  a  conjecture;  but 
as  from  examining  the  inscription  it  does  not  appear  to  be  part  of  tlir 
word  Domini,  I  think,  perhaps,  it  may  belong  to  this  Domhnall.  It 
would  not  be  surprising  to  find  that  he  was  buried  in  Durrow,  since  the 
Annalist  tells  us  he  died  there,  nor  would  it  be  very  wonderful  to  find 
his  tombstone  still  remaining  since  the  year  1582. 

In  1068,  the  "  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters  "  tell  us  that  Murchadh, 
i.e.  of  the  Short-Shield,  Ua  Brian,  son  of  Donchadh,  son  of  Brian 
Borumha,  royal  heir  of  Munster,  was  slain  by  the  men  of  Teathbha  in 
revenge  of  their  having  been  plundered  and  preyed,  and  his  head  was 
taken  to  Clonmacnoise  and  his  body  to  Dearmhagh.  This  record  will, 
no  doubt,  remind  you  of  the  murder  of  the  celebrated  Hugh  de  Lacie, 


who,  we  all  know,  was  slain  at  Durrow  by  the  foster-son  of  Fox,  "in 
revenge  of  Columbkille."  He,  too,  it  would  seem,  was,  fora  time,  buried 
in  the  cemetery  of  Durrow  ;  but,  as  we  are  told  (<?/.  "  Graves'  Annals  " 
and  other  authorities),  in  the  year  1195  the  Archbishop' of  Cashel  and 
Dublin  removed  it  from  the  Irish  territory,  and  buried  the  body  in  the 
Abbey  of  Bective  in  Meath,  and  the  head  in  St.  Thomas's  Abbey  in 
Dublin.  Something  similar  is  also  recorded  of  another  celebrity.  In 
1452  Farrell  Roe  Oge,  the  son  of  Farrell  Iloe,  son  of  Donough,  son  of 
Murtagh  More  Mac  Geoghegan,  a  captain  of  great  repute  and  celebrity, 
was  killed  and  beheaded  at  Cruagh-abhall  (now  Croughool,  in  the  parish 
of  Churchtown)  by  the  son  of  the  Baron  of  Delvin  and  the  grandsons  of 
Pierce  Dalton.  They  carried  his  head  to  Trim,  and  from  thence  to 
Dublin  for  exhibition  ;  but  it  was  afterwards  brought  back,  and  buried 
along  with  his  body  in  Durrow  Colum-Chille.1 

Once  more  the  same  authority  records  the  fact  that,  in  1448,  Dermot, 
the  son  of  Owen,  son  of  Mahon  O'Daly,  ollave  of  all  Meath,  a  learned 
poet,  died,  and  was  interred  in  Durrow  Coluui-Cbille. 

I  have  traced  for  you,  as  briefly  and  concisely  as  I  could,  the  history 
and  continuity  of  the  Church  at  Durrow  since  its  foundation  by  St. 
Coluinba;  but  ere  I  conclude  I  must  likewise  say  something  of  the 
history  of  the  great  families  which  have  been  connected  with  the  lands  of 
Durrow.  To  refer  you  once  again  to  the  annalists,  we  are  told  by  them 
that,  in  or  about  the  year  685,  Hugh  Mac  Brenayn,  King  of  the  country 
of  Teffia,  died,  and  they  add,  it  was  he  that  granted  Durrow  to  St.  Columb- 

Now,  it  is  worthy  of  note  that  this  illustrious  prince  was  not  content 
with  presenting  St.  Columba  with  a  site  for  his  monastery,  but  that  he 
and  his  descendants  seem  to  have  always  taken  an  interest  in  its  welfare, 
and  regarded  it  as  a  kind  of  right  and  duty  to  watch  over,  help  and 
protect,  the  monastery  of  Durrow.  Thus  the  Sinnach.  or  Fox,  who 
brought  about  the  murder  of  Hugh  de  Lacie,  was  a  descendant  of  the 
muii  who  presented  Durrow  to  St.  Columba.  No  doubt  that  murder  had 
its  agrarian  as  well  as  its  religious  aspect,  and  was  prompted  quite  as 
much  by  reason  of  the  jealousy  of  The  Fox,  that  property  which  had 
belonged  to  his  ancestors  should  pass  into  the  hands  of  the  Norman  de 
Lucie,  as  for  any  religious  reason  ;  but  if  there  was  this  agrarian  motive, 

1  The  Mageoghegans  were,  in  former  times,  the  custodians  of  the  Durrow  Crozier, 
which  is  now  to  be  seen  in  the  Museum  of  Irish  Antiquities  iu  Dublin. 

-  The  original  name  of  Durrow  was  itosgrencha.  It  received  its  name  of  Durrow 
from  St.  Columba,  on  account  of  the  number  of  oak  trees  which  were  found  in  its 
woods.  It  is  interesting  to  find  an  evidence  of  the  conservatism  for  which  the  Irish 
have  ever  been  famous,  in  sticking  to  the  old  names  of  places,  in  the  fact  that  one 
portion  of  the  demesne  is  still  called  Grancha,  so  that  the  older  name  is  still  preserved 
iu  the  place,  notwithstanding  the  origin  of  its  change  of  name,  and  the  fact  that  this 
change  of  name  is  associated  with  Durrow's  patron  saint. 



there  was  the  other  as  well ;  and  no  doubt  the  historians  are  correct 
when  they  assert,  as  a  reason  for  it,  that  it  was  in  revenge  of  Columkille.1 
In  the  old  churchyard  of  Durrow  are  two  very  remarkable  inscribed 
tombstones.  One  of  them,  at  least,  is  very  well  known  ;  it  bears  the 
inscription,  op  bo  Qi^ibiu.  I  give  an  illustration  of  it  to  remind  you  how 
beautifully  the  work  is  executed.  Indeed,  we  can  see  that  the  note  in 
Dr.  Petrie's  book  of  Christian  inscriptions  is  true,  and  that  "the  cross  is 
of  singularly  beautiful  design,  and  that  no  other  has  been  found  exactly 
similar  in  form."  The  other  tombstone,  of  which  I  also  give  an 
illustration  bears  the  inscription,  -f  op  bo  Chachalcm.  When  I  became 
incumbent  of  Durrow  parish  some  years  ago  I  found  it  after  some  trouble, 


Fig.  6. — Aigide's  Tombstone,  Durrow. 

as  it  was  nearly  buried,  being  almost  entirely  covered  to  the  depth  of  6 
or  8  inches  with  mould.  A  curious  mistake  with  reference  to  it  is  pub- 
lished in  more  than  one  book,  which,  I  suppose,  owes  its  origin  to  one 
who  seldom  made  a  mistake  of  the  kind — I  mean  Dr.  Petrie,  who,  we 
read,  saw  the  stone  in  1845.  In  his  book  of  "Christian  Inscriptions," 
edited  by  Miss  Stokes,  in  Plate  No.  31,  it  is  represented  as  a  fragment 

1  The  same  motive  is  ascribed  by  several  writers  for  the  murder  of  Lord  Norbury  in 
1839.  But  the  parallel  between  the  murder  of  Lord  Norbury  in  1839,  and  that  of  Hugh 
de  Lncie  in  1186,  does  not,  in  this  respect,  hold  good.  It  is  true,  indeed,  that  they  were 
both  building  castles  on  Durrow  when  they  were  killed,  but  I  hardly  think  anyone  in 
the  neighbourhood  would  assert  that  Lord  Norbury 's  murder  was  in  revenge  of 
Columkille.  The  character  of  the  Lord  Norbury  who  was  murdered,  was,  I  under- 
stand, the  very  opposite  of  that  of  the  tierce  de  Lacie — and  people  in  the  neighbourhood 
will  still  tell  you  how,  when  he  was  murdered,  not  Lord  Norbury  only,  but  the 
country,  was  slain.  He  seems  to  have  been  widely  esteemed  fer  his  genial  disposi- 
tion and  kindly  manners,  as  well  as  for  his  liberality.  On  referring  to  the  newspapers 
of  January,  1839,  I  find  that  the  accounts  then  given  of  Lord  Norbury  correspond 
exactly  with  the  traditions  of  the  place.  The  Evening  Packet,  speaking  of  him  as  a 
large  employer,  says  that  by  his  death  1000  people  were  deprived  of  their  means  of 
suppoit.  The  Morning  Post  asks,  "  Why  should  any  human  being  desire  to  imbrue 
his  hands  in  the  blood  of  Lord  Norbury  ?  why,  especially,  should  any  of  the  neigh- 
bours of  the  noble  lord  \vish  to  put  an  end  to  a  life  spent  in  doing  good  ?  " 



of  a  broken  stone  ;  and  in  the  notes  on  page  56,  vol.  ii.,  we  read — "  A 
fragment,  six  inches  in  length,1  is  all  that  now  remains  of  this  monu- 
ment."2 The  Most  Rev.  Dr.  Healy,  in  his  book  on  "  Ireland's  Ancient 
Schools  and  Scholars,"  falls  into  the  same  mistake.  On  page  305  he- 
says,  writing  about  Durrow — "  There  are  also  two  ancient  inscribed 
stones,  one  unfortunately  broken,  but  the  inscription  remains,  +  o?  b° 
Chachalom.  This  fragment  is  now  only  six  inches  long."  I  have  an 

Fig.  7. —  Cathalan's  Tombstone,  Durrow. 

illustration  of  the  stone  here,  and  the  stone  itself  may  be  seen,  I  am 
happy  to  say,  at  Durrow  in  as  good  a  state  of  preservation  as  one  could 
expect.  It  measures  something  like  2  ft.  9  in.  by  2  ft.  6  in.  I  am 
particularly  interested  in  the  well-being  of  these  stones,  because  of  an 
interesting  note  of  Dr.  Petrie's  in  his  "  Round  Towers,"  which  connects 

1  From  the  fragment  of  the  stone  given  in  Miss  Stokes'  illustration  it  is  evident  that 
she  meant  two  feet  six  inches. 

2  It  is  right  to  notice  also  that  the  plates  in  Dr.  Petrie's  "  Christian  Inscriptions  " 
do  not  give  an  accurate  representation  of  the  knots,  either  on  the  Aigidiu  or  Cathalan 


them  with  the  history  of  D arrow  parish,  and  also  with  some  of  our 
King's  County  families.  On  page  326,  writing  of  an  inscribed  stone 
found  at  Clournacnoise,  op  t>o  Cat^cm,  he  says — "  This  is  probably  that 
Tadgan  who  was  chief  of  Teffia,  from  whose  eldest  son,  Catharnach,  are 
descended  the  ancient  family  of  O'Catharnaigh  of  Kilcoursey,  now  Pox." 
But  he  observes  further  on  (page  328) — "  It  is  probable  that  this  ancient 
family  ordinarily  had  their  burial-place  at  the  great  rival  monastery  of 
Durrow,  which  was  anciently  within  their  own  territory,  and  originally 
endowed  by  their  ancestor,  Aed,  the  son  of  Brendan,  who  died  in  the 
year  589.  One  of  this  family,  Flann  O'Tadhgain,  was  erenach  of  Durrow, 
where  he  died  in  1022 — a  clear  proof  of  the  continued  influence  of  this 
family  in  this  monastery.  And  it  is  worthy  of  observation,  that  of  the 
two  monumental  inscriptions  yet  remaining  above  ground  in  Durrow, 
both  apparently  belong  to  chiefs  of  this  family  ;  of  these,  one  bears  the 
name  Cathalan,  who  was  probably  the  son  of  Catharnach,  from  whom  the 
name  of  O'Catharnaigh,  the  true  family  name  of  the  Poxes,  was  derived." 
"  The  second,"  Petrie  says,  "  may  be  ascribed  with  greater  certainty  to  a 
chief  of  this  family  named  Aigidiu."  In  Lyons'  "  Grand  Juries  of  West- 
meath,"  a  very  interesting  account  of  the  Pox  family  is  given,  in  which 
he  tells  us  that  the  descent  of  this  family  from  Niall  of  the  .Nine  Hos- 
tages, monarch  of  all  Ireland,  is  traced  in  a  MS.  which  is  in  Trinity 
College,  Dublin.  And  he  then  gives  at  full  length  a  translation  oi  it, 
which  is  in  the  "  Irish  Arenas ological  Miscellany."  The  pedigree  is 
traced  down  from  Niall  of  the  Nine  Hostages  to  1536,  when  Breasal 
Pox  was  living.  This  account  tells  us  how  the  family  of  O'Caharney, 
who  afterwards  took  the  name  Sinnach,  or  Pox,  were  originally  chiefs 
of  all  Teffia,  and  previously  to  the  English  invasion  far  more  powerful 
than  the  Mageoghegans,  but  how  shortly  after  that  event  they  were  sub- 
dued by  the  de  Lacys.  It  goes  on  to  show  how  their  territory  was  then 
confined  to  one  small  barony,  which  originally  was  named  Hunter  Tadh- 
gain,  but  which  is  now  called  Kilcoursey,  taking  its  name,  I  believe, 
from  some  member  of  the  de  Courcy  family.  He  then  gives  a  list  of 
the  names  of  the  heads  of  the  family  in  regular  succession.  The  first 
on  the  list  is,  of  course,  Niall  of  the  Nine  Hostages.  The  second  is 
Maine,  fourth  son  of  Niall,  and  ancestor  of  the  men  of  Teffia,  who  died  in 
425.  The  fourth  is  Brendan,  king  of  Teffia,  who  (he  says)  granted  the 
site  of  Durrow  to  St.  Coluinba  in  550,  and  died  in  569.  The  eleventh 
is  Tadhgan,  a  quo  Munter  Tadhgan — the  name  given  to  the  country  of 
the  O'Caharneys,  or  Poxes.  The  sixteenth  on  the  list  is  Cathalan,  whose 
inscribed  tombstone  we  have  here;  and  the  seventeenth  is  Catharnac, 
from  whom  corner  O'Caharney,  the  real  name  of  the  Poxes. 

.Now  as  these  authorities  testify  to  the  continued  influence  and  close 
connexion  of  the  Pox  family  with  the  monastery  of  Durrow,  so  can  1 
with  even  greater  certainty  testify  to  their  influence  and  interest  in 
the  church  at  later  times.  On  the  18th  of  October,  in  the  fourth  year 


of  Queen  Elizabeth,  we  are  told  that  Nicholas  Herbert  obtained  a  grant 
of  Durrow  Abbey  for  a  term  of  twenty-one  years,  at  the  annual  rent  of 
£10.  In  after  yeiirs,  Major  Patrick  Fox,  of  Foxhall,  married  the  last 
representative  of  the  Durrow  Herberts,  i.e.,  Frances,  daughter  and 
heiress  of  Sir  Edward  Herbert,  Bart.  This  Patrick  Fox  died  in  1734. 
His  name  is  found  several  times  in  our  vestry-book ;  and  the  interest 
taken  by  the  Foxes  in  the  church  is  shown  from  the  account  of  the 
Diocese  of  Meath  made  by  Bishop  Mant  in  17.33.  It  tells  us  that  the 
church  was  out  of  re-pair,  "  but  ye  said  Mrs.  Fox  pulled  it  down  and 
rebuilt  it  at  her  own  expense."  To  me,  however,  it  seems  strange,  that 
while  our  vestry -book  keeps  regular  minutes  during  those  years,  that 
yet  there  is  no  record  of  the  fact,  or  reference  to  Mrs.  Fox's  munificence. 
We  have,  however,  two  pieces  of  plate,  a  paten  and  a  flagon,  which  were 
presented  to  the  church  by  Francis  and  Mrs.  Frances  Fox  in  1732, 
just  at  the  time,  I  suppose,  that  the  church  was  restored.  Our  chalice, 
1  have  already  observed,  dates  back  to  the  years  1631-1632.  We  do  not 
know  who  presented  it ;  but  with  reference  to  it  I  have  the  following 
interesting  minute  in  the  vestry-book: — "We,  Patrick  Hynes  and 
James  Bamber,  churchwardens  for  the  parish  of  Durrow,  do  acknow- 
ledge to  have  received  from  the  churchwardens  for  the  preceding  year 
the  utensils  belonging  to  the  said  church,  viz.  :  one  silver  chalice,  one 
bible,  one  common  prayer-book,  one  worked  carpet,  one  velvet  cushion, 
with  case  to  it ;  2  diaper  table  cloths,  two  damask  napkins,  the  commu- 
nion table,  with  drawer  to  it,  and  lock  and  key.  May  24th,  1717. 5>1 

I  fear  my  Paper  has  already  extended  itself  to  undue  limits,  so  that  I 
cannot  speak  at  any  length  of  the  great  names  connected  with  Durrow  in 
modern  times  ;  but  there  is  in  Durrow  churchyard  one  other  historic 
monument  to  which  1  must  at  least  allude  before  concluding.  I  can  hardly 
now  attempt  to  do  more  than  show  one  or  two  illustrations  of  it,  and  allude 
to  some  of  its  most  interesting  features.  I,  of  course,  speak  of  the  High 
Cross.  At  the  outset  one  cannot  help  expressing  regret  that  so  little 
did  antiquaries  concern  themselves  with  it  in  the  past,  that  no  one 
seems  to  have  ever  noticed  or  taken  any  record  of  the  inscription  with 
which  its  base  was  covered,  but  of  which  a  few  letters  only  can  now  be 
deciphered — nor  did  anyone  ever  know  that  such  an  inscription  existed 
until  about  a  year  and  a-hulf  ago,  when  Miss  Margaret  Stokes  was  examin- 

1  On  the  death  of  Mrs.  Frances  Fox,  the  last  of  the  Durrow  Herberts,  Herbert 
Rawson  succeeded  to  Durrow,  in  light  of  his  descent  from  Bridget  Bygoe,  daughter  of 
Jsir  George  Herbert,  and  sister  of  Sir  Edward  Herbert,  second  baronet.  His  son,  Philip 
Ravvfcon,  married  Martha  Stepney,  who  inherited,  from  her  brother,  Abington,  in 
couniy  Limerick,  and  took  the  name  of  Stepney  in  addition  to  her  own.  In  this  way 
Burrow  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Stepneys,  in  whose  possession  it  remained  until 
it  was  purchased  by  the  celebrated  Lord  JSorbury.  Professor  Stokes  has  called  my 
attention  to  the  interesting  fact  that  about  the  same  time  that  the  Durrow  property 
passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Stepneys,  of  Abington,  in  the  county  Limerick,  the 
Moore  property  at  Tullamore  also  passed  from  the  hands  of  a  King's  County  family  to 
the  Burys  of  county  Limerick. 

Fig.  8.— View  of  High  Cross,  West  Face  and  Sides.  £ 

WHST  FACK.— i.  Trinity,  and  The  Dove.  2.  (across  the  arms)  Figure  with  bird  and  horn,  sitting  figure,  cruc 
fixion,  doubtful.  3.  Christ  mocked.  4.  Doubtful.  =;.  Soldiers  at  the  Tomb.  6.  Inscription. 

SOUTH. — i.  Horseman.  2.  Arm  underneath  section  of  circle  (three  heads  with  serpents  twining  round  then 
3.  Chief  with  dogs.  4.  Perhaps  Cain  killing  Abel.  5.  Adam  and  Eve  and  f<  rbidden  fruit.  6.  Griffins. 

ISoRTH.— -i.  Crouching  figure.  2.  Arm  underneath  section  of  circle  (serpents  twining  round  heads).  3.  Perba] 
flight  into  Egypt.  4.  Scroll  work.  5.  Wrestlers,  perhaps  Jacob  and  Angel.  6.  Inscription. 



Fig.  9.— High  Cross  of  Durrow.      1.  Detail  of  West  Face,  Northern  Arm  ;   2.  Upper]Panel, 
South  Face ;  3.  East  Face. 

EAST  FACE.— i.  Ornamental,  scroll  work.    2.  (across  the  arms)  David  with  harp,  The  Last  Judgment,  David 
rescuing  the  lamb  from^the  lion.    3.  Abraham's  sacrifice.    4.  Interlacing.    5.  Doubtful.    6.  Defaced. 

146          ROYAL   SOCIETY    OF    ANTIQUARIES    OF    IRELAND. 

ing  the  cross  ;  and  Mr.  M.  O'Connor  Morris,  when  taking  a  rubbing  of  its 
base,  made  out  some  letters  which  seem  to  indicate  that  in  the  inscrip- 
tion on  the  west  side  the  name  Dubthach.  occurs.  In  connexion  with 
this  it  is  interesting  to  observe,  that  in  the  year  1010  "  The  Annals  of 
the  Four  Masters "  tell  us  that  Dubthach,  son  of  Tamain,  erenach  of 
Durrow,  died  ;  and  this  date  would  correspond  with  the  time  which  is, 
I  think,  generally  regarded  as  about  the  best  period  of  Irish  art.  And 
perhaps  it  may  not  be  unreasonable  to  suppose  that  it  may  have  been  in 
his  honour  or  by  him  that  the  cross  itself  was  erected.  Miss  Stokes  (I 
think  very  rightly)  holds  that  these  crosses  were  not  strictly  sepulchral, 
and  that  some  of  the  inscriptions  name  the  rankers,  as  at  Monasterboice 
and  Clonmacnoise.  On  the  north  side  of  the  cross  there  is  also  some  remains 
of  an  inscription  ;  but  I  have  only  been  able  to  make  out  a  few  letters 
here  and  there.  The  "  OR  DO"  is  very  plain,  also  the  initial  M  seems 
sufficiently  clear  to  make  one  tolerably  sure  about  the  first  line.  On  the 
second  line  underneath,  on  the  right  hand  side  as  you  face  the  cross,  one 

can  decipher  the  last  three  let- 
ters on  the  line  i,  R,  o,  and  on 
the  third  line  underneath  them 
again  in  the  same  position,  the 
letters  c,  R,  T.  I  have  thought 
the  prayer  might  be  for  Mael- 
moire,  who  was  Abbot  of  Dear- 
mhagh,  and  was  drowned  in  Eas 
Ruaidh  in  971.  My  surmise 
seems  to  be  strengthened  by  the 
old  custom  of  erecting  a  cross, 
and  asking  for  prayers  for  those 
Fig.  10. — View  of  Interlaced  Work.  who  have  met  their  deaths  by 

an  accident.     This  very  year  a 

death  by  drowning  occurred  near  Durrow,  and  I  observe  already  a 
wooden  cross  has  been  set  up  in  the  place. 

Then,  as  regards  the  subject  of  the  cross,  it  seems,  as  in  the  case  of  some 
others,  on  the  one  side  to  represent  Christ  suffering,  on  the  other  Christ 
triumphant.  On  the  west  side,  as  on  one  of  the  crosses  at  Clonmacnois,  we 
have  a  panel  which  seems  to  represent  the  betrayal  and  seizure  of  Christ, 
and  the  soldiers  guarding  the  tomb.  On  one  arm  of  the  cross  there  is  a 
person  blowing  a  trumpet,  with  some  bird  in  his  hand ;  perhaps  repre- 
senting the  trumpet  to  be  blown  at  Christ's  second  coming,  and  indicating 
the  uncertainty  of  the  time,  in  the  allusion,  to  the  Son  of  Man  coming 
perhaps  at  cock-crowing  or  in  the  morning.  Another  panel  which  inte- 
rests me  very  much  shows  a  group  of  three  figures.  The  person  in  tho 
centre  stands  and  appears  to  preside  over  a  book  which  is  held  by  the 
others,  who  are  seated  on  either  side  of  him ;  over  the  head  of  these 
seated  figures  an  angel  is  represented.;  There  is,  a  panel  at  Clonmacnoise 


very  similar  to  this,  but  the  angels  over  the  heads  of  the  side  figures  are 
wanting.  There  is  also  another  panel  on  Muiredach's  cross  at  Monaster- 
boice  which  very  much  resembles  it.  It  is  curious,  too,  how  an  element 
of  the  world,  with  its  pomps  and  pleasures,  seems  to  enter  into  the 
thoughts  of  the  designer,  and  connected  with  such  sacred  pictures  as  The 
Death  of  Our  Lord  and  His  Triumph  at  the  Last  Judgment,  The  Fall  of 
Man  and  Our  Redemption,  we  have  the  Irish  king,  with  his  shield  and 
sword  and  his  wolf  hounds  at  his  feet,1  and  the  knight  on  horseback, 
equipped  and  ready  for  the  field  of  battle.  An  interesting  type  of  The 
Redemption  is  represented  in  the  Lamb  delivered  by  David  from  the 
Lion,  and  also  an  equally  interesting  example  of  an  artist  giving  a  piece 
of  local  colouring  to  a  Scriptural  picture  where  we  find  David  playing  on 
a  six-stringed  Irish  harp.2  It  is  difficult  for  us  to  imagine  the  beautiful 
finish  of  our  tenth  and  eleventh  century  crosses  when  they  left  trie 
sculptor's  hands.  Traces  of  delicate  beaded  work  and  embroidery  are 
apparent  on  the  robes  of  some  of  the  figures  (and  even  on  the  mouldings) 
of  this  cross,  although  the  surface  has  been  worn  down  at  least  one-eighth 
of  an  inch  (as  shown  by  the  projecting  veins  of  quartz,  &c.)  The  head 
and  segments  of  its  circle  are  uneven,  but  the  former  does  not  lean  over 
as  shown  in  some  sketches,  and  even  photographs.  Besides  these  remains, 
a  block  of  fine  interlaced  work,  possibly  a  fragment  of  a  third  cross,  lies 
not  far  from  the  High  Cross,  and  in  the  graveyard  wall,  near  the  latter, 
is  the  head  of  a  window  of  one  round-headed  light  with  bold  mouldings, 
and  a  rose  of  late  design.3 


1  A  very  similar  figure  appears  on  the  west  cross  of  Monasterboice. 

2  O'Connor,  in  his  correspondence  about  Durrow,  in  1838,  particularly  alludes  to 
this.     "  The  cross  at  Durrow,"  he  says,  "  is  elaborately  sculptured  in  the  same  style 
as  the  cross  at  Kells  and  Moone,  but  the  cross  at  Durrow  exhibits  a  figure  wrath  I  did 
not  observe  on  any  of  the  others,  viz.,  a  man  playing  on  a  small  six-stringed  Iri^hbarp, 
which  rested  on  his  left  knee.     This  perfectly  agrees  with  the  figure  of  Mr.  Petrie's 
Shrine  of  Madoc."     Those  who  are  familiar  with  the  Cross  of   Kells   will  see  that 
O'Connor's  faculties  of  observation  were  not  very  keen. 

3  The  illustrations  of  the  Crosses  of  Durrow  and  Tihilly  are  from  measured  drawings 
and  rubbings  made  on  the  spot.      The  tombstones  are  from  rubbings  only,  but  have 
been  compared  and  corrected  by  Mr.  "Williams. — T.  J.  WESTROPP. 


LYONS'  "  GRAND  JURIES  OF  WESTMEATH."  The  letters  "  K.  T." 
stand  for  King  of  Teffia  : — 

I.  Niall  of  the  Nine  Hostages,  monarch 

of  All  Ireland, 
ii.  Maine,  ancestors  of  the  men  of  Teffia. 

called  Tirmany,  died  425. 
HI.  Brecan. 

iv.  Brendan,  K.  T.   (who   granted   the 
site  of  Durrow  to  St.  Columb- 
kill  in  550,  died  5G9). 
v.  Aedh  (Augustus,  Hugh),  K.  T.,  liv- 
ing, 590. 

vi.  Blathmac,  K.  T.,  died  691. 
vn.  Congalagh. 

vm.  Calla,  or  Conla,  K.  T.,  died  738. 
ix.  Braite  Bee,  K.  T.,  died  764. 
x.  Maelbeannachta. 
xi.  Tadhgan,  a  quo  Munter  Tadhgan, 
the  tribe-name  of  the  O'Cahar- 
neys',or  Foxes',  country.    (Tadh 
is  Thaddeus,  Thady.) 
xii.  Bee. 

xiii.  Conchobar. 
xiv.  Breasal. 
xv.  Cenrnachan. 
xvi.  CATHAI.AN. 
xvn.  Catharnac,  a  quo  O'Caharney,  the 

real  name  of  the  Foxes, 
xvin.   Fogartagh. 

xix.  Ruaidhri,  or  Rory  (Ruadh  is  red- 

xx.   Tadhg      Sinnach       O'Caharney, 
K.  T.,  slain   1084,  by  Melagh- 
lin  Mac  Connor  Melaghlin . 
xxi.  Ruaidhri. 

xxn.  Niall,  Chief  of  Teffia,  1233. 
xxin.   Mac  Leachrainne. 
xxiv.  Connor,  K.  T.,  slain  1226. 
xxv.  Congalach. 
xxvi.  Ruaidhri. 
xxvu.  Niall. 

"  By  comparing  this  Pedigree  with  that  of  Mageoghegan  (as  given  in 
the  same  manuscript),  we  must  conclude,  from  the  number  of  generations, 
that  this  Niall  was  contemporary  with  Congalach  More  Mageoghegan, 
who  nourished  in  the  13th  century.  He  was  probably  the  Niall 
Sinnach,  or  Fox  chief,  Munter  Phadgan,  who  was  killed  in  the  battle 
of  Athenry,  1316.  It  is  quite  clear  that  there  were  four  or  five 
generations  between  this  N"iall  and  Breassal,  who  made  the  covenant " 
(of  which  Lyons  gives  a  full  extract),  "  in  1536,  with  Mageoghegan." 

[/'rdigree  of"  THE  HERBERTS  OF  DUKROW,  KINO'S  COUNTY." 





^         o 

10          CO 
CO          —I 


S       - 

*H      fl 

'!•§  ]r 

\sl  w 




s-sa  gg 















H»-S    r" 

S  3; 





J3    CO 


r-     >. 




s  .gls 

5  r- 

K. S.A.I.,  VOL.   VII.,  PT.  II.,   OTH    SKU. 


S -a" 












Q.         . 

Si  CO 




Cfi  00 




(     150     ) 




HPHE  three  drawings  befor^  us  represent  three  inscribed- stones,  which 
have  engaged  the  attention  of  some  of  the  leading  specialists  in 
deciphering  such  mysterious  matters,  and  as  it  appears  to  me  that  there 
is  still  room  for  further  investigation  as  to  these  inscriptions,  I  have 
ventured  to  bring  them  under  the  notice  of  the  Society. 

Fig.  1  is  a  representation,'  from  a  rubbing,  of  the  inscription  on  what 
is  known  as  "  the  Baginbun:  Stone."  The  size,  and  other  particulars 
of  it,  will  be  given  later  on.  j 

Fig.  2  represents  the  stone  itself. 

Figs.  3  and  4  represent  a  stone  built  into  the  wall  of  an  outhouse  in 
the  yard  of  Fethard  Castle,  which  is  situated  about  one  mile  from  where 
the  Baginbun  stone  is.  Both  are  in  the  county  Wexford. 

The  stone  shown  in  fig.  5  is  at  Carew  Castle,  in  Pembrokeshire, 
South  Wales,  and  is  taken  from  a  rubbing  kindly  sent  me  by  Mr.  Romilly 

About  two  years  since,  considerable  discussion  was  carried  on  in  the 
pages  of  the  Academy  respecting  the  interpretation  of  the  very  curious 
lettering  on  these  three  stones,  and  as  opinions  were  expressed  much  at 
variance  one  from  another,  I  shall  endeavour  to  bring  before  you  the 
several  opinions  of  those  who  took  part  in  this  discussion,  leaving  to  the 
judgment  of  each  person,  on  fully  weighing  the  evidence,  to  adopt  the 
views  of  the  writers,  or  to  propound  new  ones  of  his  own. 

That  a  resemblance  exists  between  the  lettering  of  the  three  stones 
is  self-evident  to  anyone  who  views  them  together. 


Mr.  Romilly  Allen  considers  the  Baginbun  inscription  the  most 
modern  of  the  three,  placing  the  Welsh  inscription  as  the  oldest,  and  the 
Fethard  Castle  as  intermediate,  giving  certain  reasons  connected  with 
the  formation  of  the  letters  for  having  formed  this  opinion. 

The  first  letter  I  shall  notice  is  one  dated  London,  6th  October, 
1894,  and  signed  "  Edmund  M'Clure."  In  it  the  writer  gives  the 
printer  of  the  Baginbun  inscription,  as  given  by  Mr.  11.  A.  S.  Macalister, 
of  Cambridge,  in  his  letter  of  the  previous  month,  credit  for  having 
printed  it  '*  upside  down"!  and  having  thus  arranged  it  to  his  liking, 
he  considers  the  majority  of  the  letters  as  "intelligible,"  with  the 
assistance  of  the  inscriptions  on  the  Kilmalkedar  stone  in  this  country, 
and  of  those  in  Westwood's  "  Lapidarium  Walliae." 



He  reads  the  first  letter  as  a  compound  one  (having  reversed  the 
inscription),  as  ORA,  and  the  two  following  as  DI. 

The  last  letter  of  the  line,  he  says,  is  the  Kilmalkedar  B. 

He  calls  the  first  letter  of  the  second  line  an  L,  after  the  same  stone, 
and  then  an  o  and  a  B. 

The  third  line  he  reads  thus  — 

CTJS   [or  CUIS]    BOICHIL  ; 

the  whole  reading  — 


says  the  meaning  seems  easy  if  we  could  determine  the  name  LOB 
[LOBAR]  or  the  LOIBA  of  the  "  Martyrology  of  Donegal."  He  considers 
it  has  "  no  aspect  of  a  forgery,"  and  the  agreement  of  many  of  its  letters 
with  those  on  the  Kilmalkedar  stone  (conjectured  to  be  of  the  6th  or 
7th  century),  makes  it  an  object  of  great  interest. 

He  adds  that  "  the  dash  in  the  o  may  also  be  i  in  the  o  of  LOB,  giving 

Mr.  Macalister,  of  Cambridge,  who  appears  to  have  opened  the 
•correspondence  about  these  stones,  speaks  of  Baginbun  as  traditionally 
the  landing-place  of  Strongbow,  while  "  Bannow  Bay  possesses  the  true 
claims  to  that  distinction."  He  names  the  ancient  trenches  on  Baginbun 
Head  as  being  pointed  out  by  the  inhabitants  as  Strongbow's  work, 
while  they  are  generally  believed  by  antiquaries  to  be  of  much  more 
ancient  times. 

Of  the  inscribed.  stone,  he  says  :  —  "  On  the  top  of  the  sea-cliff  will 
be  found  &  prostrate  stone  lying  partly  buried  in  the  earth.  The  upper 
surface  of  this  stone  measures  45  by  33  inches,  and  bears  inscribed  upon 
it  an  inscription  in  three  lines,  of  which  the  following  is  a  copy  from  a 
careful  tracing"  :  — 

Fig.  1. — The  Baginbun  Inscription,  from  a  rubbing. 

He  draws  attention  to  the  jumble  of  extraordinary  nondescript  characters 



here  brought  together — Greek,  Roman,  Irish,  £W«M-Runic,  &c.,  and' 
classes  it  with  the  inscriptions  on  the  Lennon  cromlech,  and  the  Lough^- 
crew  stones,  county  Meath,  as  "  a  hopeless  puzzle."  He  then  alludes 
to  the  idea  of  its  being  a  "  fraud,"  intentional  or  unintentional. 

He  draws  attention  to  a  slight  error  in  the  inscription  as  printed  in 
the  first  letter  of  the  second  line,  where  the  horizontal  hooked  character 
should  be  oblique,  •  I  thus,  and  furnished  with  a  dot.  He  says  he  ha& 
compared  the  printed  copy  with  his  original,  and  finds  it  otherwise 

In  a  subsequent  letter,  dated  November  3rd,  1894,  Mr.  Macalisterr 
in  referring  to  certain  points  mentioned  by  me  in  a  letter,  dated  18th 
October,  1894,  with  reference  to  the  Baginbun  stone,  and  to  his  printed 
copy  of  the  inscription  on  it,  says  : — "  I  took  four  rubbings ;  I  also  went 
over  my  transcript,  comparing  it,  letter  by  letter,  with  the  original"  ;. 
and  he  feels  certain  that  the  short  line  in  the  fifth  letter  of  line  one  does 
not  go  the  whole  way  across  the  circular  portion  of  the  character.  He 
a(Jds  : — "  Two  of  my  rubbings  show  a  distinct  bar  between  the  horizontal 
stroke  and  the  circle  of  the  third  letter  of  line  three." 

He  expresses  doubt  about  the  first  letter  of  the  third  line  of  the 
Fethard  stone,  and  writes  it  a  T  ;  it  is,  no  doubt,  a  c,  judging  from  my 
own  observations  and  from  Du  foyer's  drawing,  taken  some  thirty  -three 
years  since,  when  the  inscription  was  in  good  preservation. 

Professor  Nicholson,  of  Oxford,  in  commenting  on  this  inscription, 
which  he  described  as  "more  uncanny  even  than  the  Newton  stone," 
says  "all  that  is  needed  for  the  inscription's  elucidation  is  a  moderate 
acquaintance  with  early  mediaeval  writing  (especially  Celtic),  and  a 
proper  knowledge  of  the  language,"  and  then  he  gives  the  following 
as  the  reading  : — 




and  says  : — "  Except  the  Q'S,  which  are  fortunately  unmistakable,  almost 
every  form  used  may  be  found  on  plate  53  of  vol.  ii.  of  Petrie  and 
Stokes's  '  Christian  Inscriptions  in  the  Irish  Language.' 

"  The  v  in  line  one,  tailed  like  a  Y,  resembles  the  v's  on  the  Newton 
stone.  The  right-hand  stroke  of  this  v  is  also  made  to  serve  as  the  first 
stroke  of  the  M,  to  which  there  is  an  exact  parallel  in  the  final  VM  of  the 
Newton  stone.  .  .  ."  He  adds : — 

"  I  am  confident  that  line  two  begins  with  an  A.  I  take  AOI  to  be  a 
genitive  of  AUE,  '  grandson.' 

"  The  three  oi's  in  the  inscription  are  all  like  the  Greek  0,  i.e.  an  o 
with  an  i  inside  it.  .  .  ." 

Whether  the  E  in  line  2,  is  E,  or  a  combination  of  E  and  i,  he  says, 
is  doubtful,  and  he  thinks  the  reproduction  is  imperfect  here,  but  says 
both  VEQ  and  VEIQ  are  correct. 


"In  line  three  the  N  is  H -shaped,  like  one  on  the  Newton  stone,  and 
has  a  dot  underneath  to  show,  like  the  modern  Irish  hyphen,  that  it 
'  eclipses '  the  following  consonant^  and  the  stroke  on  the  top  of  the  D  is 
apparently  another  aspirating  apostrophe,  and  the  final  Q  has  over  it  the 
aspirating  sign  |_." 

He  sees  no  reason  that  the  meaning  should  not  he  "  Little  son  of 
Sib,  grandson  of  Maq  Oil,  five  days  old." 

For  further  remarks  on  this  inscription.  I  must  refer  you  to  Professor 
Nicholson's  letter  of  the  above  date.  He  attributes  the  stone  to  "  not 
•earlier  than  the  end  of  the  9th  century,"  and  draws  attention  to 
Hiibner's  mistake  in  publishing  this  as  a  duplicate  of  the  Carew  Castle 

In  a  further  communication,  dated  October  1st,  1894,  he  gives  what 
he  calls  approximately  correct  transcripts  of  the  Fethard  and  Welsh 
inscriptions,  which  will  be  noticed  later  on  under  their  respective  heads ; 
and  in  another  letter  he  gives  the  following  amazing  decipherment  and 
translation,  from  a  Scotch  University  town  : — 

A<£Sico/cw  e<£  £c(f>vp   et  Iltor  <&OIVL£. 

"  I  hasten  on  towards  north-western  [parts],  Pytheas,  a  Phoenician  "  !  !  ! 

In  reviewing  these  letters  and  others,  I  brought  under  notice  certain 
minor  differences  which  I  observed  in  Mr.  Macalister's  print  of  this 
inscription,  on  comparing  it  with  my  rubbing  of  the  inscription,  and 
first,  the  diagonal  stroke  near  the  second  letter  of  the  top  line  is  so 
indistinct  and  irregular,  that  I  doubt  its  being  any  part  of  that  letter, 
but  rather  a  natural  flaw,  or  mark,  in  the  stone. 

In  the  fifth  letter  of  this  line,  the  stroke  Mr.  Macalister  represents  as 
going  only  half  way  across  the  bottom  portion  of  this  letter,  appears  to 
me  to  go  apparently  across  the  whole  space. 

Mr.  Macalister  corrects  his  first  drawing  of  the  first  letter  of  the 
second  line.  To  me  there  appears  here  to  be  the  outline  of  an  Irish  a 
(A).  In  the  sixth  letter  of  this  line  the  bar  extends,  as  I  have 
shown  it,  from  side  to  side  of  the  circle,  and  not  as  represented  by 
Mr.  Macalister. 

I  did  not  observe  the  mark  Mr.  Macalister  gives  over  the  third  letter 
of  the  last  line  joining  the  bar  over  it,  with  the  circle  under  it ;  and  in 
the  sixth  and  seventh  letter,  as  given  here,  there  appears  to  be  a  line 
joining  these  two  letters  by  continuing  the  loop-line  till  it  meets  the 
sixth  letter ;  nor  have  I  found  any  depression  to  justify  the  turn  to  the 
right  at  the  bottom  of  the  sixth  letter,  as  given  in  Mr.  Macalister's 
drawing.  I  have  marked  what  I  consider  as  the  doubtful  parts  of  the 
inscription  in  dotted  lines ;  and  while  one  is  sorely  puzzled  over  the 
jumble  of  nondescript  letters,  I  would  yet  be  very  sorry  to  endorse 


Mr.  Macalister's  opinion  that  the   reading   and  interpretation  is   "a 
hopeless  puzzle." 

Hiibner,  in  giving  the  Baginbun  inscription  as  a  duplicate  of  the 
Welsh  one,  probably  confused  it  with  the  Fethard  stone.  As  to  either 
of  the  county  Wexford  inscriptions  being  forgeries,  or  meaningless,  the 
idea  appears  to  be  too  absurd  to  be  entertained  for  a  moment.  As  I  said 
in  my  letter  to  the  Academy,  I  would  as  soon  consider  the  famous 
Eosetta  stone,  in  the  British  Museum,  a  forgery,  as  I  would  one  or  other 
of  these.  How  such  an  experienced  antiquary  as  our  late  distinguished 
Secretary,  the  Rev.  James  Graves,  came  to  the  conclusion  that  these  two 
inscriptions  were  forgeries,  I  know  not ;  but  I  feel  certain,  were  lie  now 
alive,  he  would  no  longer  retain  such  an  opinion.  I  failed  to  discover 
in  either  inscription,  in  any  one  point,  the  smallest  appearance  of  any 
modern  work,  or  interference  with  the  lettering. 

Fig.  2. — Inscribed  Stone  at  Baginbun  Bay. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  M'Clure's  theory  that  the  inscription,  as  given  in  the 
Academy  of  10th  October,  1894,  is  printed  "upside  down,"  appears  to  me 
to  have  no  legs  to  stand  on.  By  reference  to  a  sketch  of  the  stone  which 
I  have  (see  fig.  2),  and  also  a  photograph  taken  two  years  since  by  Fleet- 
Surgeon  R.  W.  Brereton,  K.N.,  and  kindly  given  to  me,  it  will  be  seen 
that  it  begins  at  the  upper  rounded  edge  of  the  stone,  and  ends  about 
the  middle,  leaving  room  for  about  three  additional  lines  of  writing  had 
they  been  required.  The  stone  slopes  gradually  till  it  enters  the  earth, 
but  its  dimensions  underground  have  not  been  ascertained  by  me.  I 


may,  however,  say,  that  its  weight  must  be  several  tons  at  least,  and 
that  I  consider  it  is  in  its  original  position,  and  never  stood  upright. 
As  to  this  stone  being  an  Ogham-inscribed  memorial,  the  idea  may,  I 
think,  be  at  once  abandoned. 

With  reference  to  the  letters  of  this  inscription,  the  first  letter  may, 
I  think,  be  described  as  "  Gaulish,"  and  the  sixth  as  an  Irish  S  ;  while 
those  like  the  Greek  ®  resemble  the  Welsh  Q  or  QI.  The  last  letter  in 
the  inscription  must,  I  think,  be  a  compound  one,  containing  two  or 
more  letters. 

Like  the  Carew  Castle  stone,  there  is  here  also  only  "  one  dot" — 
that  shown  in  the  third  line — while  in  the  Fethard  Castle  inscription 
there  are  two,  if  not  three. 

There  are  no  signs  of  "  tooling"  on  this  stone  excepting,  of  course, 
the  lettering.  The  edges  of  the  stone  are  rounded,  not  square.  It  at 
present  stands  about  10  feet  from  the  edge  of  the  cliff,  which  is  here 
about  25  feet  in  height,  and  appears  to  be  fast  falling  away  from 
climatic  causes. 

It  would  be  interesting  to  have  the  earth  cleared  from  about  this 
stone,  to  enable  a  better  examination  of  it  to  be  made.  At  present  a 
large  portion  of  it  is  under  ground. 

What  appears  to  be  a  horizontal  line  may  be  noticed  some  2  inches 
below  the  letters  of  the  bottom  line,  and  extending  about  3  inches  in 
length,  with  a  "  dot"  near  the  right-hand  end. 

Mr.  Macalister  mentions  his  having  been  told,  when  at  Baginbun, 
about  two  years  since,  by  an  old  man  of  60  or  70,  that  he  was  aware 
"  that  some  local  magnate  had  engaged  a  stone-mason  to  sharpen  up  the 
letters"  [of  this  inscription].  He  may  have  engaged  him,  but,  I  think, 
an  inspection  of  the  stone  is  sufficient  to  show  that  no  such  work  has 
been  done. 

Lord  Southesk  gives  an  analysis  of  the  letters  in  this  inscription  in 
a  letter  dated  1st  January,  1895.  He  makes  the  first  letter  of  the 
inscription  to  be  an  L,  and  compares  it  to  the  L  in  the  early  Irish 
inscription,  "  Lie  Colum,"  at  Gallarus ;  he  says  z  would  be  meaning- 
less. The  second  letter  he  calls  M,  preceded  by  an  oblique  stroke  (that 
which,  I  think,  is  a  flaw  in  the  stone),  to  mark  abbreviation  and 

The  3rd  letter  he  calls  A;  the  4th,  Q,  agreeing  here  with  Mr. 
Nicholson;  No.  5,  G;  Nos.  6  and  7,  i  and  T,  and  says  "similar  com- 
binations of  i  and  T  are  found  in  numerous  examples." 

No.  8,  beginning  the  second  line,  he  calls  damaged,  but  apparently 
i,  if  not,  perhaps,  an  H,  and  considers  it  peculiar  to  this  inscription. 

No.  9,  E,  occurs,  he  says,  in  Pictish  (?),  Welsh,  and  Irish  inscrip^ 

No.  10,  u ;  No.  11,  T,  and  adds  this  could  hardly  be  anything  else. 

No.   12,  Q,  same  letter  as  No.  2.     If  not  Q,  it  must  be  F,  PH,  or  P  ; 



No.  13,  E;  No.  14,  N,  unrepresented  in  the  two  other  inscriptions.  I 
cannot  myself  see  why  he  calls  this  letter  by  a  different  name  from  the  one 
at  the  beginning  of  this  inscription,  with  which  it  appears  to  correspond. 
He  says  it  might  be  L,  but  could  hardly  be  z  ;  he  calls  it  an  N  set  on  end. 

No.  15,  commencing  the  third  line,  he  Considers  to  be  Q,  and  to 
correspond  with  c  in  the  Carew  inscription. 

No.  16,  E,  he  thinks  unimportant,  the  bar  not  crossing  the  circle  in 
this  letter. 

No.  17,  T,  perhaps  D;  but  T  corresponds,  he  says,  with  Carew  and 

No.  18,  H,  a  peculiar  form;  it  resembles  A  reversed,  and  cannot,  he 
thinks,  be  the  Runic  K.  He  asks  is  the  point  beneath  it  significant  ? 

No.  19,  T.  "  The  tail  is  curled  up  into  a  circle,  which  seems  a 
tendency  in  this  inscription"  (see  Nos.  5,  17,  and  22). 

Nos.  20  and  21  he  reads  i  E,  a  compound  letter;  he  says  it  corre- 
sponds with  E  in  the  Carew  inscription,  and  with  what  seems  to  be  an  E 
in  the  Fethard  inscription. 

No.  22,  at  the  end  of  this  line  he  calls  GH,  and  says  it  is  "  hard  to 
determine,"  and  that  Professor  Nicholson's  rendering  seems  most 


I  shall  next  ask  your  attention  for  the  Fethard  Castle  stone, 
represented  in  the  annexed  drawing,  from  a  rubbing  taken  by  me 
in  1894.  It  is,  as  I  have  already  stated,  built  into  the  wall  of 

Fig.  3.— The  Fethard  Castle  Stone. 

an  out-house  in  the  yard  of  Fethard  Castle.  It  is  about  3  feet 
above  the  ground  level,  and  has  lately  been  whitewashed  with  the  wall 
around  it.  A  hole  (as  shown  in  the  drawing)  has  been  drilled  into  it 
near  the  second  letter  from  the  end,  apparently  to  allow  the  end  of  the? 
spindle  of  a  grinding-stone  to  revolve  in  it. 


No  doubt  this  ancient  stone  is  no  longer  in  situ,  but  I  failed  to  find 
any  information  as  to  whence  or  when  it  had  come  to  its  present  un- 
dignified position. 

The  Castle  of  Fethard  is  about  40  yards  from  the  present  church, 
which  was  built  on  the  site  of  an  ancient  church,  or  cell,  and  it  is 
possible  this  stone  may  have  had  some  connexion  with  the  old  church. 

We'stwood,  in  speaking  of  the  Carew  Castle  stone,  says: — "  It  is 
remarkable  that  a  not  quite  correct  copy  of  this  inscription  has  been 
found  in  Ireland  on  a  block  of  sandstone  at  Fethard  Castle,  belonging  to 
the  Carew  family"  (the  italics  are  my  own).  With  our  present  informa- 
tion, I  scarcely  think  he  is  justified  in  calling  the  Fethard  inscription 
a  copy  of  the  Welsh  one,  and  still  less  in  his  statement  that  Fethard 
Castle  is  or  was  the  property  of  the  Carew  family.  I  have  inquired  in 
vain  for  any  authority  to  support  this  assertion.  A  correspondent 
writing  to  me  some  time  since,  says : — "  I  never  saw  it  stated  anywhere 
that  Fethard  was  a  Carew  Castle,  and  I  know  no  reason  for  saying  so." 

The  town  of  Fethard,  it  is  true,  is  said  to  have  been  one  of  the 
earliest  birilt  towns  of  the  Anglo-Norman  colony  in  Wexford  county. 
The  castle  belonged,  at  an  early  period,  to  the  See  of  Ferns,  in  which 
diocese  it  is  situated. 

Lewis  says  that  the  castle  was  built  by  llayrnund-le-Gros,  and  the 
place  given  to  him  by  Strongbow ;  but  Mr.  Gr.  H.  Orpen  considers  this 
an  error  on  the  part  of  Lewis,  and  that  Fothard,  a  place  in  the  barony 
of  Forth,  county  Carlow,  is  the  place  Raymond  received  f  rom  Strongbow, 
and  not  Fethard  in  the  county  Wexford.  On  this  subject  Mr.  Orpen 
writes  : — "  Fethard  was  probably  included  in  the  grant  to  Hervey  de 
Mont  Maurice,  consisting  of  two  cantreds  next  the  sea,  between  Wex- 
ford  and  Waterford.  Hervey  gave  some  of  these  lands,  including, 
apparently,  Fethard,  to  the  monks  of  Christ's  Church,  Canterbury,  who, 
in  the  year  1245,  transferred  them  to  the  Cistercian  Monastery  De  Voto 
[Tintern,  Comerford]." 

Mr.  Orpen  considers  it  as  "very  probable"  that  this  castle  was 
erected  by  one  of  the  bishops  of  Ferns.  Hervey  de  Mont  Maurice  was 
not  a  Carew. 

In  comparing  this  inscription  with  of  Carew  Castle,  now  before 
you,  and  marked  No.  3,  I  notice  the  following  differences  : — The  first 
letter  of  the  Fethard  inscription  (M)  differs  in  the  first  stroke  from  that 
in  the  Welsh  inscription,  the  third  letter  differs  very  considerably,  and 
the  fourth  slightly,  but  both  would  appear  to  be  intendel  to  represent 
the  same  letter. 

The  first  letter  of  the  second  line  his  generally  b3on  taken  to  be 
an  E,  but  I  think  it  right  to  point  out  that  there  is  what  appears  to  be 
a  nearly  horizontal  stroke  at  the  head  which,  if  it  really  balongs  to  the 
letter,  would  cause  it  to  resemble  a  T,  like  the  third  letter  in  this  line, 

158          ROYAL    SOCIETY    OF   ANTIQUARIES    OF    IRELAND. 

more  than  E.  The  present  defective  surface  of  the  stone  makes  it  very 
uncertain  whether  this  stroke,  or  mark,  is  intentional  or  accidental. 

I  would  also  draw  your  attention  to  the  heads  of  the  T'S  in  this 
inscription,  they  are  all  well  curved,  while  those  of  the  "Welsh  stone  are 
strictly  horizontal  and  straight. 

There  is  a  much  larger  space  hetween  the  two  T'S  in  the  last  line  of 
this  inscription  than  on  the  Carew  stone,  and  the  two  "  dots"  in  this 
line  are  altogether  absent  in  the  Welsh  stone.  The  final  letter  in  the 
Pethard  inscription  appears  to  he  much  hetter  formed,  and  more  distinct, 
than  the  corresponding  letter  in  the  Carew  Castle  stone. 

I  would  also  draw  attention  to  the  fifth  letter  in  this  line — on  the 
Welsh  stone  it  appears  to  be  an  E,  while  on  the  Fethard  stone  it  partakes 
more  of  the  character  of  an  F. 

Fig.  4. — The  Fethara  tttone.     From  a  Drawing  by  the  late  G.  V.  Du  Noyer. 

You  will  also  observe  the  entire  absence  of  the  two  parallel  lines 
at  the  end  of  the  second  line  in  the  "Welsh  inscription,  which  are  well 
defined  on  our  stone. 

There  is  no  "  dot "  under  the  third  letter  of  the  Fethard  inscription, 
as  is  seen  in  the  Carew  stone. 

The  late  Mr.  G.  V.  Du  Noyer  made  a  sketch  of  this  stone  about 
thirty-three  years  since  ;  it  appears  in  vol.  ix.,  p.  7,  of  his  drawings  in 
our  Library,  and  it  will  be  found  to  correspond  most  accurately  with 
that  now  before  you,  taken  from  my  rubbing.  He  makes  the  letter,  at 
the  beginning  of  the  second  line,  an  E  ;  the  hole  for  the  axle  does  not 
appear,  showing  that  it  has  been  made  since  1863  when  he  copied  it. 

Du  Noyer's  reading  of  this  inscription,1  I  may  as  well  here  mention> 
together  with  those  of  Professor  Nicholson  and  Mr.  Komilly  Allen, 
shows  that  antiquaries,  like  doctors,  differ  at  times. 

1  Du  Noyer  evidently  considered  the  inscription  to  be  Anglo-Norman.  The  letters, 
lie  says,  are  about  2  inches  in  height. 


Du  Noyer  gives — 

MAQ  .         .         .  for  Magister. 

GIT  .         .         .  ,,  lies. 

GI  ...  ,,  here  (ici). 

TEE  .         .         .  ,,  Trefoncier  [the  owner]. 

CET  .         .         .  ,,  This — T  for  tomb  ;  and 

FX  ...  ,,  fecit. 

Professor  Nicholson  reads  it  thus  : — 

MAQ   GIT EV   TEE  =  CET  .  T  .  EQH. 

He  divides  the  words  as  I  have  here  given  them,  and  appears  to  agree 
with  Du  Noyer  as  to  the  name  of  the  occupier  being  inscribed,  followed 
by  that  of  the  holding. 

Mr.  Romilly  Allen's  remarks  and  interpretations  are  as  follows  : — 

"  The  Fethard  inscription  has  the  same  number  of  letters  as  that  at 
Carew,  namely,  six  in  the  first  line,  five  in  the  second,  and  six  in  the 
third."  He  also  draws  attention  to  the  curved  tops  of  the  T'S,  "the 
conversion  of  two  K'S  into  mongrel  <£'s,  and  the  prolongation  of  certain 
vertical  stokes." 

He  attributes  the  Fethard  stone  to  the  13th  or  14th  century,  while 
he  places  the  Welsh  inscription  in  the  9th  or  10th,  and  Baginbun  to  a 
still  later  date  than  that  of  Fethard,  and  he  hopes  the  Irish  antiquaries 
will  follow  up  the  investigation  of  these  inscriptions,  a  hope  in  which  I 
heartily  participate. 

To  quote  him  further,  he  says : — "  If  the  views  put  forward  in  his 
letter  [3rd  July,  1895]  are  correct,  what  are  we  to  say  of  Mr.  W. 
de  Gray  Birch,  F.S.A.,  who,  by  some  pala3ographical  hocus-pocus,  trans- 
forms the  '  Margiteut '  of  Carew  inscription  into  Maquy-Gilteut  =  the 
son  of  St.  Iltyd — (or)  of  Kev.  E.  M'Clure,  who  turns  it  upside  down, 
and  sees  in  it  a  prayer  for  the  soul  of  Forcus  Boichil."  He  also  refers 
to  Professor  Nicholson's,  Lord  Southesk's,  and  Du  Noyer's  readings. 

Lord  Southesk  considers  that  "  all  three  inscriptions  are  identical,  or, 
at  least,  are  intended  to  convey  an  identical  meaning,"  and  he  places 
them  in  point  of  date  thus  : — "  Baginbun,  the  fullest  inscription,  is  the 
earliest ;  Fethard,  once  nearly  identical  with  it  comes  next  ;  and  the 
Carew  inscription  the  latest."  Thus  it  will  be  seen  he  completely 
reverses  Mr.  Allen's  opinion  as  to  the  respective  ages  of  these  inscrip- 
tions. He  also  considers  "that  subsequently  to  its  appearance,  the 
Fethard  inscription  was  altered,  so  as  to  assimilate  it  to  that  of  Carew." 

He  reads  the  Fethard  inscription  thus  : — 

123  456 

MAQ  [or   P]    G      I      T 

7       8       9  10                      11    12 

E       U      T      Q    [or  P]     E   

13     14     15  16           17       18 

.G     E     T  —  T  —  E     en 


He  says,  "  Nos.  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9,  GITEUT,  closely  resemble  the  correspond- 
ing letters  at  Carew,"  which  is  very  evident.  The  two  "  fine  horizontal 
strokes,  answering  in  place  to  the  N  at  Baginbun,  have  no  counterpart 
at  Carew.  Paint  markings  appear,  he  says,  above  .these  well-defined 
strokes,  but  as  these  hardly  seem  significant,  I  am  inclined  to  think  that 
the  strokes  represent  an  abbreviation,  caused  by  the  erasure  of  a  letter 
that  once  corresponded  with  No.  14r  N,  at  Baginbun." 

"With  respect  to  the  first  letter  of  the  third  line,  which,  I  think, 
certainly  was  a  c,  he  says  : — there  are  "  slight  indications  of  a  vertical 
line  between  the  horns  of  the  c,  suggesting  a  minuscule  Q."  The  two 
next  letters,  E  T,  agree  with  those  on  the  Welsh  stone. 

No.  16  [T]  he  says  : — "  Preceding  this  letter  there  is  a  space,  occu- 
pied by  a  point,  which  exactly  leaves  room  for  a  form  equivalent  to 
No.  18  (H?)  at  Baginbun." 

No.  17  he  calls  E. 

The  last  letter  he  calls  GH,  and  adds: — tf moderate  changes  in  its 
form  would  assimilate  it  to  the  final  letter  at  Baginbun  and  Carew — 
additions  in  the  former  case,  subtractions  in  the  latter." 

His  lordship  then  reasons  on  the  name  as  he  reads  it,  "  Giteut,"  and 
translates  the  inscription  thus  : — 

"  [Stone]  of  Mac-Giteut,  chief  of  the  Catti,  or  chief  of  the  warriors." 
He  mentions  a  Catti  tribe  in  North  Britain,  and  also  one  in  Somerset- 
shire. Space  will  not  permit  me  to  refer  further  to  his  elaborate  and 
curious  remarks  on  this  inscription. 

The  representation  of  this  inscription  as  given  in  plate  57  of  either 
Westwood,  or  Hiibner,  is  not  correct,  as  can  be  seen  by  comparing  it 
with  Du  Noyer's  drawing,  or  my  rubbing. 

Professor  Nicholson,  in  writing  of  this  stone,  says  it  "  almost  cer- 
tainly" reads — 

MAQ    GIT,    EV    TJiE  =,    CET  .  T  .  EQH. 

He  divides  it  into  words  as  I  have  here  given  them.  He  says  it  is  a 
march-stone,  like  the  Abayne  one,  and  consists  of  the  name  of  the 
occupier,  followed  by  that  of  the  holding,  and,  as  in  the  St.  Vigean's 
.stone,  the  holding  is  called  by  the  name  of  the  family  to  whom  it 
belonged,  or  had  belonged.  He  also  says,  "The  idea  of  the  Irish  stone 
being  copied  from  the  Welsh  must,  of  course,  be  dismissed  for  ever,  and 
the  idea  of  its  being  a  modern  forgery  is  not  worth  a  parting  kick  "  ! 

Westwood  thus  speaks  of  it  in  his  work,  "  Lapidarium  Wallia3," 
p.  120,  after  mentioning  the  cross  near  the  base  of  the  shaft  of  which  is 
the  inscription,  he  adds  : — "In  the  lower  part,  on  the  west  side,  is  a 
fexia  enclosing  a  very  classical  fret,  and  below  the  middle  are  two 
transverse  spaces,  each  measuring  11  inches  by  6,  the  right-hand  one 
being  quite  plain,  and  the  left-hand  one  having  an  inscription,  which 
has  not  hitherto  been  satisfactorily  explained.  .  .  .  The  letters  are 



incised,  whilst  the  ornamental  patterns  are  in  relief.  The  .letters  of  this 
inscription  are  very  irregular,  and  seem  to  represent  — 




but  several  of  them  are  so  ill-shaped,  especially  the  third  in  the  top- 
line,  the  fourth  in  the  second  line,  and  the  terminal  portion  of  the  third 
line,  that  nothing  positive  can  be  said  of  them  " 

He  then  says  that  "not  quite  a  correct  copy  of  this  inscription  has 
been  found  in  Ireland  on  a  block  of  sandstone  at  Fethard  Castle  belong- 
ing to  the  Carew  family." 

He  gives  the  dimensions  of  the  Eethard  stone  [23  inches  by  13]  and 
the  inscription  :  — 


CET  .  T  .  FX 

The  lower  sides  of  the  terminal  x  being  curved  up  to  the  left,  the  outer 
one  uniting  to  the  lower  limb  of  the  left-hand  stroke  like  an  8. 


We  shall  now  proceed  to  consider  the  Welsh  stone,  represented  by 
drawin  g  No.  3,  of  which  the  annexed  drawing  is  a  copy,  on  a  reduced 

Fig.  5.— The  Carew  Castle  Stone. 

Professor  Nicholson  says  it  almost  certainly  reads — 

EV    THE 

The  above  division  of  the  words  are  his.     He  says : — "  The  final  H  is 
formed  as  in  the  Fethard  stone,  but  the  R  and  first  Q  are  of  totally 


different  type.  A  photograph  will,  doubtless,  show  another  (aspirating) 
dot  after  the  last  T,"  &c. 

He  adds: — "  This  is  obviously  a  monument  (giving  his  name  and 
that  of  the  place  in  Ireland  from  which  he  came)  of  one  of  the  same 
family,  and  being  on  the  same  property.  Whether  he  was  the  same 
man  mentioned  in  the  Fethard  stone  [inscription]  depends  partly  on 
whether  MAQV  =  MAQ,  or  signifies  some  more  distant  relationship." 

He  appears  here  to  agree  with  Du  N"oyer  as  to  the  name  of  the 
occupier  being  inscribed  on  the  Fethard  stone. 

He  further  says  that  "if  the  dot  under  the  first  v  is  not  a  mere 
natural  mark  in  the  stone,  it  is  meant  as  a  cancel-point,  either  to  strike 
out  the  letter  altogether,  or  to  show  that  it  was  not  to  be  sounded 
separately  from  the  Q." 

Lord  Southesk,  in  writing  about  this  stone,  reads  the  inscription  the 
same  as  Professor  Rhys  and  Mr.  Romilly  Allen,  except  in  the  following 
letters.  He  makes  Mr.  Rhys's  R'S,  in  the  first  and  third  lines,  p's,  and 
the  two  last  letters  in  the  inscription  he  makes  E  and  Y  in  place  of  r,  and 
a  blank,  as  given  by  Mr.  Rhys,  and  says  most  of  the  letters  are  unmis- 
takable, only  Nos.  3,  10,  and  17,  leaving  room  for  doubt.  The  import 
of  the  angled  form,  at  the  back  of  No.  3,  he  considers  uncertain ;  it  is 
absent  in  No.  10.  Both  of  these  letters  have  been  read  as  R.  He  doubts 
the  correctness  of  this  reading,  and  remarks  that  the  corresponding 
letters  on  the  Bagiubun  stone,  and  at  Fethard,  could  not  represent  R. 
The  upcurved  form  beneath  the  well-defined  Y,  at  the  end  of  this  inscrip- 
tion, he  says,  "  must  have  some  significance." 

Mr.  Romilly  Allen,  who  also  appears  to  have  given  much  attention 
to  these  inscriptions,  speaks  of  the  identity  of  the  three  inscriptions, 
and  that  the  abnormal  forms  of  the  letters  have  been  evolved  by  succes- 
sive copyings  by  ignorant  persons.  How  much  of  this  theory  we  may 
accept  or  reject,  I  think,  requires  further  consideration.  He  throws 
over  the  idea  that  this  stone  begins  with  the  letters  MAQ,  and  substitutes 
for  them  MAR.  He  says  the  deviations  from  the  original  (the  Carew 
inscription)  are  greater  in  the  Baginbun  than  in  the  Fethard  stone  ; 
hence  he  considers  the  Welsh  stone  to  be  the  oldest,  and  that  the 
Baginbun  inscription  has  been  copied  from  that  at  Fethard. 

He  considers  that  Professor  Rhys' s  reading  of  this  inscription  is 
correct ;  it  is  as  follows  : — 

CETT  P  .  .  ., 

and  interprets  it  to  mean  : — 

"Margiteut  Recett  fecit,"  or  "  Meredyd  of  Rheged  made  it." 
Professor  Rhys,  in  a  former  Paper,  read  this  inscription  as — 

"Margeteud  f[ilius]  Ecettey  "  ; 



but  he  finds  now  he  was  wrong,  and  says  "  there  are  several  marks  and 
points  among  the  letters  which  I  am  inclined  to  regard  as  meaningless, 
and  as  forming  probably  no  part  of  the  original."  'Recett'  is  more 
usually  written  '  Rheged,'  and  he  calls  it  a  district  in  Wales.  He  seems 
to  find  in  the  abbreviation  at  the  end  "the  elements  of  Fejt,"  and  adds  it 
may  be  worth  while  considering  whether  it  was  intended  for  fecit  rather 
than  some  French  form  of  that  verb. 

Finally  we  have  Professor  Sayce  reading  this  inscription  thus  : — 


EUT    DE 

and  thus  rendering  it — 

"  Margiteut  Decett  fecit  Crucem  "  ; 

and,  I  understand,  he  attributes  it  to  the  9th  century.1 

I  have  now  concluded  my  notes,  &c.,  on  these  inscriptions.  I  trust 
sufficient  has  been  said  to  show  they  are  worthy  of  further  consideration, 
and  that  that  may  be  by  some  of  those  who  hail  from  Ireland  is  not 
unreasonable  to  expect.  Hitherto  what  has  been  done  in  the  matter 
appears  to  have  been  done  across  the  water.  May  I  not  hope  that  the 
next  step  towards  the  confirmation  of  one  of  the  numerous  and  varied 
interpretations  I  have  brought  under  your  notice,  or  else  that  a  new 
and  truthful  one  may  be  suggested,  at  no  distant  date,  by  some 
Member  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Ireland. 

1  I  may  here  observe  that  I  forwarded  the  rubbings  of  the  two  Irish  inscriptions  to 
Professor  \Vhitley  Stokes,  hoping  that  he  would  have  given  us  the  aid  of  his  valuable 
help,  but,  I  regret  to  say,  he  expressed  no  opinion  on  them  whatever. 



BY  THE  REV.  G.  T.  STOKES,  D.D.,  M.R.I.A. 
-    (Continued  from   Vol.  III.   (1893),  page  320.) 

PART    II. 

PAGE  1 

561.  "  "William,  Count  of  Pembroke,  grants  to  Church  of  Dublin,  his 
rights  in  the  lands  of  Inverheli." 

561.  "  William,  Count  of  Pembroke,  grants  to  William,  Bishop  of  Glenda- 
lough,  Clarthyaun,  and  Bogeryn,  with  ten  carucatcs  of  land. 
"Witnesses,  Hugh,  Bishop  of  Ossory,  and  others."  Possibly  this 
was  Begerin,  an  island  in  "Wexford  Harbour,  used  A.D.  1172  as 
a  prison  by  the  Irish :  cf.  "  Song  of  Dermot,"  ed.  Orpen,  p.  131, 
and  "  Crede  Mihi,"  ed.  Gilbert,  p.  53. 


563.  "  "William,   Count  of  Pembroke,   gives  to  the  Church  of  the  Holy 

Trinity^  and  to  H.,  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  five  carucates  of  land 
in  Pothered,  called  Strabo." 

564.  "  John  de  Curcy  grants  to  John,  the  Archbishop,  a  carucate  of  land 

in  Offaly." 

565.  "  "Walter  de  Sernesfielde  grants  to  the  Church  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre, 

the  tithes  of  Crosgort."2 

566.  "  Henry  III.  grants  to  Church  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  in  exchange  for 

O'Conaghe,  three  carucates  in  Ballyscadan."  The  Crown  gave 
eighty-nine  acres  in  exchange  in  Baliscadan,  formerly  Paslowy's- 
town.  This  deed  mentions  the  Paslews  as  tenants. 

568.  "  King  John  grants  to  the  Church  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  and  to  Henry, 

the  Archbishop,  the  cantred  of  O'Konagh,  and  the  town  of 

569.  "  Hugh  de  Lacy  grants  to  the  Church  of  the  Holy  Trinity  and  to 

John  the  Archbishop,  the  town  of  Liskilli,  with  ten  carucates." 
Archbishop  Alan  adds  a  note  to, the  effect  that  this  place  is 
situated  in  Meath. 

1  The  reference  is  to  the  pages  of  the  copy  of  the  "  Liber  Niger,"  made  by  Dr. 
Reeves,  late  Bishop  of  Down  and  Connor,  now  in  Trinity  College  Library. 

2  The  Church  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre  had  been  founded  in  the  lands,  called  by  the 
Irish,  Crosgort.     Where  \vere  this  church  and  these  lands  ? 

LIBER   NIGJiJR  '  ALANI.  165 


570.  "  Richard  de  la  Peche  grants  to  the  See  and  to  John,  the  Archbishop, 

5  carucates  in  Odrone." 

571.  "  William,   son  of  Adelin,   on  the  king's  part,   confirms  Daglun  to 

Aldred  Gulafre." 

571.  "John  de  Clahule  grants  to  the  Church  of  the  Holy  Trinity  and  to 
the  Archbishop,  the  lands  of  Thacney,  or  Taney." 

Alan  adds  a  note  here,  in  which  he  identifies  this  place  with  Dun- 
drum,  county  Dublin,  and  points  out  that  the  Fitzwilliams  held  land  in 
Dundrum  in  the  time  of  Edward  III.  Page  572  is  taken  up  with  a 
memorandum  about  the  lands  near  Dundrum,  which  is  important  for 
Taney  and  its  inhabitants,  tenants,  and  proprietors,  viz.  Hacketts,  Fitz- 
williams, and  place-names  in  that  neighbourhood,  such  as.Eenviles,  in 
the  time  of  Edward  III.  On  the  subject  of  John  and  Hugh  de  Clahule, 
the  first  Norman  settler  in  Dimdrum  and  Taney,  see  Ball's  "Parish  of 
Taney,"  pp.  6,  7  ;  and  the  Paper  of  Mr.  James  Mills  on  lt  The  Norman 
Settlement  in  Leinster,"  in  this  Journal  for  1894,  p.  161.  The  owners 
of  the  Pembroke  estate  printed,  some  time  ago,  an  account  of  their  title- 
deeds,  but  they  keep  this  volume  rigorously  secluded  from  the  public  eye, 
refusing  all  access  to  them,  even  for  literary  purposes.  "We  are,  there- 
fore, unable  to  see  how  the  estates  of  the  Clahules  passed  to  the 
Fitzwilliams  of  this  century. 

•573.  "Statute  of  Archbishop  Luke  about  the  prebendal  Canons  of  St. 
Patrick's,  who  were  about  to  swear  allegiance  to  the  Arch- 
bishop. Date,  1247." 

-575.  "  Walter,  son  of  Aldred  Gulafre,  quit  claims  the  whole  right  he  had 
in  Daclap  or  Daclan." 

575.  "  Eva,  the  Countess,  heir  of  King  Dermot,  confirms  a  donation  made 

to  the  Church  of  the  Holy  Trinity." 

576.  "Richard  de  Burgh  grants  to  H.,  the  Archbishop,  the  cantred  of 

Meneby,  in  Connaught." 

577.  "  John,  the  Archbishop,   has  instituted  Turstin  the  Clerk  into  a 

moiety  of  the  under  written  churches  in  that  vacant  diocese  of 

-578.  "Henry,  the  Archbishop,  grants  to  Helyas  Coytyf,  one  carucate  in 
Derroth  and  Scovath  in  the  tenement  of  St.  Kevin." 

579.  "  The  citizens  of  Limerick  grant  to  H.,  the  Archbishop,  one  of  the 
forty  carucates  granted  them  by  King  John,  and  the  Castle  of 

•580.  "  Laurence  Utothan  confirms  to  the  convent  of  the  Desert  of  St. 
Kevin,  the  land  which  is  called  Tirimeice." 

This  deed  gives  the  boundaries  of  the  lands  so  granted,  which  maybe 
useful  for  Wicklow  place-names.  The  Desert  of  St.  Kevin  was  other- 
wise called  St.  Saviour's,  and  was  in  the  Glendalough  Valley. 

JOUU.  K.S.A.I.,  VOL.  VII.,  PT.  II.,   OTH  SER.  N 



581.  "  R.,  Abbot  of  St.  Mary's,  and  the  whole  convent  grants  to  H.,  th& 
Archbishop,  a  rent  of  xx  shillings  in  Dublin  in  exchange  for  the 
land  which  is  called  Rathuskena," 

Archbishop  Alan,  in  an  added  note,  identifies  this  land  as  lying 
between  Ballyhachul  (Ballybogldll),  Balilugan,  near  Killyn,  and 
Rolleston  Lispodel.  This  deed  and  its  notes  are  very  important,  as 
settling  the  locality  of  the  first  Norman  settlers  and  their  estates.  It 
deals  with  lands  in  the  modern  parishes  of  Clonmethan  and  Swords  : 
cf.  Dr.  Walsh's  "Fingal  and  its  Churches,"  pp.  237,  246.  It  gives, 
too,  information  about  the  state  of  affairs  in  Danish  times,  as,  for 
instance,  telling  that  St.  Nicholas's  Gate  used  then  to  he  called  Hasculf's 

583.  "  Division  of  the  churches  in  the  land  of  O'Kadesi  between  the  Arch- 

bishop and  the  Prior  of  Llanthony,  at  Gloucester."  Date  about 
1200  A.D.  This  deed  is  very  important  for  the  history  of  Fingal 
and  its  state  before  the  Norman  Conquest.  Among  the  churches 
mentioned  are  those  of  Palmerston,  Garristown,  Holy  wood,  Naul, 
&c.  The  district  mentioned  corresponds  with  the  modern  barony 
of  Ealrothery  West,  whose  chief  was  called  O'Cadesi,  or  O'Casey. 
See  Orpen's  "  Song  of  Dermot  and  the  Earl,"  p.  324,  and  Dr. 
Walsh's  "  Fingal,"  p.  205.  The  claim  of  Llanthony  upon  the 
churches  of  this  district  is  often  referred  to  in  the  Repertorium 
Yiride  of  Archbishop  Alan,  Cf.  O'Donovan,  "  Four  Masters," 
A.D.  1017.  The  whole  document  gives  us  a  glimpse  into  the 
state  of  Fingal  in  Danish  times. 

584.  "  Peter,  Abbot  of  Theokisbere   (Tewkesbury),   grants  to   H.,  the 

Archbishop,  Theod  de  Ottach  in  the  port  of  Lismori." 

See  Sir  J.  Gilbert's  edition  of  "  Crede  Mihi."  [The  document  refers 
to  a  Charter  from  an  Abbot  of  Tewkesbury,  about  1215.  He  had  got  a 
grant  of  Irish  property,  but  he  did  not  care  for  Irish  tenants,  and  so  got 
rid  of  it  and  them.] 

586.   "  William  of  Cavesham  grants  to  the  Prior  of  St.  Ulstan's  ( ?  Wool- 
stan's)  the  lands  of  Tristeldelan." 

586.  "Here  follows  a  list  of  the  Obits  of  post-Keformation  archbishops." 
The  obits  entered  are — 

(1)  Adam  Loftus,  ob.  April  5,  1605. 

(2)  Thomas  Jones,    of   Lancaster,  consecrated   Bishop    of 
Meath,   May  12,    1584,  translated  to  Dublin,  Nov.  8,    1605, 
ob.  April  10,  1619. 

(3)  Lancelot  Buckeley,  consecrated  for  Dublin,  Oct.  3, 1619, 
ob.  Sep.  7th,  1650,  aged  82  years.     These  entries  prove  that 
the  "  Liber  Niger"  was  used  for  entries  down  to  the  middle 
of  the  17th  centurv. 



587-590.  "  This  is  an  original  article  by  Archbishop  Alan,  setting  forth 
the  points  which  he  noted  as  specially  worthy  of  attention  in 
his  Metropolitan  Visitation.  The  following  are  some  of  them — 

(1)  "  The  convent  of  All  Saints  (now  Trinity  College)  is  in 
the  patronage  of  the  Archbishop.      Cf.  Dean  Butler's  Preface 
to  the  *  Register  of  All  Saints,'  p.  vii.     The  Prior  is  appointed 
with  the  honour  of  an  abbot."     The  Bull  of  Urban  II.  gave 
the  appointment  of  Prior  to  the  brotherhood. 

This  is  interesting,  as  showing  that  the  Provost  of  Trinity  College, 
or  the  official  who  corresponded  with  him,  always  occupied  a  high 
position  in  Duhlin.  As  a  matter  of  fact  the  Augustinian  Prior  of  All 
Saints  ranked  as  a  mitred  ahhot,  and  had  a  seat  in  the  Irish  House  of 
Peers,  as  had  also  the  Augustinian  Prior  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  now  the 
Dean  oi'  Christ  Church.  They  were  both  spiritual  peers. 

(2)  Alan  states  that  "the  city  of  Dublin  and  its  suburbs 
had,  from    antiquity,   twenty  parish    churches,    and  eleven 
monastic  churches,  of  which  five  belonged  to  the  Mendicants ; 
while 'the  parish  Churches  of  St.  George  and  St.  Paul  are 
united  to  the  Priory  of  All  Saints,  but  are  accounted  of  little 

(3)  "  All  Saints'  Priory  has  seven  impropriate  churches." 

It  should  he  observed  here  that  Alan  seems  to  use  the  word  "im- 
propriate "  in  the  modern  sense.  Dr.  Ball,  in  his  "  Reformed  Church," 
p.  89,  distinguishes  between  impropriate  and  appropriate  tithes  thus: — 
Appropriate  tithes  were  those  conferred  or  appropriated  to  monasteries  ; 
Impropriate  tithes  those  bestowed  on  individuals.  Bishop  Mant,  in  his 
"  Irish  Church  History."  vol.  ii.,  p.  300,  tells  us  that  impropriate  was 
a  post- Reformation  term.  Alan's  use  of  it  seems  to  show  otherwise : 
cf.,  however,  Stopford's  "Handbook  of  Church  Law,"  pp.  59,  60;  and 
Oswald  Reichel's  "  Elements  of  Canon  Law,"  pp.  214,  215. 

(4)  "Alan  gives   an  account  of  All  Saints'    Priory,   its 
foundation,  cells,  &c.,  and  of  Hoggin  Green." 

This  article  is  important  for  the  history  of  Dublin  and  of  Trinity 
College,  and  should  be  compared  with  Dean  Butler's  Introduction  to  the 
"  Register  of  All  Saints." 

591.  "Luke  the  Archbishop  grants  to  Waleran  de  Welesley  two  mes- 
suages in  Patrick-street." 

This  is  a  very  early  instance  of  the  use  of  the  names  Wesley  or 
Wellesley.  It  seems  that  the  Mornington  family,  in  changing  Wesley 
to  Wellesley,  were  only  recurring  to  the  earliest  form  of  the  name. 
This  Waleran  de  Wellesley  was  an  itinerant  Justice  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  III.  (See  "Register  of  All  Saints'  Priory,"  ed.  Butler,  p.  136  : 
' cf.  Dean  Butler's  "Introduction,"  p.  xvi.) 

The  language  of  this  note  shows  that  the  omission  of  the  prefix 
'.'  saint "  in  the  names  of  streets  called  after  the  saints  is  very  ancient  in 
Dublin.  I  am  afraid  that  St.  Patrick's  was  called  "  Patrick's"  in  1296 
as  well  as  in  1896.  Reverence,  however,  never  flourished  among  the 



592.  "  Nicholas  de  llenville  granted  to  John  de  Kennedy  lands  in  the 

suburbs  of  Dublin. 

593.  "  Alexander  the  Archbishop  grants  to  John  de  Evesham  a  tenement 

in  the  suburbs  of  Dublin." 

594.  "  Thomas  the  Archbishop  grants  to  Thomas  Locus  a  messuage  and 

24  acres  in  Tawney  for  50  years." 

597.  "  William  Brigi  grants  to  Thomas  de  Hathingley  and  Nicholas  de 

Sueterby  six  acres  under  the  wood  of  Colon  (Cullenswood)." 

598.  "  Peter,  son  of  Edmund  de  Ledwyche,  remits  to  Nicholas  Brown, 

merchant,    his   right  in  Nekokestown  and  other  lands  men- 

599.  "  Concerning  six  acres  in  Culecroftyn." 
600-612.  "  Concerning  the  Deanery  of  Penkridge."          ,_ 

This  is  a  very  long  and  important  article.  It  treats  of  the  Decanal 
Church,  its  prebendal  stalls,  and  its  taxation.  Concerning  the  Deanery 
of  Penkridge,  see  G.  T.  Stokes's  "  Ireland  and  the  Anglo-Norman 
Church,"  pp.  265,  266.  Penkridge  is  in  Staffordshire. 

613.  "Bull  of  Pope  Alexander  dealing  with  Penkridge,  and  a  decree 
issued  by  Alan  himself  as  touching  the  Deanery  in  March, 

615-619.  "  Inquisition  made  at  Castle  Kevin  about  the  rights  of  the 
Archbishop  in  Castle  Kevin  in  the  13th  century."  The  names 
of  the  jurors  on  this  occasion  were,  Thomas,  Prior  of  St.  Saviour's ; 
the  Prior  of  the  Great  Church  of  Glendalough ;  Prior  de  Eupe 
juxta  Glendalough  ;  William,  an  Englishman ;  Richard  Law- 
less ;  William  Doggett ;  Elias  O'Toole ;  John  Crumpe,  and 

This  Inquisition  is  very  important  for  the  place-names  and  residents 
of  Wicklow  and  the  neighbourhood  of  Glendalough  in  the  fourteenth 
century.  The  Crumpe  mentioned  as  one  of  the  jurors  may  have  been  a 
brother,  or  some  other  connexion,  of  Henry  Crumpe,  a  monk  of  Baltin- 
glass,  who  was  a  great  opponent  of  the  Mendicants,  and  as  such  was  cen- 
sured by  Archbishop  Courtenay,  of  Canterbury,  about  the  year  1360  : 
cf.  Ussher's  Works,  vol.  iv.,  p.  303,  Ellington's  edition.  It  would  seem 
that,  as  in  the  case  of  other  Celtic  foundations,  the  Augustinian  rule  had 
been  here  introduced  under  priors  instead  of  abbots.  This  article  shows 
that  Glendalough  had  not  been  abandoned  to  desolation  in  tbe  fourteenth 
century,  though  so  described  by  the  Archbishop  of  Tuam  in  1214  : 
cf.  Dean  Butler's  Introduction  to  "Register  of  All  Saints,"  page  ix; 
and  Sir  J.  Gilbert's  "  Municipal  Documents,"  pp.  140-162. 

620.  "  David  de  St.  Michaele,  and  Agatha  his  wife,  give  Archbishop  Luke 
lands  in  Tipper  Kevin." 

The  family  of  St.  Michael  seems  to  have  possessed  considerable 
possessions  in  the  ancient  estates  of  the  See  and  Abbey  of  Glendalough  : 
cf.  (<  Register  of  All  Saints"  (ed.  Butler),  p.  136. 

•,   ,,.  LIBER  NIGER   ALANI.  169 


621.  "  John  Count  Moreton  grants  to  the  Church  of  St.  Patrick,  Trum 
Crumlin,  as  a  prebend." 

621.  "  Matilda  and  Gladosa,  daughters  of  Aldred  Golaf re,  quit  claim  to 

Henry  the  Archbishop  the  land  of  Daclan." 

622.  "  Kichard,  son  of  John,   grants  to  John  de  Sandford,  five  villatae, 

viz.  Turlochogenath,  Rathmolony,  Corbally,  Eiegkillbryde,  and 
Clony,  in  Connaught." 

624-630.  "  This  document  is  another  inquisition  similar  to  that  made  at 
Castlekevin,  p.  615."  It  investigates  the  archiepiscopal  rights 
at  Ballymore  Eustace  in  the  times  of  Archbishop  Luke,  that  is, 
between  1230  and  1240.  It  gives  many  illustrations  of  the 
life  and  customs  of  the  thirteenth  century,  names  of  persons, 

630-634.  "Inquisition  at  Clondolcan  and  Rathcoole."  Interesting  for 
names  of  jurors,  place-names,  &c. 

635.  "Nicholas,  son  of  John  de  Wyte,  and  Alicia,  daughter  of  Laurence, 

son  of  Roger  his  wife,  grant  Eulk,  the  Archbishop,  the  land 
of  William  of  "Worcester  at  Ballirothegane."  Cf.  the  article  on 
p.  377  for  another  notice  of  this  place. 

636.  "  Yvo  de  Dunlewan  grants  to  Henry  de  Wygonia,  parson  of  Cre- 

velphi,  the  villa  or  town  of  Ballerothegan." 

637.  "  Sarah  and  Elena,   daughters  and  heirs  of  Yvo  of  Dunlewan  (or 

Dunlavin)  grant  to  Archbishop  E.  the  land  in  Ballirothegane, 
formerly  held  by  William  of  Worcester." 

639.  "  Amivra,  daughter  of  Laurence,    son  of  Roger,   grants  to  Arch- 

bishop E.,  land  in  Ballirothegane." 

640.  "  Mabilia,   daughter  of  Philip,  relict  of  Laurence,   son  of  Roger, 

grants  to  Archbishop  E.  the  claim  she  has  in  Ballirothegane  by 
reason  of  dowry." 

640.  "  Nicholas  Ruffus,  and  Agnes  daughter  of  Laurence,  son  of  Roger, 
his  wife,  grunt  Archbishop  E.,  land  in  Ballerothegane  which 
William  of  Worcester  held."  There  is  a  note  in  Alan's  hand 
signifying  that  xiid  was  to  be  paid  at  Beltane,  and  at  the  feast  of 
St.  Philip  and  St.  James  (May  1st). 

642.  "John   Castleburghe,   and    Margaret,  his* wife;    Thomas,  son   of 

William,  and  Matilda,  his  wife,  grant  to  F.  Archbishop  his 
claim  on  the  service  of  Ardkipp,  which  William  Le  Bas  their 
ancestor  had  by  gift  of  L.  the  Archbishop." 

643.  "E.  Archbishop  grants  to  Thomas  Indas,  son  of  Adam  Indas,  three 

carucatesof  land  in  Ballymacronane  alias  Indastone. 

645.  "  John  Hall  remits  to  Nicholas  Fitz  Eustace  of  Donard  his  rights 
in  Blakistone." 



646.  "  Robert  Puphius  grants  Audoen  Brune  two  carucates  in  Arclkipp 

which  he  held  of  the  Archbishop." 

Audoen  Brun  appears  in  the  ''Register  of  All  Saints"  (ed.  Butler), 
p.  31,  as  a  donor  of  rents  to  that  convent.  The  grant  was  made  probably 
before  1240.  He  may  have  been  of  the  family  of  the  clerk  of  Archbishop 
Comyn,  to  whom  that  prelate  made  various  grants. 

647.  "Maurice,  son  of  Geoffrey,  at  the  prayer  of  his  nephew  Richard, 

secures  eight  marks  of  rent  in  Donard  to  John  de  Sandford  the 

648.  "  L.,    the  Archbishop,    confirms  to  W.  Le  Bas    and   to  Dominic 

Hellerie,  heirs  of  Audoen  Brown,   one  carucate  in  Attekipe, 

saving  the  rights  of  Milo  of  Attekipe."     This  Attekipe  is  spelt 

a  different  way  every  time  the  name  occurs. 
650.  "Pleas  about  Ballymore." 
652.  "L.,  the  Archbishop,  grants  to  Thomas  Indas,  son  of  Adam  Indas, 

three  carucates  in  Bally  macron  an." 
654-663.   "  Exemplification  of   the    extent    of    Ballymore,    made   xix. 

This  is  a  very  long  deed,  filling  more  than  ten  pages.  It  is  very 
important  for  the  whole  district,  comprising  Ballymore,  Donard,  Holy- 
wood,  Dunlavin,  Tipper  Kevin,  Rathsallagh.  The  place-names  here 
mentioned  can  still  be  recognised.  Rathsallagh,  for  instance,  occurs, 
and  we  still  find  Rathsallagh  House,  near  Dunlavin,  and  Tynte  Park. 
It  is,  in  fact,  the  name  of  one  of  the  parishes  forming  the  union  of 
Dunlavin.  Alan  adds  a  great  many  notes  on  the  names  of  this  district, 
now  forming  the  barony  of  Upper  Tfdbotstown.  Rathsallagh  is  often 
mentioned  in  the  grants  of  Elizabeth :  see  Index  to  Fiants. 

663.   "Lands  which  the  Earl  of  Kildaro   seeks  by  right  of  the  Lords 

663.  "  Henry  of  Worcester  grants  to  William  of  Worcester  the  town  of 


665.  "William  Russell,  son  of  Richard  de  Dunlavan,  grants  to  F.,  the 

Archbishop,  the  lands  of  the  town  of  Crake  and  Dunlavan." 

666.  "F.,  the  Archbishop,  grants  to  Geoffrey  de  Marisco  the  land  of 

Dounboke,  saving  the  tenants'  rights." 
667-670.   "  The  Pleas  of  Blakestowne  in  the  lordship  of  Ballymore." 

Useful  for  place-names  in  the  lordship  of  Ballymore-Eustace. 

670.  "Philip  de  Staunton,  a  knight,  grants  to  F.,  the  Archbishop,  his 
rights  in  the  towns  of  Walinge,  Bally  Ionian,  and  Corbali." 
43  Hen.  III.  • 

Corbali  is  now  Corbally,  near  Celbridge,  mentioned  in  "  Fiants  of 
Elizabeth,"  Nos.  421,  3833  ;  or  else  Corbally,  county  Dublin,  mentibned 
in  Nos.  1286,  1328,  1390,  and  3126. 



671.  "  Robert,  Prior  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  grants  to  H.,  the  Archbishop, 

two  marks  of  Staglohe  in  Coillagh."      1248. 

672.  "Richard  Blund  of  Wicklow  grants  to  F.,  the  Archbishop,  a  bur- 

gage  of  Wicklow."     This  deed  mentions  Queen-st.  in  Wicklow 

town,  and  goes  into  detail  about  the  locality.     Its  date  was 

cent.  xiii. 
>674.  "  The  Bishop  and  clergy  of  Leighlin  protest  that  the  relaxation  of 

proxies  made  by  F.,  the  Archbishop,  when  visiting,  shall  not 

be  made  to  prejudice  the  rights  of  his  successors."     1257. 
£75.   "L.,  the  Archbishop,  demits  for  xx  years  O'Konaghe  in  Munster 

to  Maurice,  son  of  Gerald."     Alan  follows  up  this  with  a  note 

on  the  Kildare  descent." 
677.  "  About  the  tenement  of  Robert  Joyce  in  the  parish  of  St.  Michael 

on  the  Hill."    This  deed  is  dated  in  the  third  year  of  Edward  II. 
£77-680.  "Agreement  between  H.,  the  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  and  the 

citizens  about  Common  lands  used  for  pasture." 

There  is  a  note  here  which  seems  lo  show  that  there  were  then  fields 
near  the  church  of  St.  Nicholas  Within.  This  might  show  the  limits 
of  Dublin  about  A.D.  1200. 

•680.  "  Convention  between  H.,  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  and  the  citizens 
as  touching  all  questions  at  issue  between  them." 

682.  "  Citizens  of  Dublin  quit  claim  to  J,,  the  Archbishop,  the  lands  in 

the  city  and  suburbs,  and  make  a  convention  between  them." 

683.  "Edanus,  Bishop  of  Louth,  quit  claims  to  J.,  the  Archbishop,  the 

Church  of  All  Saints."  Alan  refers  in  a  note  to  the  fact  that 
Edanus  was  Confessor  to  King  Dermot  of  Leinster.  He  had  a 
controversy  with  John  Coniyn  about  the  Church  and  Priory  of 
,  All  Saints.  This  deed  is  important  for  the  history  of  the 
Church  of  Dublin  in  the  twelf tli  century.  Cf.  about  Edanus, 
Bishop  of  Louth,  Dean  Butler's  "  Introduction  to  the  Register 
of  All  Saints  Priory,"  p.  vii. 

684.  "Adam,  son  of  Hugh  of  Newtown,  grants  to  F.,  the  Archbishop,  35 

acres  in  Newtown." 

685.  "  Luke,  the  Archbishop,  confirms  to  the  burgesses  of  Rathcoole  the 

liberties  of  Bristol  and  its  burgages."  See  the  article  on  Rath- 
coole in  Lewis's  "  Topographical  Dictionary."  Date  of  this 
deed  about  1240. 

686.  The  Canons  of  St.  Kevin's  Desert  grant  the  under  written  lands  to 

F.,  the  Archbishop,  for  xx  years."  The  Church  of  St.  Saviour's 
was  the  Church  so  designated.  The  Prior  of  that  Church  signed 
this  deed  at  Castle  Kevin,  Aug.  23rd,  1263. 

This  deed  is  interesting,  as  showing  that  St.  Saviour's  Monastery 
was  then  flourishing.  It  would  seem  to  have  adopted  the  Reformed 
Augustinian  rule:  cf.  the  "Register  of  All  Saints  Prioiy"  for  much 
about  the  Gleiidalough  churches,  specially  about  St.  Saviour's,  in  the 
Introduction,  p.  ix. 



687.  "  "William  Waspeylle  and  Emily,  his  wife,  quit  claim  to  F;,  the- 

Archbishop,  about  410  acres  in  the  town  of  Trussell,  alias 
Wymbelton,  near  Gracedieu." 

688.  "  P.,  the  Archbishop,  on  the  presentation  of  the  Prior  and  Convent 

of  the  Holy  Trinity,  institutes  Philip  of  Cerney,  Chaplain,  into 
the  Vicarage  of  Kilcullen." 

Alan  has  a  long  note  on  the  history  of  this  church  of  Kilcullen  :  see 
Index  to  "  Fiants  of  Elizaheth  "  for  numerous  references  to  Kilcullen. 

689.  "  "William  "Waspayle  and  Emma  his  wife  confess  that  they  are  bound 

to  give  security  to  P.,  the  Archbishop,  for  34  acres  in  the  town 
of  Trussell,  belonging  to  the  heirs  of  Adam  de  St.  John.  Cf+ 
deed  on  p.  687." 

690.  "Muriaurtach  O'Tochell  grants   to  P.,  the  Archbishop,  Garstlon,. 

Clondangan,  Clonahadone,  and  Blenlared." 
692.  "  Richard  de  St.  Martin  certifies  to  the  dean  of  St.  Patrick's  a  letter 

of  P.,  the  Archbishop,  granting  the  Church  of  Donoughmore  in 

augmentation  of  the  common  fund  of  the  Canons." 
696.  Octoban,    the   Papal   legate,    orders   the  Bishop    of   Lismore   and 

"Waterford  to  denounce  the  men  of  Dublin  as  excommunicated." 

The  date  of  this  interdict  and  excommunication  of  Dublin  was  1267, 
when  Octoban  was  Papal  Legate.  Cotton's  "Fasti,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  12, 
says,  "  In  the  time  of  Archbishop  Fulk  de  Sandford,  1256-1271,  great 
quarrels  took  place  between  the  Ecclesiastical  and  •  Civil  powers  of 

698.  "  Henry  of  London  grants  to  P.,  the  Archbishop,  a  messuage  in 


699.  "  Richard,  the  Archbishop,  his  Statute  concerning  the  prebendaries 

of  St.  Patrick's." 

701.  "  Robert  de  Lynel  confirms  to  William,  Bishop  of  Glendalough,  and 

to  the  Abbot  of  St.  Thomas's,  the  Church  of  St.  Nicholas  near 
the  Barrow."  Alan  adds  a  note  that  this  was  the  last  bishop 
of  Glendalough. 

702.  "William   Marshal,    Count    of   Pembroke,    confirms    to   JL,    the 

Archbishop,  5  carucates  granted  by  Richard  de  la  Peche." 

703.  4<  The  Prior  and  Canons  of  the  great  Church  of  Glendalough  recognise 

that  P.,  the  Archbishop,  concedes  of  his  free  grace  pasture  and 
fire  out  of  the  old  wood." 

This  deed  throws  light  upon  the  .history  of  Glendalough  in  the 
thirteenth  century.  The-  great  church  referred  to  in  this  deed  was,  of 
course,  the  cathedral  pf  Glendalough,  which  would  seem  to  have 
adopted  the  Eeformed  Augustiuian  rule,  like  the  Church  of  the  Holy 
Trinity  in  Dublin,  Durrow,  and  other  ancient  Celtic  societies.  The 
community  of  the  great  church  does  not  seem  to  have  retained  any  of 
the  great  wealth  with  which  Glendalough  was  endowed  about  the  year 
1200.  This  wealth  was  the  dominant  cause  of  the  union  of  Glendalough 



with  Dublin.  A  comparison  of  this  deed  with  that  relating  to  the 
canons  of  St.  Kevin's  Desert,  on  p.  686,  prove  that  half  a  century  after 
the  Papal  Legate  declared  that  Glendalough  was  a  den  of  thieves,  and 
utterly  waste,  two,  at  least,  of  its  monasteries  were  flourishing :  cf. 
about  the  "Ancient  Celtic  Organisation  of  Glendalough,"  Ussher, 
opp.  xi.,  428,  435. 

704.  "  Henry,  the  Archbishop,  grants  to  "W.  Gaston,  his  servant,  xvi  acresr 

in  exchange  for  the  burgage  which  he  had  near  the  Palace." 

Alan  here  adds  a  long  note,  in  which  he  points  out  that  St. 
Sepulchre's  Palace  is  situated  in  two  parishes — St.  Patrick's  and  St. 
Kevin's,  confirming  the  tradition  that  St.  Patrick's  was  a  parish  church 
before  it  bei-ame  a  cathedral.  In  ancient  times  cathedrals  had  no 
parishes  attached  to  them.  This  note  is  full  of  topographical  details 
about  the  ground  and  streets  round  St.  Patrick's,  giving  abundant  place- 
names,  tenants'  names,  &c.  This  should  be  compared  with  Alan's  rental 
of  St.  Patrick-street,  which  Mr.  Mills  published,  in  1889,  in  this 
Journal,  from  the  original. 

705.  "  William   Gascoing  sells  to  the  poor  of  St.  John  Extra  Novarn 

Portarn,  two  burgages  in  the  parish  of  St.  Kevin." 

706.  "Luke,  the  Archbishop,  confirms  to  the  poor  of  St.  John  of  New- 

gate, two  burgages." 

708.  "  Memorandum  about  the  same  two  burgages."     All  these  docu- 

ments about  St.  John  of  Newgate  are  very  important  for  Dublin 
names  and  topography." 

709.  "  H.,  Archbishop,  confirms  to  Reginald  llamesber  half  a  carucate  in 

Killescopsantane,  alias  Kilnasantan."  Alan  has  here  abundant 
notes,  with  many  important  topographical  details  about  the 
upper  reaches  of  the  Dodder." 

710.  "  Prior  and  Convent  of  St.  John  of  Newgate  demise  to  William,. 

the  Archbishop,  xxx  acres  at  Kilnasautan  for  50  years." 

711.  "Maurice,  son  of  Gerald,  confirms  burgages  and  liberties  of  Bristol 

to  burgesses  of  Rathmore." 

The  notes  of  Alan  about  Rathmore  and  its  place -names  are  important. 
He  notices  at  the  end  that  the  rectory  of  Rathmore  was  vacated  by 
death,  Nov.  xvi.,  1530.  It  is  situated  about  4  miles  from  Naas. 

713.  "  Walter,  the  Archbishop,  institutes  John  O'Coynginto  the  rectory 

of  Dromkee  with  the  rectory  of  Castle  Ade  annexed."  The 
date  of  this  document  is  1504.  It  terminates  with  a  reference 
to  the  "  Crede  Mihi  "  as  the  "  Ancient  Register." 

714.  "  Convention   between   John  de   Sandford,    acting   for  Fulk,   the 

Archbishop,  and  Richard,  son  of  Richard,  about  the  custody 
of  Thomas,  son  of  Roger,  of  Ledwich,  till  he  arrive  at  lawful 

716.  "  Richard  Nists,  and  Johanna,  his  wife,  sell  to  F.,  Archbishop,  their 
right  in  the  dowry  of  Johanna,  formerly  the  wife  of  William, 
of  Surdwale." 



717.  "  William,  of  Oldburne,  grants  Alexander,  Archbishop,  a  messuage 

and  ten  acres  in  Haroldstown,  in  Ballymore." 

Could  Oldburne  here  be  a  mistake  for  Oldbawn,  near  Tallaght, 
mentioned  in  "Fiants  of  Elizabeth,"  No.  4516? 

718.  "Peter  Harold,   son   of  Geoffrey  Harold,  constitutes  R.  Westum 

and  T.  Sampson  his  attorneys  for  putting  Geoffrey  le  Bret,  and 
Isabella,  his  wife,  in  possession  of  three  parts  of  the  lands  of 
G.  Harold."  12  Edward  II. 

This  land  was  situated  in  Villa  Elye  Haroldi,  at  Coillacht,  about  the 
Three  Rock,  or  Tibradden  mountains.  (See  Index  to  "  Fiants  of 
Elizabeth,  under  Harold,  for  many  references  to  these  bounds  and 
limits,  specially  Nos.  1591  and  5810.)  The  plain  near  St.  Columba's, 
now  called  Harold's  Grange,  is  still  a  relic  of  these  limits  and  bounds. 
No.  1591  of  the  Elizabethan  Fiants  gives  a  description  of  Cruagh  Rectory. 
The  ruined  Church  still  stands  near  Rockbrook. 

719.  "  H.,  the  Archbishop,  grants   that  when   Richard  de  Wermenyff: 

departs,  the  church  of  Holywood,  with  the  chapel  of  Grathe- 
lache  and  the  land  of  Regredy,  shall  turn  to  the  use  of  the 
Canons  of  Llanthony." 

720.  "  Concerning  the  Manor  of  Swords  taken  into  the  King's  hand." 

722.  "Adam  le  Petit  grants  to  P.,  the  Archbishop,  his  rights  in  the 

tenement  of  D  erne  skill." 

723.  "Adam  le  Petit  quit  claims  to  P.,  the  Archbishop,  his  right  in  the 

tenement  of  Derneskylle." 

724.  "William   Mareschallus,    Count  of  Pembroke,    grants  to  P.,   the 

Archbishop,  his  lights  in  the  wood  of  Sannekeyun"  (?  St.  Kevin). 

724.  "  Augustin,  son  of  Michael  M'Clerihach,  grants  to  P.,  the  Arch- 
bishop, Ballyocroylf,  which  he  held  by  the  gift  of  William  de 

726.  "  Robert,  son  of  Richard,  grants  to  John,  the  Archbishop,  a  Knight's 
fee  in  Carabria,"  "  where  the  Abbey  of  May  stands." 

726.  "John  Gerrard,  of  Ballidude,  quit  claims  P.,  the  Archbishop,  in 

xxxix  acres,  which  he  held  in  Tavelache,  by  demise  from  W. 

727.  "P.,  the  Archbishop,  grants  to  Alan,  of  Mohaund,  68  acres,  which 

Padinus  O'Kenlisse  held  in  Tavelaugh." 

728-737.  "  Extent  of  the  Manors  of  Tavelaugh,  and  of  Rathcoole,  taken  in 
the  19th  year  of  Edward,  son  of  Edward."  There  are  two  long, 
but  most  interesting  documents  touching  the  west  of  the  county 
Dublin.  They  cover  more  than  ten  closely  written  pages,  and 
are  full  of  details  about  persons  and  places.  In  the  names  of  the 
jurors  we  have  lists  of  the  principal  residents  of  the  the  four- 
teenth century.  Among  the  Tallaght  jurors  the  name  White 
occurs  frequently.  The  Tallaght  jurors  report  that  almost  all 



the  buildings  have  been  burned  down.  As  to  the  lands,  they 
report,  that  in  time  of  war  they 'are  worth  nothing,  they  are  so 
near  the  Irish.  Among  the  place-names  in  Tallaght  manor  are 
the  following  : — Ballymacarran,  Colagh  (evidently  the  name  of 
the  wood,  otherwise  called  Coillaght),  Thastolman,  Bullnuach, 
Bally slator,  Keltipe,  Ballironan,  Kilmasentan,  Rathminten. 
The  names  of  the  Rathcoole  jurors  are — John  Marshal,  John 
Rollrune,  "William  Passavante,  Adam  Howe,  (cf.  "Keg.  of  All 
Saints,"  pp.  44,  49,  50),  John  Browne,  Philip  Browne,  David 
Camilford,  Robert  Garthe, Walter  J)evenish.  Among  the  Rath- 
coole  place-names  are — Flagges,  Grenolmede,  Fiveacres,  Les- 
mourmede,  The  Curragh.  It  is  curious  that  mauy  of  them  have 
the  French  article  Le  before  them. 

737-743.  "  A  similar  exemplification  of  the  extent  of  Clondalkin  Manor, 
dated  xxx  of  Edward  II." 

743—748.   UA  similar  extent   of  the    manor  of    Shankill,   made  in  the 
same    year."      The   names    of    the     Shankill   jurors   were  — 
John  Danwe,  Nicholas  Comyn,  William  Crompe,  John  Kendale, 
John  Browning,   John  White,   Roger  Comyn,  Robert  Crompe, 
Nicholas  Douse,  Richard  Grloster,  Walter  Wreby,  Henry  Hunte, 
Robert  de  Porta,  Walter  Nagle.     They  report  that  there  were 
no  edifices,  as  all  have  been  ruined  by  the  Irish  felons.     Some 
lands  were  set  at  three  pence  an  acre  in  time  of  peace,  which, 
in  time  of  war,  are  worth  nothing.     Other  parts  of  the  Arch- 
bishop's  lands  are  waste,    because   too  near   the  Irish  male- 
factors,   specially  near  Kilmacberin.     They   describe    a   grove 
of   oaks   as    standing   near   Shankill,    covering   30    acres,    xv 
acres  of  pasture  near  Le  Loughe,  and  another  wood  on  Kil- 
macoil.      They  further   report,  that   a   certain  island   in   the 
sea,  near  Dalkey,  is  let  at   I2d.  a  year,  and  111  acres,  called 
Rathingale.    In  Caraghe  there  are  12  acres  of  land,  15  acres  in 
Bally skillane  "  Apud   le  Fyrres,"  and  9  acres   in  Colenaghe, 
which  the  English  and  the  Irish  tenants  were  accustomed  to 
hold  ;    in   Kilmacberin  there   were  60   acres  of  land  held  by 
betasii,  or  betaghs.      They   further   report   that   Robert,    the 
Englishman,   held  a  carucate  of  land  in  Kilconwill,  William 
Finglas  held  two  carucatesin  Ballyro'thye,  which  belonged  to 
John    Itellon.      W.    Fiuglas,     Thomas    Carryke,    and    Hugh 
Lawless  held  four  carucates  of  land  in  Ballyronan.      Robert 
Lawless  held  half  a  carucate   in  Waryneston,   and  a  similar 
amount  in  Relote.    Reginald  de  Barnwall  held  eleven  carucates 
in  Stagonil.     The  Prior  of  Kilmainham  has    one  carucate  of 
land  in  Carrickladane.     The  same  Prior  and  the  Prior  of  the 
Holy  Trinity  have  one  curacate  in  Killeger.    Other  place-names 

176          ROYAL    SOCIETY    OF   ANTIQUARIES    OF    IRELAND. 


which  occur  in  the  Shankill   extent  are  Stanelyn,   Killregel, 
and  Eallydonenaghe. 

748.  "  Extent  of  the  Archiepiscopal  lands  in  Kildare." 

749.  "  Extent  of  the  Archiepiscopal  lands  in  Meath." 

751.  "Reduction  of  rent  paid  by  John  Fitz William,  of  Tallaght,  for 
Tipperstowne,  alias  Rathmynlan." 

753.  "  Henry,  the  Archbishop,  grants  to  Laurence  Caretario,  12  acres 

in  Tallaght."    The  witnesses'  names  are  given  in  full,  with  the 
boundaries  of  the  lands. 

754.  "  Alexander,  the  Archbishop,  grants  to  Eichard  de  la  Eotillere  25 

acres  in  Tallaght." 

755-757.  "Reply  of ,  the  Archdeacon  to  the  mandate  of  William  de 
Rodiere,Y.G.,  about  the  patronage  of  the  Church  of  Adderke." 
The  date  of  this  deed  is  1328.  It  is  interesting  for  its  informa- 
tion about  ancient  church  law  and  customs. 

758-760.  "Inquisition  about  the  Church  of  Adderke,  in  the  diocese  of 
Dublin,  taken  before  W.  de  Roddyerde." 

William  Roddy  ard  was  Treasurer  of  St.  Patrick's,  and  was  elected 
Dean  in  1312,  and  continued  to  occupy  that  position  till  about  1340. 
He  was  a  good  lawyer  ;  was  a  Judge  of  the  Common  Pleas  and  King's 
Bench,  and  was  Chancellor,  in  1320,  of  the  University  established  in 
St.  Patrick's.  He  seems  to  have  been  a  man  much  engaged  in  business  : 
cf.  Cotton's  "Fasti,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  92.  In  Mr.  Mills'  "Norman  Settle- 
ment," Adderke  is  called  Athderg.  The  church  was  situated  S.W.  of 
Lucan.  It  is  mentioned  amongst  the  Churches  of  Taney  Deanery  in  the 
"  Crede  Mihi,"  p.  137,  as  published  by  Sir  John  Gilbert. 

760.   "  A  genealogical  inquiry  into  the  family  history  of  the  De  Lacys." 
761-765.   "  Composition  made  between  the  Archbishop  and  the  Chapter 
of  St.  Patrick." 

765.  "Fromundus  le  Erun  grants  four  marks  of  rent,  in  Carrickdolgin, 

near    Shankill."       This  appears  to    be  the  same    as   the  hill, 
popularly  called  the  Chimney  Hill,  or  Carrick  Galiighan. 

766.  "  Office  of  Constable  of  Eallymore  Castle,  granted  by  Thomas,  the 

Archbishop,  to  Thomas  Fitz  Eustace. 

(2'o  be  continued.) 

(     177     ) 


Siobhan  na  "  Geela." — Who  was  this  lady  ?  An  Ogham  inscription 
at  Emalough  East,  near  Dingle,  has  been  called  the  stone  of  Siobhan- 
na-Geela  (Leac  Siobdme,  &c.)  by  the  Ordnance  Survey,  Mr.  Brash,  and 
Sir  S.  Ferguson. 

Last  summer,  when  examining  this  stone,  I  was  positively  assured 
by  two  inhabitants  independently  that  this  was  not  Siobhan' s  stone. 
The  true  stone  so  called  is  a  small  pointed  rock  standing  up  a  few  paces 
from  the  ogham  ;  it  is  quite  insignificant  in  appearance.  The  ogham 
lies  on  a  strip  of  shingle  (most  unfortunately,  below  high-water  mark) ; 
the  Leac  Siobchne  stands  in  the  sandy  expanse  below  the  shingle.  A 
man  called  Fitzgerald,  who  lives  close  by,  told  me  that  the  local  name 
for  the  ogham  is  Cloc  na  cr-a^apc,  a  name  no  doubt  suggested  by  the 
cross  cut  on  the  stone.  But  my  friend  Mr.  Curran,  of  Ventry,  gives  me 
another  and  very  interesting  name  by  which  the  people  call  the  stone, 
the  Cloc  bpupcuip.  It  is  important  to  record  the  latter  fact.  This 
name  is  not  a  true  ancient  tradition  of  the  person  commemorated  by  the 
stone ;  it  has  simply  been  picked  up  from  oghamists,  who,  though  widely 
divergent  in  their  treatment  of  the  end  of  the  inscription,  are  all  agreed 
in  commencing  with  BRUSCCOS.  The  evolution  of  the  secondary  genitive 
bpupcuip  from  the  ancient  genitive  BRUSCCOS  is  not  without  some  philo- 
logical interest. 

As  to  Siobhan,  I  was  told  that  she  lived  on  the  Iveragh  side  of  Dingle 
Bay ;  that  her  daughter  was  carried  off  to  Corkaguiney  by  force  ;  she 
followed  the  fugitives,  but  was  stricken  with  cholera  (which  was  raging 
in  Corkaguiney  at  the  time),  and  died  at  the  stone  which  bears  her  name — 
a  truly  prosaic  ending  to  a  romantic  story  !  A  somewhat  similar  story  is 
told  in  the  0.  S.  Letters,  which,  however,  I  had  no  time  to  copy ;  if  I 
recollect  aright,  she  was  caught  by  the  tide  and  drowned  at  this  place, 
according  to  the  version  there  given ;  a  much  more  satisfactory  conclu- 
sion. Mr.  Curran  has,  however,  unearthed  quite  a  different  story,  which 
he  has  kindly  imparted  to  me.  It  is  to  the  effect  that  Siobhan  had  a 
lover  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  bay  which  lies  between  Emalough  and 
Kinard,  whom  she  was  in  the  habit  of  visiting  frequently  when  opportunity 
offered,  regardless  of  the  state  of  the  tide.  She  used  this  rock  to  enable 
her  to  mount  her  white  horse  when  she  went  to  ride  across  that 
treacherous  little  inlet.  (The  stone  in  question  is  well  suited  for  such  a 
purpose.)  Yet  another  tale  is  told  by  Brash  in  his  "  Ogham  Monuments," 
under  the  article  "  Trabeg"  (pp.  170-4).  He  says  : — "  Tradition  states 
-she  was  the  sister  of  Donal-na-Geelagh  who  is  in  enchantment  under  one 
of  the  Killarney  lakes,  and  that  she  was  drowned  while  bathing  near  the 
dallan  (i.e.  the  ogham),  from  which  circumstance  it  takes  its  name." 


I  have  spelt  the  concluding  portion  of  this  name  phonetically,  as  I  do 
not  feel  certain  of  the  correct  form  of  it.  O'Douovan  made  Siobcm  na 
ngimleac  ;  the  infection  of  the  m  seems  to  prevent  our  connecting  this 
word  with  "  ^imleac,  s.m.  one  in  fetters"  (O'R.),  and  I  do  not  see  what 
other  meaning  it  could  have.  Mr.  Curran's  version  is  Siobcm  na 
geilleic,1  which  he  refers  to  the  white  horse  (^eall-eac)  ridden  by 
Siobhan.  Further  information  about  this  mythic  heroine  would  be 
valuable,  and  I  hope  some  member  will  be  able  to  supply  references,  or 
(better  still)  popular  tradition  concerning  her  from  some  other  part  of  the 
country. — R.  A.  S.  MACAUSTER. 

Cup-and-Ring  Sculptured  Stones  from  the  County  Donegal. — 
Mr.  M'Nulty  in  forwarding  two  drawings,  says  : — 

"  I  have  discovered  a  few  of  these  stones  in  this  neighbourhood.  I 
send  you  sketches  of  those  on  a  rock-surface  near  this  town  (Raphoe), 
and  on  what  I  believe  to  be  an  overturned  table-stone  of  a  cromlech 
which  I  noticed  near  Castlefin,  a  few  miles  from  Raphoe. 

"  On  another  cromlech,  still  standing,  I  found  the  covering  block  to  be 
marked  with  similar  cups  and  rings ;  the  form  of  one  of  those  on  the 
natural  rock  is  peculiar.  Mr.  "Wakeman,  who  saw  a  sketch  of  it,  thinks 
it  is  a  rare,  if  not  unique,  form. 

"  I  have  seen  many  other  marked  stones,  particularly  a  number  in 
connexion  with  a  stone  circle  at  Tops,  Raphoe." 

Primitive  Burial  at  Rylane,  County  Clare. — This  townland,  lying  in 
the  barony  of  Upper  Bunratty,  not  far  from  the  nearly  obliterated 
Lough  of  Coolasluasta  (see  our  Journal,  1895,  p.  179),  deserves  the 
attention  of  archaBologists.  Even  its  Giants'  Graves  were  unmarked  on 
the  1839  Ordnance  Survey,  and  only  for  the  happy  chance  of  one  of  our 
members,  Mr.  Arthur  Gethin  Creagh,  residing  in  its  neighbourhood,  the 
interesting  "find"  in  the  lake  might  have  gone  without  record.  He 
now  writes  to  me  of  another  discovery  made  in  Rylane  of  a  primitive 
burial-place,  ' ' a  few  hundred  yards  north  of  the  Giants'  Graves."  "  It  was 
about  10. feet  long,  but  there  does  not  seem  to  have  been  any  end  slab, 
the  northern  extremity  being  only  closed  with  earth  and  small  stones. 
The  breadth  is  2  feet  6  inches,  and  the  end  is  circular,  its  sides,  and  those 
of  the  grave  are  neatly  lined  with  small  blocks  where  they  do  not  con- 
sist of  solid  rock."  It  lies  N.N.W.  and  S.S.E.  "  The  whole  grave  was 
neatly  covered  with  stout  nagging,  the  circular  portion  having  a  roof  of 

1  In  this  case  grammatical  strictness  would,  of  course,  require  the  name  to  be 
stated  "Siobdn  an  geilleiG."  Another  conceivable  (but  unlikely)  form  is  na 
geallaise,  as  though  she  were  a  lunar  heroine.  The  objections  to  this  are  the 
pronunciation  of  the  name,  and  the  fact  that  T'ae>  n°t  5"ealla6,  is  the  word  for 
"  moon  "  in  Corkaguiny. 


overlapping  slabs,  and,  as  a  security  against  fracture,  a  flat  stone  about 
15  inches  high  was  placed  in  one  spot  where  the  thinness  of  the  over- 
lapping flags  rendered  it  necessary. 

"  At  the  N.W.  end  of  the  grave  lay  the  skull  of  its  occupant  in  a 
fragmentary  condition;  portions  of  the  under  jaw  also  remained,  with  five 
or  six  teeth  (probably  of  an  old  person  as  they  were  much  worn),  and  a  few 
vertebra?.  Strange  to  say  around  the  skull  and  jaw  were  marks  of  fierce 
fire,  shown  by  the  burnt  earth,  pieces  of  charred  wood,  and  marks  on  the 
side  stones.  "We  found  no  remains  of  any  kind  in  the  circular  chamber, 
nor  any  metal  or  potteiy  anywhere  about  the  grave.  On  the  top  of  the 
covering  flags  lay  a  portion  of  a  horse's  skull,  and  the  bones  of  a  goat 
(or  pig)  under  2  feet  6  inches  of  earth  ;  the  floor  of  the  grave  was  formed 
of  the  native  rock  ;  none  of  the  stones  give  any  sign  of  having  been 
cut  or  dressed. 

"  Lying  south  of  the  grave  was  an  oval  space,  not  more  than  14  inches 
below  the  surface,  floored  with  scabbled  limestones,  6  inches  in  depth. 
It  was  roofed  with  gritstone  flags,  and  half  of  a  gritstone  quern  lay  in  it 
in  good  preservation.  This  space  lies  14  in.  from  the  grave,  and  about  4  ft. 
higher  than  its  floor.  Besides  the  quern  no  other  remains  were  found. 

"  It  lies  about  500  yards  from  Maghera  cross  in  the  same  field  as 
John  Donoho's  house." — (A.  Gethin  Creagh,  Carrahane,  Feb.  8th). 

The  find  took  place  on  Feb.  4th.  "When  I  visited  it  at  the  end  of 
April  it  had  been  entirely  demolished,  and  its  stones  stacked  along  the 
fence,  the  field  being  all  in  tillage. 

The  Giants'  Graves  are  much  defaced,  the  eastern  faces  E.N.E.,  and 
has  three  (if  not  four)  chambers,  being  23  feet  long,  and  11  feet  7  inches 
wide  at  the  west  end ;  the  covering  slabs  of  the  west  and  third  chambers 
remain.  The  largest  slab  (south  side  of  third  chamber)  is  6  feet  long,  and 
9  inches  thick,  but  nearly  buried. 

The  second  one  lies  north-east  from  the  first.  It  was  evidently 
larger,  but  is  now  too  hopelessly  defaced  to  understand  the  plan.  Like 
the  first,  it  tapered  eastward,  its  south  side  pointing  to  the  east  (by 
compass)  ;  a  somewhat  circular  patch  of  stones,  bushes,  and  mounds, 
with  a  few  large  blocks  5  feet  to  6  feet  long,  alone  remains.  Near  it  is 
the  nearly-levelled  ring  of  a  circular  enclosure.  Both  are  figured  in 
Mr.  Borlase's  ''Dolmens  of  Ireland,"  vol.  i.,  page  82.  On  the  hill  to 
the  KW.  is  a  well-preserved  earthen  fort,  with  a  deep  moat  frequently 
containing  water. 

I  have  found  no  mention  of  the  townland  in  the  medieval  records  of 
the  district. — T.  JOHNSON  WESTROPP. 

The  Stolen  Fountain  and  Rutland  Monument  of  Merrion-Square, 
Dublin. — What  Mr.  P.  Kenny  writes  of  as  the  PRINCIPAL  GATEWAY  OF 
MEREION  SQUARE,  is  no  gateway,  but  a  public  fountain,  once  a  public 
monument,  to  the  Duke  of  Rutland,  dedicated  to  the  public,  and  especially 


to  the  use  of  the  poor,  which  must  at  some  time  have  been  illegally 
appropriated  and  suppressed  by  the  Commissioners  of  Merrion-square,  or 
some  "authority." 

Reference  to  Dublin  newspapers  of  1787-8  would,  no  doubt,  revive 
the  memory  of  a  benevolent  Free  Fountain  Association  in  the  Vice- 
royalty  of  the  Duke  of  Rutland.  Sir  John  Blaquiere  was  the  moving 
spirit,  and  moved  by  the  wretched  condition  of  the  poor  of  Dublin,  and 
especially  "by  their  want  of  the  supply  of  free  water,  a  necessary  of 
life,  which  most  of  them  could  only  obtain  in  miserable  quantity,  by 
buying  it  at  the  huxter's  pipe,"  Sir  John  succeeded,  with  the  Viceroy's 
hearty  encouragement,  in  establishing  free  conduits  and  fountains 
throughout  the  city.  Where  are  they  now  ? 

I  know  of  the  surviving  remains  of  one  only — what  is  left  of  an 
elaborate  architectural  and  monumental  structure  on  the  west  side  of 
Merrion-square.  It  was  probably  designed  by  Sir  William  Chambers, 
architect,  who  was  at  the  time,  1787,  architect  of  the  new  Front  and 
Parliament  Square  Buildings  of  Trinity  College,  and  of  Lord  Charle- 
mont's  Casino  at  Clontarf. 

The  Duke  of  Rutland  met  his  premature  death,  and  the  projected 
Fountain  of  Merrion-square  was  turned  into  a  public  memorial  of  him. 
Carvings  and  bas-reliefs  which  adorned  it  have  disappeared,  and  inscrip- 
tions have  gone  or  been  obliterated,  but  in  1805  this  was  surviving  : — 


A  contemporary  writer  says  that  it  was  "embellished  with  some 
excellent  sculpture  in  lasso -relievo,  and  busts  of  the  Duke  and  Duchess 
of  Rutland ;  and 

"  *  Sad  for  her  loss,  Hibernia  weeps  to  raise 

This  mournful  record  to  her  Rutland's  praise.'  " 

Wright's  Guide  of  1821  says  that  at  that  time  this  monument,  but 
thirty  years  after  its  erection,  was  little  better  than  a  ruin,  and  thus 
describes  it : — 

"  In  the  centre  is  an  arch,  within  which  reclines  the  fountain-nymph 
leaning  on  an  urn,  from  which  water  is  represented  as  flowing  in  an 
uninterrupted  stream  into  a  shell-formed  reservoir  beneath.  On  the 
frieze  of  the  entablature  above  is  a  beautifully-executed  medallion,  on 


which  is  represented  the  story  of  the  Marquis  of  Granby  relieving  a 
soldier's  family  in  distress;  and  on  one  side  is  an  inscription  setting 
forth  the  life  and  conduct  of  the  Duke  of  Rutland,  while  on  the  other, 
above  the  orifice  of  one  of  the  fountains,  is  this  inscription  : — '  His  saltern 
.accumulem  donis  et  fungar  inani  munere.'  " 

The  stone  and  workmanship  of  the  monument  appears  to  have  been 
very  bad — hence  its  ruinous  condition.  The  vase-terminals  which  remain 
-are  said  to  have  come  from  Wedgwood's  famous  works  at  Etruria. 

Whatever  the  condition  of  the  public  fountain  may  have  been  in 
1821,  it  seems  hard  to  understand  by  what  authority  such  a  public 
monument  could  be  appropriated  and  enclosed  and  planted  with  shrubs 
to  hide  it. — THOMAS  DREW,  v.p. 

[This  replies  to  "  A.  P.'s"  inquiry.] 

The  Fountain  at  Merrion  Square. — With  respect  to  Mr.  P.  Kenny's 
note  as  to  the  above  in  vol.  vii.,  Part  1,  of  the  Journal,  which  he 
-describes  as  "The  Principal  Gateway,  Merrion- square" — if  he  refers  to 
the  description  of  it  in  Whitelaw  and  Walsh's  "History  of  Dublin" 
(p.  462),  he  will  find  that  it  was  never  a  gateway,  but  was  a  fountain 
erected  to  the  memory  of  Charles  Manners,  Duke  of  Rutland,  Lord 
Lieutenant  of  Ireland  (1784  to  1787).  It  would  appear  that  although 
only  erected  in  1791,  the  fountain  was  in  1818  (when  Whitelaw  and 
Walsh's  History  was  published),  "  cracked  and  bulged  in  several  places." 

Prussia-street,  Dublin. — It  may  be  interesting  to  some  of  our 
members  to  learn  the  origin  of  the  name  of  the  above  street,  which 
is  explained  by  the  following  extracts  from  "  Pue's  Occurrences," 

"  Thursday,  January  24th. — Being  the  birthday  of  His  Prussian 
Majesty,  who  then  entered  into  the  49th  year  of  his  age,  the  same  was 
-observed  here  with  great  demonstrations  of  joy.  A  black  stone  flag, 
with  the  words  '  Prussia- street'  in  gold  letters,  was  put  up  on  a  house 
in  Cabragh-lane,  which  for  the  future  is  to  be  called  by  that  name." 

"Monday,  March  31st. — Last  week  an  elegant  metal  bust  of  His 
Prussian  Majesty,  allowed  by  connoisseurs  to  have  been  extremely  well- 
executed  by  Mr.  Cunningham,  who  served  his  time  to  Mr.  Van  Nost, 
was  erected,  on  the  niche  over  the  black  marble  in  Prussia- street,  at  the 
•sole  expense  of  the  principal  inhabitants  thereof." 

The  King  of  Prussia,  above  referred  to,  was  Frederick  the  Great. 
Van  Nost  was  the  designer  of  the  statue  of  George  II.  in  St.  Stephen's 

It  would  be  interesting  to  ascertain  if  the  metal  bust  referred  to  is 
still  in  existence.  There  is  no  trace  of  it  on  the  fronts  of  any  of  the 
houses  now  in  existence  in  Prussia-street. — ANTHONY  R.  CARROLL. 

JOUK.  U.S. A. I.,  VOL.  VII.,  PT.  II.,  OTH  8F.K.  0 


Mr.  Samuel  Guilbride. — This  gentleman  joined  the  Society  in  1886r 
and  became  a  most  ardent  member.  Of  late  the  state  of  his  health  pre- 
vented his  attendance  at  our  meetings,  or  sharing  in  our  excursions;  andhe 
was  little  known  as  an  archaeologist  outside  his  own  town  and  neighbour- 
hood :  u  but  his  known  love  for  the  antiquarian  lore  of  his  native  land, 
and  his  strong  personality  in  seeking  out  and  preserving  objects  of 
interest,  aroused  a  wide-spread  regard  amongst  the  people  of  his  vicinity 
for  everything  of  an  antiquarian  nature,  and,  in  a  marked  degree,  a 
desire  for  the  preservation  of  such."  He  has  left  several  Papers  on  the 
local  antiquities  of  Newtownbarry,  and  a  valuable  collection.  He  died 
in  February  last,  much  regretted,  at  the  age  of  46. 

Wooden  Vessel  found  at  "The  Boon,"  near  Athlone.— Mrs.  Tarleton, 
Hon.  Local  Secretary  of  our  Society  in  King's  County,  reports  a  find  of 
some  interest  as  having  been  made  by  Mr.  George  Enraght  Mooney, 
near  his  residence  "  The  Doon."  It  is  a  wooden  vessel  of  the  shape  usual 
in  iron  pots,  with  one  small  handle  at  the  side.  It  was  found  about 
8  feet  under  the  surface  of  the  bog,  close  to  the  interesting  ancient 
paved  way  known  as  "  The  Pilgrims'  Road,"  the  remains  of  which 
can  be  traced  through  the  bog,  and  which  leads  to  the  churches  of 

The  Duke  of  Tetuan — "  Tew  persons  know,"  says  the  New  York  Sun, 
11  that  the  sternest  enemy  of  American  interference  in  Spanish  colonial 
affairs,  the  present  powerful  holder  of  the  Spanish  portfolio  of  Foreign 
Affairs,  is  an  Irish  chieftain  in  his  own  right,  and  the  owner  of  a  name 
famous  in  the  history  of  Ireland.  His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Tetuan,  Spanish 
Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs,  claims  to  be  Lord  of  Donegal,  in  Ireland, 
and  rejoices  in  the  Milesian  patronymic  of  Charles  O'Donnell.  .  .  .  The 
duke  is  very  proud  of  his  name  and  Irish  descent ;  but,  apart  from  this, 
the  distinguished  services  which  his  ancestors  have  rendered  to  Spain 
since  their  exile  from  the  mother  country,  might  well  give  him  cause- 
for  gratification." 

In  the  reign  of  James  I.,  Nial  Garv  O'Donnell  was  Prince  of  Tyrcon- 
nell,  lord  of  the  mountainous  county  of  Donegal,  and  chief  of  his  name 
and  race.  He  warred  valiantly  against  the  English,  but  at  length  was 
taken  prisoner.  He  died  in  the  Tower  of  London.  From  the  brother  of 
this  chief,  Charles  Oge  O'Donnell,  descended  the  two  young  exiles, 
Henry  and  Joseph  O'Donnell,  younger  brothers  of  Manus  O'Donnel}, 
of  Wilford  Lodge,  county  Mayo. 

Henry  entered  the  Austrian  service,  and  rose  to  be  a  baron,  and 
a  major-general.  Joseph  settled  in  Spain  about  1750,  and  became  a 
lieutenant-general.  There  was  no  need  to  ennoble  him,  as  in  Spain  all 


the  Irish  exiles  were  recognised  as  nobles  ready-made.  This  lieutenant- 
general,  Don  Joseph,  left  four  sons — all  distinguished  in  the  army, of 
their  adopted  country.  The  eldest,  Don  Jose  O'Donnell,  was  Captain- 
General  of  Castile,  and  the  youngest,  Don  Enrique,  was  a  famous  lieu- 
tenant-general ;  O'Donnell,  Count  of  Abisbad,  Regent  of  Spain  in  1812, 
and  Captain-General  of  Andalusia.  The  second  of  the  four,  Don 
Carlos,  also  a  lieutenant-general,  and  a  knight  of  St.  Ferdinand,  died  in 
1830,  leaving  two  children,  of  whom  the  eldest,  Don  Carlos  O'Donnell, 
was  father  of  the  present  Duke  of  Tetuan,  while  the  second  was  Field- 
Marshal  Don  Leopoldo  O'Donnell,  first  duke  of  that  name. 

The  Duke  of  Tetuan  was  married  in  1863,  and  had  three  sons,  Don 
Juan  Patricio  O'Donnell,  born  1864  ;  Don  Carlos  Alfonso  O'Donnell,  born 
1869  ;  and  Don  Leopoldo  Patricio  O'Donnell,  born  1874.  One  of  these 
young  men  is  aide-de-camp  to  Gen.  Weyler  in  Cuba. 

Kenagh  (Co.  Longford)  Old  Church. — When  passing  the  ruins  of  the 
above,  some  short  time  ago,  I  stopped  and  took  some  photographs  of  it. 
There  are  the  remains,  in  fairly  good  repair,  of  what  must  once  have  been 
a  handsome  church ;  but  so  overgrown  with  ivy,  that  its  very  outline  is 
hard  to  distinguish.  The  date  on  the  oldest  grave  that  I  could  decipher 
was  1710  ;  but,  no  doubt,  there  are  many  of  a  prior  date  to  this.  The 
graveyard  is  tidily  kept,  and  a  good  wall  built  round  it — a  great  contrast 
to  so  many  others  in  this  county  and  elsewhere. 

What  chiefly,  however,  attracted  my  attention  was  the  fact  that  two 
inscribed  slabs  of  limestone,  apparently  bearing  a  later  superscription,  had 
been  built  into  the  modern  gate-posts  of  the  graveyard.  I  had  not  time, 
nor,  I  fear,  would  I  have  been  able,  to  decipher  these  ;  but  the  late  Vicar 
of  the  parish  (Rev.  W.  Welwood),  now  removed  to  Co.  Leitrim,  has 
kindly  sent  me  the  translation,  which  runs  as  follows,  viz. : — 

"  PEAT   FOR    THE    SOUL    OF 
JAMES      CAHILL,      V  I  C  A  E      OF 




A.D.     1649." 

These  slabs  were  found  by  a  labourer  built  into  the  wall  by  the  road- 
side, and  were  put  into  their  present  position  by  the  guardians.  The  vicar 
informs  me  that  no  records  exist  prior  to  about  1830;  so  that  there  are 
at  least  200  years,  if  not  more,  of  the  life  of  this  parish  during  which 
no  records  are  to  be  had.  Is  it  not  a  matter  for  great  regret  that 
so  many  cases  of  this  scandalous  neglect  are  to  be  found  in  Ireland  in  all 

directions  ? 

0  2 


I  have  always  looked  upon  the  part  of  the  county  in  which  this  old 
ruin  is  situate  as  most  interesting  from  an  antiquarian  point  of  view. — 

The  Cumins  Ogham  (Journal,  1896,  p.  393).— I  am  indebted  to  the 
Rev.  Frederick  Foster,  of  Bally  McElligott.  Tralee,  for  kindly  informing 
me  that  the  Kerry  Sentinel,  my  only  authority  on  this  monument,  was 
in  error  in  two  points  regarding  it.  The  true  discoverer  is  Mr.  Adrian 
Peet,  and  the  inscription  is  incorrectly  given.  The  Bishop  of  Limerick 
is,  I  understand,  preparing  a  detailed  account  of  the  stone. — R.  A.  S. 

Ancient  Otter-Traps. — The  following  Paper  on  the  above  subject, 
by  Mr.  Kinahan,  Fellow,  was  read  at  the  Evening  Meeting  of  the  Society 
at  Kilkenny,  on  Monday,  19th  April,  1897.     "  The  wooden  implements 
figured  in  the  Journal  of  the  Society  (Part  iv.,  vol.  vi.,  p.  380)  are  evidently 
snares  to  catch  a  water  animal  that  consistently  travels  in  one  direction. 
They  could  not  be  for  fish,  which  dart  about  every  way,  except  salmon 
and  sea  trout  when  ascending  a  river  or  stream.     Eels  when  going  up 
in  the  summer  possibly  may  go  straight,  but  our  knowledge  in  connexion 
with  the  ascent  of  the  eel  at  that  season  seems  to  be  nil.     Some  people 
would  even  go  so  far  as  to  wish  us  to  believe  they  never  come  up  from 
the  salt  water.     Those  who  have  studied  the  otter  must  be  aware  that 
these  traps  are  admirably  suited  to  meet  its  habits,  and  ought  to  be 
most  effective  snares.     Unfortunately  the  photograph  of  the  traps    of 
Larkhillis  calculated  to  mislead.     The  traps  were  found  in  "an  upright 
position,"  not,  however,  on  end  as  represented  in  the  figure,  but  on  their 
sides.     When  set,  the  hing    side  should  be  uppermost,  the  side  with 
bevels  leading  to  the  open  should  face  down-stream,  and  the  back  with 
the  springs  should  look  up-stream.     This  trap,  besides  being  simple  arid 
ingenious,  seems  to  be  well  adapted  for  catching  the  otter.     As  to  the 
habits  of  the  otter — when  fishing  it  invariably,  except  under  adverse 
circumstances  (the  adverse  circumstances  are  when  fishing  a  pool  with 
perpendicular  sides,  when  it  will  have  to  go  back  again  to  get  out ;  when 
fishing  a  '  tail  race,'  or  when  fishing  a  stream  through  a  town,  when  it 
will  have  to  go  back  down  the  stream) — goes  up-stream,'  and  returns  by 
a  land  path,  never  when  coming  down  taking  the  water  except  in  case  of 
danger.     Even  when  hunted  with  hounds  it  will  try  to  go  back  by  the 
path.     Often  when  hunting  up  a  stream  thfe  otter  has  passed  us  going 
down  on  the  land  ;  a  good  master,  therefore,  will  make  a  side  cast  to  see 
if  the  otter  is  i  trying  back.'     Of  course,  when  the  hounds  are   close, 
the  otter  has  to  take  the  deep  water,  in  which  he  goes  backward  and 
forward,  but  always  if  he  thinks  he  sees  his  chance  he  will  take  to  land 
and  make  a  run  for  the  next  pool.     As  the  otter  always  fishes  up  the 


stream,  it  is  easy  to  see  how  the  traps  were  set.  A  place  in  a  reedy  stream 
was  chosen  that  a  trap  could  just  span ;  the  ope  in  it,  if  possible,  being  on 
the  otter's  run.  To  set  the  trap  the  door  was  forced  open,  and  kept  open 
by  a  trigger,  which  was  probably  a  short  bit  of  stick ;  when  the  otter  saw 
the  ope  he  tried  to  push  through,  but  the  moment  his  shoulders  pressed 
a  gainst  the  door  the  trigger  was  let  loose,  and  the  springs  jammed  down 
the  door  on  his  neck  and  held  him  fast.  It  can  be  easily  seen  that  the 
double  traps  were  for  wide  streams  that  the  single  trap  would  not  span  ; 
or  possibly  they  were  for  streams  in  which  the  otter  had  to  return,  such 
as  a  stream  into  a  pool  with  perpendicular  sides.  In  such  a  case  the 
doors  ought  to  open  different  ways.  This  is  quite  a  surmise,  as  I  have  not 
seen  a  double  trap.  It  seems  to  me  unlikely  that  the  nine  traps  in  the 
diagram  (page  379)  were  set  in  a  lake.  In  fact  I  do  not  see  how  they 
could  have  been  effectively  set  therein,  as  there  would  be  no  runs  to  set 
them  in,  the  otter  swimming  everywhere  about.  It  is  more  natural  to 
suppose  they  were  set  in  one  of  the  marshes,  or  sloughs,  so  common  in 
the  Irish  bogs,  and  so  generally  the  fishing  haunts  of  the  otter.  Such 
marshy  places  are  fished  from  the  bottom  to  the  top,  and  I  would 
suggest  that  the  traps  were  not  set  in  the  regular  form  as  represented  in 
the  diagram,  but  more  or  less  irregularly  according  to  the  shape  of  the 
slough.  Sloughs  usually  are  wider  at  the  lower  than  at  the  upper  end. 
This  evidently  was  the  case  in  the  Larkhill  slough,  as  these  traps  were 
set — three  across  the  wide  end,  and  the  rest  along  or  near  each  margin 
of  the  slough,  in  compliance  with  the  courses  of  the  little  surface  streams 
which  usually  are  more  or  less  near  each  edge  ;  in  fact  often  along  the 
margin  between  the  soft  slough  and  the  bog.  These  streams  are  evidently 
in  a  great  measure  due  to  the  otter  paths,  which  run  near  the  margin 
where  the  eels  are  principally  to  be  found,  eels  being  the  fish  usually 
found  in  the  slough,  as  proved  by  the  remains  left  at  the  otter  stands,  and 
by  the  contents  of  the  dropping.  Frogs,  however,  seem  also  sometimes 
caught ;  fishes,  except,  perhaps,  in  some  places,  a  few  species,  rarely 
frequent  these  bog  sloughs. 

Inscribed  Pillar-Stones,  County  Mayo. — I  was  lately  on  the  west 
coast  of  Mayo  with  Mr.  Patrick  O'Dowd,  a  gentleman  who  has  a  consi- 
derable knowledge  of  the  antiquities  of  the  county,  and  he  showed  me 
two  standing  stones  which  I  have  not  seen  mentioned  in  any  book, 
though  one  is  shown  on  the  Ordnance  Map  (No.  95).  I  made  rough 
sketches  of  them  on  the  spot.  No.  1  is  near  the  sea,  in  the  townland  of 
Dooghmakeon.  A  farmer,  Austin  Tiernan,  who  livee  close  by,  told  me 
that  it  was  lying  flat  on  the  sandhills,  nearly  covered ;  but  that  about 
fifty  years  ago  a  Catholic  clergyman,  Father  M'Manus,  had  it  raised. 
Tiernan  said  that  more  than  half  the  stone  is  buried  in  the  sand. 


There  are  some  incised  marks  on  one  corner,  near  the  base,  which 
probably  are  part  of  an  Ogham  inscription,  the  rest  of  which  is  buried 
beneath  the  sands.  Close  by,  just  north  of  Lough  Cahasy,  is  a  so-called 
grave,  consisting  of  a  low  pile  of  stones,  many  of  which  are  of  a  peculiar 
shape,  mostly  resembling  dumb-bells.  The  balls  seem  to  be  light- 
coloured  sandstone,  shaped  by  sea-action  ;  but  they  are  joined  by  a 
blue  slaty  stone,  which  must  have  united  them  subsequently.  This 
grave  is  about  9  feet  long,  and  many  stories  are  told  about  it.  Any  one 
praying  there  at  midnight  gets  his  wish,  provided  his  rival  does  not 
arrive  before  him ;  disputes  are  settled  there  by  both  parties  swearing 
over  one  of  these  stones.  It  is  evidently  in  repute  still,  as  it 'is  half 
covered  with  rags,  bits  of  iron,  &c.  Several  of  the  neighbouring  tenants 

No.  1. 

Diameter  of  Circle,  1  foot  2|  inches. 
Pillar,  5  ft.  6  in.  above  ground. 

No.  2. 

say  that  a  number  of  coins,  long  bronze-pins,  &c.,  have  been  found 
there;  and  that  about  100  years  ago,  a  Father  Lyons  broke  several 
bronze  swords  that  were  lying  on  it,  and  threw  them  into  Lough 
Cahasy.  There  is  another  celebrated  grave  in  the  middle  of  this  lake ; 
but  I  was  unable  to  get  out  to  it. 

The  standing  stone,  No.  2,  is  in  Killeen  graveyard,  in  the  townland 
of  Cloonlaur  (Ordnance  Map,  95).  The  ornamentation  on  it  is  very 
similar  to  No.  1,  but  with  the  addition  of  the  oval  cup-holes  and  grooves. 
The  stone  is  much  weathered,  and  I  could  ascertain  nothing  about  its 

This  stone  is  leaning  at  an  angle  of  35°,  and  would  appear  much 
taller  if  upright.  The  small  cup-marks  are  indistinct,  and  now  average 
only  about  1  inch  in  depth.  The  grooves,  or  gutters,  running  from 



them  to  the  centre  of  the  circle,  are  only  just  visible,  owing  to  growth 
of  lichen.  There  is  a  second  outer  circle,  but  only  traceable  on  the 
lower  half  of  the  circle.  It  will  be  seen  from  the  sketch  that  the 
segments  of  inscribed  circles  do  not  intersect  as  in  stone  No.  1. 

In  the  adjoining  townland  of  Cross  there  is  a  standing  stone  about 
12  feet  high,  but  without  any  markings  that  I  could  detect.  A 
few  feet  from  it  is  another  standing  stone,  about  4%  feet  high,  without 
markings,  and  apparently  much  broken.  There  is  a  cromlech  about 
a  mile  away  in  the  townland  of  Aillemore ;  but  1  had  not  time  to 
visit  it. 

If  these  stones  have  not  been  described  before,  perhaps  a  short 
•description  of  them  may  be  suitable  for  the  Journal  of  the  Society. — 
W.  E.  KELLY,  C.E.,  J.P.,  Hon.  Local  Secretary,  South  Mayo. 

Holed  Stones  found  in  France. — A  Paper  by  Mons.  F.  Poly, 
published  in  the  "Rev.  de  1'Ecole  d'Anthropologie,"  1896,  describes 
seven  "  Pierres-Percees  "  found  in  the  Department  of  Haute-Saone,  and 
figures  five  of  these  interesting  objects.  To  this  list  M.  Mortillet  has 
-added  a  memorandum  concerning  two  or  three  additional  instances  from 
other  departments  on  the  Swiss  frontier,  and  gives  a  figure  of  one  of 
these.  I  have  not  seen  the  original  communication,  and  extract  this 
note  from  "Bulletins  de  la  Societe  d'Anthropologie  de  Paris"  for 
September,  1896,  where  a  woodcut  illustration  is  shown  of  a  perforated 
stone  from  Poulaincourt,  Haute-Saone.  Further  inquiries  into  the 
distribution  of  these  "  stones  with  perforations  "  in  France  would  be  of 
great  interest ;  also  if  they  are  associated  with  any  of  the  traditional 
uses  with  which  tliev  are  identified  in  Ireland. — W.  FEAZER. 

"  The  Kilkenny  Museum."— The  Irish  Builder,  of  April  15th,  has 
-an  article  on  this  subject,  from  which  the  following  are  extracts  : — 

"The  question  of  housing  the  objects  of  antiquarian  interest  collected  in  Kilkenny 
has  occupied  considerable  attention  for  some  time  past,  and  a  rather  painful  contro- 
versy appears  to  have  arisen  in  that  city  over  the  proposed  appropriation  of  a  certain 
building  known  as  '  The  Shoe  Alms-house,'  which  has  been  suggested  by  some  local 
persons  as  a  fitting  receptacle  for  the  collection,  which  proposal  has  been  very  stoutly 
icsisted — and  so  far  successfully^ — by  some  influential  residents,  who  are  anxious  that 
the  building  should  not  be  diverted  from  the  charitable  purposes  to  which,  for  some 
time  past,  it  had  been  devoted.  The  quarrel  bids  fair  to  become  a  second  edition  of 
the  story  of  '  The  Kilkenny  Cats,'  and  it  is  just  possible  that  it  may  result  in  the 
removal  of  the  objects  from  the  '  faire  citie.' 

"  The  Alms-house  is  considered  by  those  best  acquainted  with  the  building  to  be 
very  badly  suited  for  the  suggested  purpose  ;  it  is  very  dark,  and  has  not  been  kept 
in  a  good  state  of  repair;  and  though  the  rent  asked  for  it  is  only  £5  per  annum,  it 
seems  that  it  would  be  dear  even  at  that  figure.  The  proposal  to  light  it  by  skylights 

188          ROYAL    SOCIETY    OF   ANTIQUARIES    OF    IRELAND. 

in  the  roof  would  be  expensive,  and  would  only  prove  effective  for  the  attic  story  ;. 
the  principal  floor  would  still  remain  in  darkness,  and  as  the  building  was  erected 
upwards  of  three  centuries  ago,  it  may  be  difficult  and  expensive  to  effect  the  necessary 
structural  alterations.  ...  It  may  not  be  out  of  place  to  say  that  these  objects  were 
brought  together  solely  by  the  energy  and  ability  of  three  men.  The  first,  who  was 
the  founder  of  the  Society,  Rev.  James  Graves;  the  second,  Mr.  J.  G.  A.  Prim  ;  and 
the  third,  Mr.  J.  G.  Robertson,  who  looked  after  the  collection  from  the  foundation 
of  the  Society  until  his  removal  to  Dublin  in  1888.  The  Rev.  James  Graves  having 
died  in  1885,  the  Society  fell  into  decay;  it  had  no  funds,  the  Members  would  not 
pay,  and,  having  neither  men  nor  money  to  carry  on  the  work  in  Kilkenny,  the  local 
Members  decided  to  dispose  of  the  objects  to  the  Science  and  Art  Museum.  It  is  well 
to  mark  that  this  was  decided  on  while  the  headquarters  of  the  Society  were  still  at 

"  Shortly  after  this  the  management  was  taken  up  in  Dublin,  and  a  new  Council 
was  formed,  and  the  almost  defunct  Society  became,  in  a  few  years,  transformed  into- 
the  most  extensive  and  prosperous  Archaeological  Society  in  the  United  Kingdom, 
under  the  name  of  '  The  Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Ireland,'  and  to  the  credit 
of  the  new  management,  it  must  be  said,  that  they  did  not  sell  the  Kilkenny  Museum, 
but  kept  it  up  in  the  same  house,  paid  the  rent  and  other  expenses,  exactly  as  the  old 
Society  did.  At  the  meeting  at  Kilkenny  last  year,  some  local  Members,  who  did  not 
understand  the  history  of  the  case,  proposed  that  the  Council  should  undertake  a  large 
expenditure  in  improving  the  rented  apartments.  It  is  not  to  be  wondered  at  that  the 
Council,  acting  for  all  the  Members  as  well  as  for  those  in  Kilkenny  (the  Members 
outside  of  that  city  numbering  about  100  for  every  one  residing  in  it),  did  not  see 
their  way  to  spend  in  Kilkenny  money  subscribed  elsewhere  for  the  other  purposes  of 
the  Society.  An  elected  Council  must  follow  the  directions  of  the  majority — there  are 
1376  Members  in  all,  of  whom  considerably  less  than  a  score  reside  in  Kilkenny.  .  .  . 
A  great  opportunity  was  lost  when  the  Society,  founded  by  Rev.  James  Graves, 
was  allowed  to  dwindle  down  and  finally  disappear.  Another  Society,  founded  by 
Cardinal  Moran,  when  Bishop  of  Ossory,  also  died  out  in  Kilkenny,  for  want  of  the 
necessary  local  support.  A  valuable  collection  of  antiquities  was  made  by  the  last- 
named  Society,  now  housed,  free  of  cost,  at  the  College  of  St.  Kieran,  and  the  sugges- 
tion which  has  been  made  as  to  the  amalgamation  of  the  two  collections,  is  worthy  of 

"One  thing  is  evident,  that,  while  the  (Royal)  Society  of  Antiquaries,  now  a 
National  Society,  cannot  allow  money  subscribed  elsewhere,  and  for  another  purpose, 
to  be  spent  in  Kilkenny,  they  cannot  allow  the  objects  to  remain  as  before.  The 
local  Members  alone  are  to  blume  for  the  present  block,  and  it  devolves  on  them  now 
to  come  forward  and,  after  counting  the  cost,  say  if  there  is  public  spirit  enough  in 
Kilkenny  to  establish  a  public  museum,  and  to  give  guarantees  that  the  objects  will 
be  properly  cared  for  and  exhibited.  .  .  .  Turning  for  a  moment  to  the  objects  in  the 
museum,  the  collection  is  a  very  heterogeneous  one;  no  system  seems  to  have  been 
adopted,  and  the  result  is  that  it  presents  more  the  appearance  <>f  an  '  Old  Curiosity 
Shop'  than  a  properly -arranged  museum.  Stones,  and  fragments  of  stained  glass 
from  St.  Canice's  Cathedral,  roof  timbers  from  Callan,  crannog  logs  from  Enniskillen, 
rough  beams  from  Rothe's  House,  and  a  great  variety  of  pieces  of  timber,  most  of 
which  should  not  have  been  moved  from  their  original  habitat,  have  now  become  a 
difficulty  as  to  disposal,  as  they  are  of  no  archaeological  interest  whatever.  There  still 
remains  a  good  deal  of  general  and  local  interest,  but  there  are  some  objects  of  a, 
fictile  character,  others  rust-eaten,  not  much  to  look  at,  but  rapidly  disintegrating, 
which  should  be  at  once  removed,  and  placed  in  the  hands  of  an  expert  for  preser- 
vation in  dust-proof  cases  ;  and  for  the  safe  custody  of  such  special  items  it  is  not 
likely  any  satisfactory  provision  could  be  made  in  Kilkenny." 


Celtic  Crosses. — The  latest  theory  formulated  to  explain  the  pecu- 
liarities of  the  ancient  crosses  which  are  found  in  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland,  was  explained  in  a  Paper  which  was  'read  in  Edinburgh  on  the 
10th  of  May,  hy  Mr.  Eomilly  Allen,  P.S.A.,  Fellow,  who  has  devoted 
much  attention  to  the  subject.  Keferring  to  the  peculiar  style  of  deco- 
ration of  the  period  known  as  Celtic,  which  was  by  some  assumed  to- 
have  had  its  origin  in  Ireland,  Mr.  Allen  said  it  was  no  doubt  true  that 
Celtic  art  attained  its  highest  excellence  in  Irish  illuminated  manuscripts, 
such  as  the  Books  of  Kells,  Armagh,  and  Burrow ;  but  it  was  a  relevant 
inquiry  to  what  extent  the  illuminators  were  indebted  to  foreign  sources, 
and  whether  the  similarities  of  design  on  the  monuments  of  the  eighth 
to  the  eleventh  centuries  in  Scotland,  Ireland,  England,  and  Wales, 
might  not  be  accounted  for  by  development  on  parallel  lines  rather  than 
by  direct  derivation.  Instancing  a  series  of  rubbings  taken  by  Mr. 
Griffith -Bavies,  Member,  from  cross-shafts  and  fragments  at  Clonmacnoise, 
which  closely  resemble  the  slabs  of  Perthshire  and  Eorfarshire,  he  pro- 
ceeded to  point  out  other  resemblances  between  the  Irish  and  the 
Scottish  monuments  generally,  alike  in  their  decoration  and  in  the 
groups  of  Scriptural  figure-subjects  which  appear  on  both.  The  Irish 
crosses  are  chiefly  found  in  Leinster  and  Ulster,  and  are  absent  from  the 
counties  of  Kerry,  Cork,  and  Waterford,  which  contain  the  Ogham- 
inscribed  pillar- stones  of  the  earliest  Christian  period,  and  the  total 
number  of  crosses  in  Ireland,  amounting  to  about  fifty,  was  extremely 
small  as  compared  with  the  300  localities  in  Scotland,  250  in  England, 
40  in  Wales,  and  15  in  the  Isle  of  Man.  that  were  now  on  record.  The 
conclusion  seemed  to  be  that  the  pre-Norman  crosses  of  Ireland  were 
later  than  those  of  Scotland,  England,  and  Wales,  and  that  this  phase  of 
early  Christian  sculpture  had  its  origin  in  Northumbria.  The  scrolls  of 
foliage  on  the  Irish  crosses,  and  the  bird  and  leaf  motives  in  the  Book  of 
Kells,  indicated  North umbri an  influence.  Scandinavian  influence  had 
not  been  detected  on  the  Irish  crosses,  but  was  found  on  the  metal-work. 
In  conclusion,  he  considered  that  the  Celtic  style  was  a  variety  of  the 
Lombardo-Byzantine  style,  from  which  its  figure  subjects,  interlaced 
work,  scrolls  of  foliage,  and  many  of  its  nondescript  animals  were 
obviously  derived. 

Prehistoric  Burial. — On  May  18th,  1897,  when  breaking  up  a  grass- 
field  on  Mr.  Sutton's  farm  near  Newcastle,  a  few  miles  from  Greystones, 
county  Wicklow,  the  plough  struck  against  a  granite  block,  about  6  feet 
long,  and  4  feet  in  width.  Later,  when  preparing  to  blast  this  with 
gunpowder,  it  was  discovered  to  be  the  roof  of  a  stone  cist,  formed  of 
schist  slabs,  measuring  5  feet  x  2  feet  4  inches  wide,  and  lying  E.S.E. 
and  W.N.W.,  within  which  the  remains  of  a  body  lay,  apparently  on  its 
side,  with  the  legs  drawn  up  or  bent.  There  were  also  fragments  of  a 

190          ROYAL    SOCIETY    OF    ANTIQUARIES    OF    IRELAND. 

neatly-decorated  urn.  The  skull  was  well  formed,  with  no  very  ab- 
normal features  in  the  bones,  the  skeleton  being  that  of  a  man  of 
ordinary  size,  about  forty  years  old.  The  remains  were  placed  in 
the  hands  of  Dr.  C.  Browne,  and  have  been  described  (as  well  as  the 
grave  and  its  other  contents)  in  a  joint  report  to  the  Royal  Irish 
Academy,  by  him  and  Messrs.  Coffey  and  Westropp. 

Cams  in  Co.  Tyrone. — The  Rev.  F.  Rapmund  (Member)  lately 
described  in  the  Derry  «70wrw«£(21stMay)  two  remarkable  earns  which  he 
examined  in  the  vicinity  of  Clogher.  That  of  Carnagat  was  oblong ; 
90  feet  in  length,  30  in  width,  and  10  feet  high.  It  contained  four 
chambers.  No  bones  or  implements  were  discovered  ;  a  small  stone 
" ornament"  was  the  only  find.  Carnafadrig  is  somewhat  smaller 
than  the  other.  It  is  86  by  38  by  7  feet.  Two  pillar-stones  stand 
at  the  eastern  end.  It  contained  one  chamber,  in  which  a  flint-knife 
was  found :  also  some  fragments  of  rudely  baked  un glazed  pottery 
were  picked  up.  There  was  no  trace  of  interment  here.  Three  cham- 
bers, in  line  at  right  angles  to  long  axis  of  earn,  were  discovered  at  the 
western  end  ;  and  here  some  fragments  of  bones  were  found — one  of  them 
an  uncalcined  portion  of  a  skull ;  and  in  the  same  cist  two  flint  im- 

"  Spanish  Armada  Chests." — The  following  letter  appeared  in  the 
Irish  Builder  : — Wo  amount  of  ridicule  seems  to  explode  the  figment  about 
'•'Armada  Chests."  According  to  Dublin  superstition  it  might  be  inferred 
that  the  Spanish  Armada's  particular  mission  to  this  country  was  to  im- 
port church  organs  and  iron  chests ;  and,  considering  how  many  ships 
were  wrecked,  it  would  be  marvellous  how  so  many  organs  and  chests 
got  to  land.  There  are,  at  least,  three  organs  in  Dublin,  which,  of 
course,  "  came  over  with  the  Spanish  Armada"  ;  and  as  for  the  chests, 
there  are  literally  scores  of  them  up  and  down  Dublin ! 

These  iron  chests  are  no  rarities  at  all,  and  their  origin  is  perfectly 
well  known,  and  their  relation  to  the  Spanish  Armada  about  as  near 
as  to  Noah's  Ark.  They  are  to  be  found  by  scores  in  old-established 
solicitors'  offices,  in  banks,  private  houses,  and  marine  stores.  They 
were  imported  from  Holland,  where  their  name  of  Coffres  du  Privilege  is 
perfectly  well  known,  and  they  came  probably  as  handy  ballast  for  ships 
in  the  end  of  the  seventeenth  and  throughout  the  eighteenth  century. 
No  doubt  every  one  of  the  24  Guilds  of  the  Corporation  possessed  one, 
with  its  three  keys,  up  to  1843.  There  is  one  at  Christchurch,  and  the 
entry  of  the  payment  for  it  in  1689.  I  have  one  that  belonged  to  the 
General  Post,  and  the  date  on  it  1753. 

A  Belfast  man,  with  becoming  modesty,  lately  claimed  for  Ulster,  in. 
the  Ulster  Journal  of  Archceology,  the  only  three  genuine  and  "  unques- 


tionable  relics  of  the  ill-fated  Armada."  "  Every  ship  of  it  carried  two 
such  bullion  chests — a  big  one  for  the  common  sailors'  silver,  and  a  little 
one  for  the  officers'  gold"  ;  but,  unfortunately  for  romance,  the  bill  paid 
prosaically  for  one  of  them  in  1780,  turned  up. 

There  was  a  "real  relic  of  the  Spanish  Armada"  discovered  at  Bath 
last  month,  and  it  was  presented  to  the  Museum,  and  local  newspapers 
made  much  "  copy"  of  "the  most  interesting  discovery."  Of  course  it 
was  but  another  of  the  innumerable  Dutch  boxes  of  the  last  century  ;  but, 
of  course,  an  "  Armada  Chest  "  it  will  be,  as  long  as  Bath  has  a  Museum. 
Nonsensical  figments  like  this  die  hard. — THOMAS  DKEW,  V.  P. 

Interesting  Find  in  Moyntaghs,  Co.  Armagh. — We  learn  from  the 
Belfast  News-Letter  that  while  a  number  of  persons  were  engaged  in  May 
this  year  cutting  turf  in  Derrymacash,  about  2  miles  from  Lurgan,  and 
within  100  yards  of  Lough  JSeagh  shore,  a  large  urn-shaped  bronze 
vessel  was  unearthed  at  a  depth  of  nearly  10  feet.  The  vessel  is  now 
in  the  possession  of  Mr.  AVilliam  Livingston,  and  a  detailed  description 
has  been  prepared  for  the  Journal  by  Mr.  Winston  C.  Dugan  (Member), 
with  illustrations,  which  will  appear  in  next  issue.  The  body  of  the  urn 
is  formed  of  two  plates,  neatly  shaped,  and  rivetted  on  each  side.  The 
bottom  is  formed  out  of  a  third  piece,  shaped  to  fit  the  lower  part  of  the 
body,  to  which  it  is  similarly  rivetted.  Around  the  bottom  edge  are 
rivetted  six  corner  pieces,  thickened  below,  evidently  for  the  purpose  of 
strengthening  and  protecting  the  bottom  from  contact  with  the  ground. 
The  handles  are  formed  of  rings  of  solid  bronze,  angular  in  section,  and 
about  3^  inches  in  diameter.  The  height  of  the  vessel  is  13£  inches  ; 
diameter,  14  and  11 J  inches  at  widest  and  narrowest  parts;  weight, 
of  Ibs.  The  surface  of  the  interior  is  of  a  dark  colour  ;  the  exterior  has 
a  peculiarly  dull,  yellowish  tint  like  oxidised  brass.  Mr.  Magurran  is 
the  owner  of  the  moss  in  which  the  discovery  was  made,  and  the  "  find  " 
is  considered  extremely  interesting  owing  to  the  legends  associated  with 
the  district  and  the  southern  shores  of  Lough  Neagh. 

An  Old  School  in  Gralway.— The  Records  of  the  Irish  Privy  Council 
are  now  being  published,  and  they  contain  some  quaint  entries.  Thus 
we  find  the  following  concerning  the  opening  of  a  school  in  Gralway  in 
the  sixteenth  century  : — 

"  The  erection  of  a  school  at  Gal  way,  at  the  expense  of  '  one  Dominicke 
Linche,'  was  the  subject  of  a  letter  to  the  English  Privy  Council  in  the 
year  1569.  The  letter  is  a  long  one,  but  it  affords  some  rather  interest- 
ing extracts  illustrative  of  the  state  of  learning  in  the  West  at  the  time. 
The  writer,  after  referring  to  "the  greate  honestie  of  the  peticioner 
(Lynch),  together  with  the  rareness  of  Ids  request,"  pleaded  for  the 


grant  of  Crown  property,  valued  at  £8  11s.  Sd.  per  annum  for  the 
purposes  of  the  school,  and  proceeded  : — 

"  So  consideringe  that  he  and  the  inhabitants  are  contented  that  the 
schole  shall  take  erection  from  her  majestie,  and  her  highnes  and  her 
successors  to  have  the  nominacion  of  the  schole-m aster,  the  honour  of 
the  godly  foundacion,  especially  in  this  rude  and  barberowse  countiie, 
may  be  a  sufficient  pourchase  to  her  highnes  to  alienate  from  herself  so 
small  a  revenew  likely  to  confer  unto  her  hereafter  an  infinite  number 
of  lerned  honest  and  dewtifull  subjectes  of  all  sortes. 

"  Sure,  my  lordes,  the  great  want  of  civilitie,  espeeiallie  in  those 
partes  where  this  towne  is  planted  and  in  whose  walles  is  conteined  all 
the  dew  subjection  of  the  province  of  Conaught,  is  a  cawse  that  might 
move  your  lordshippes  to  a  comiseracion  of  this  estate  and  to  compell 
you  to  use  mediation  to  the  queenes  majestie  for  her  charitie  to  be  ex- 
tended to  so  good  and  Godlie  a  pourpose,  whereby  also  religion  should 
be  greatly  advanced,  for  throughe  lacke  thereof  I  see  the  discommoditie 
growings  by  the  careles  education  of  the  nobilitie  and  gentilmen  of 
those  partes  where  even  thei  of  the  best  bowses,  the  brothers  of  the 
erle  of  Clanricarde,  yea,  and  one  of  his  uncles  and  he  a  bysshop,  can 
neither  speake  nor  understand e  in  maner  any  thinge  of  ther  princes 
language,  which  language  by  the  old  statutes  of  Galwey  everie  man 
ought  to  learne  and  must  speake  before  he  can  be  admitted  to  any  office 
within  ther  corporacion. 

"  What  marvell  is  it  then  that  where  there  is  nether  religion,  lern- 
inge,  understandings,  nor  civilitie,  there  want  also  dew  obedience  and 
conformitie  to  thelawes.  All  which  by  this  meanes  may  take  encrease, 
if  it  please  her  most  excellent  majestie  to  become,  with  this  small 
charge,  the  founder  and  beginner  of  this  well-intended  enterprise,  the 
honour  whereof  shal  be  as  perpetuall  as  the  worke,  and  the  commoditie 
greate  to  her  people  but  most  to  her  excellencie  that  of  barberous 
uncivill  and  undewtifull  men  shall  reigne  over  a  nomber  of  lerned  dew- 
tifull arid  reformed  subjectes  hereafter. 

"  And  this  I  thoughte  my  parte  to  communicate  to  your  lordshippes, 
desiringe  that  this  private  sute  for  a  common  benefite  may  receive  your 
commendacions  to  the  queenes  most  excellent  majestie  and  that  1  may 
have  answere  of  her  highnes  resolucion  herein.  And  so  1  humbly  take 
my  leave.  At  Dublin,  the  xxth  of  May,  1569."-  RICHARD  J.  KELLY, 
Hon.  Secretary  North  Galway. 

St.  Patrick's  Bells. — The  following  paragraph,  which  appeared  in 
Trellarfs  Dublin  Journal  for  October  26th  to  29th,  1751,  possesses 
some  interest  at  the  present  time,  and  may  be  thought  not  unworthy  of 
insertion  in  our  "  Miscellanea"  : — 

"  We  hear  that  the  fine-toned  rings  of  bells  belonging  to  St.  Patrick's 


Cathedral,  Dublin,  which  that  ever  memorable  patriot,  the  Rev.  Dean 
Swift,  so  much  admired,  and  which  were  always  held  in  high  estima- 
tion among  all  true  lovers  of  harmony,  will  be  rung  out  on  some  solemn 
occasion.  It  is  to  be  noted  that  these  bells  were  cast  very  near  to  St. 
Patrick's  steeple,  wherein  they  now  hang,  and  that,  in  the  opinion 
of  the  most  knowing  in  the  art  of  ringing  they  are  equal  in  a 
melodious  and  tuneable  sound  to  any  that  were  ever  imported  into  this 
kingdom.  As  they  are  of  Irish  manufacture,  it  is  not  doubted  that  the 
ringers  will  exert  the  utmost  of  their  skill  which  will  give  great  satis- 
faction to  all  who  delight  in  that  exhilarating  music." — F.  ELRINGTON 

Milk  Adulteration. — Prosecutions  for  the  adulteration  of  milk  were 
not  unknown  in  Dublin  more  than  one  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago. 
In  looking  over  Pue's  Occurrences,  I  came  across  the  following  paragraph 
in  the  issue  for  October  10  to  14,  1732: — "  Mary  Barrett  was  found 
guilty  for  putting  22  quarts  of  water  to  44  quarts  of  milk,  and  this  day 
stood  in  the  pillory  opposite  to  the  Tholsel  for  the  same." — F.  ELTUNGTON 

An  Irish  Easter  Legend. — Being  in  the  north-west  of  Ireland  last 
summer,  on  the  borders  of  Sligo  and  Donegal,  I  chanced  upon  a  famous 
Shanachie,  or  story-teller,  an  Irish- speaking  peasant,  who  possessed  an 
almost  inexhaustible  fund  of  traditional,  historical,  and  legendary  lore, 
and  whose  manner  of  relating  his  stories  was  so  graphic  that  each  scene 
seemed  to  pass  before  his  own  and  his  listeners'  eyes.  Amongst  the 
legends  he  told  was  one  which  is  now  very  rare,  being,  as  far  as  I  am 
aware,  known  only  to  Irish- speaking  people,  and  even  to  few  amongst 
these,  though  the  sculptured  tomb  bearing  the  pictured  representation  of 
the  story  being  found  in  Kilree  churchyard,  almost  in  the  extreme 
farthest  part  of  Ireland  from  Donegal,  would  seem  to  show  that  in 
olden  times  the  legend  was  popular  throughout  Ireland. 

The  old  story  represented  by  "  a  cock  in  a  pot,  crowing,"  was  told 
me  by  the  STianachie  as  follows  : — 

"  It  was  at  the  time  when  our  Saviour  was  in  the  grave,  and  that 
the  soldiers  who  were  set  to  watch  the  tomb  were  sitting  round  a  fire 
they  had  lighted.  They  had  killed  a  cock  and  put  it  in  a  pot  on  the 
fire  to  boil  for  their  supper;  and,  as  they  sat  arounJ,  they  spoke  together 
of  the  story  that  was  told — how  He  that  was  in  the  tomb  they  were 
guarding  had  prophesied  that  before  three  days  were  passed  He  would 
rise  again  from  the  dead.  And  one  of  the  men  said,  in  mockery  :  «  He 
will  rise  as  sure  as  the  cock  that  is  in  that  boiling  pot  will  crow  again.' 
No  sooner  were  the  words  spoken  than  the  lid  of  the  pot  burst  open,  the 
•cock  flew  on  to  the  edge,  flapped  his  wings,  sprinkling  the  soldiers  with 


the  boiling  Avater,  then    crowed  three  times,   and  what  he   said  each 

time  was  :— 

'  Moc  an  o-o-o-ye,  slaun  ! 
Moc  an  o-o-o-ye,  slaun ! ' l 

That  is,  '  Son  of  the  Virgin,  Hail ! '  and  ever  since  that  hour  this  is 
what  the  cock  crows  :  this  is  what  we  hear  him  say,  and  if  you  listen 
you,  too,  can  hear  the  very  words  : — 

'  Moc  an  o-o-o-ye,  slaun  ! '  ' 

I  spell  the  sound  of  the  Irish  phonetically  to  try  and  imitate  the 
peculiar  softening  of  the  words  as  an  Irish  speaker  softens  them,  the 
prolonging  out  of  the  o-o-o  sounding  almost  precisely  like  the  bird's 
crow  heard  from  a  distance.  At  least  so  it  has  always  sounded  in 
my  ears  since  I  heard  this  beautiful  legend. — M."B. 

1  "ITIac  an  Oig,  r-ldn!" 


[NOTE. — Those  marked  *  are  by  Members  of  the  Society.^ 

*  Prehistoric  Problems :  being  a  selection  of  Essays  on  the  Evolution  of  Man 
and  other  controverted  problems  in  Anthropology  and  Archeology.  By 
Robert  Munro,  M.D.,  Secretary  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of 
Scotland  ;  Hon.  Member  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy  and  of  the 
Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Ireland,  &c. 

THIS  is  another  valuable  contribution  from  our  esteemed  Hon.  Fellow, 
Dr.  Munro,  to  antiquarian  knowledge.  His  recent  visit  to  Bosnia, 
Herzegovina,  and  Dalmatia,  so  vividly  described,  will  be  remembered 
by  many  readers  with  lasting  interest  from  its  conYbination  of  research, 
keen  observation,  and  picturesque  sketches;  and  this  "Prehistoric 
Problems,"  if  more  strictly  scientific,  will  equally  repay  attentive 

The  central  Paper  of  the  present  volume  to  the  allied  studies  of 
Anthropology  and  Archeology,  illustrates  Dr.  Munro' s  views  respecting 
human  development  in  prehistoric  times,  attributing  to  the  acquisition 
of  erect  posture,  at  some  admittedly  very  remote  epoch,  all  subsequent 
advances  that  have  taken  place  in  the  growth  of  brain  tissue,  and  con- 
sequent progress  of  .our  race  from  higher-class  apes  to  the  highest  grade 
reached  by  modern  civilization.  In  following  up  his  train  of  reasoning,  he 
discusses  the  principal  examples  of  crania  found  in  sedimentary  deposits, 
caves,  &c.,  from  Canstatt,  Cromagnou,  Engis,  Clichy,  Spy,  and  elsewhere, 
up  to  the  very  recent  observations  of  Dubois  on  the  Java  specimen,  termed 
"  Pithecanthropus  erectus,"  which  was  shown  by  its  discoverer  recently 
in  this  city,  as  well  as  at  many  scientific  centres  in  England  and  on  the 
Continent,  and  fully  examined  by  scientists,  together  with  the  thigh- 
bone and  large-sized  tooth,  considered  by  Dubois  to  belong  to  the  same 
individual,  and,  at  least,  found  in  the  same  geologic  positions.  Dr. 
Munro  has  given  brief  but  accurate  available  summaries  of  the  reliable 
facts  bearing  on  each  of  these  finds,  which  can  be  studied  by  those  who 
desire  to  approach  the  investigation  of  this  difficult  question  in  full 
possession  of  all  the  reliable  circumstances  yet  ascertained,  from  which 
they  may  form  their  own  deductions.  Thus  it  becomes  serviceable  alike 
for  advanced  thinkers,  and  for  that  wider  section  of  readers  who  desire 
to  keep  their  stores  of  information  abreast  of  modern  investigations 
lespecting  the  abstruse  problem  of  how  man  obtained  his  distinctive 
characteristics,  and  gained  his  admitted  pre-eminence  over  other  animals. 

The  preliminary  pages  are  devoted  to  a  history  of  Palaeolithic  Man, 


and  all  that  is  yet  ascertained  of  his  special  progress  towards  civilization  ; 
his  geographical  distribution  and  environments,  such  as  contemporaneous 
existence  with  tribes  of  animals  known  to  be  long  extinct,  especially 
in  Europe.  This,  likewise,  may  be  described  as  a  summary  of  facts 
and  observations  relating  to  such  subjects  scattered  over  many  works, 
British  and  foreign,  the  result  of  long  continued  researches,  under 
varying  circumstances,  by  numerous  scientists,  brought  up  to  date  by 
Dr.  Munro's  investigations;  for  he  enjoyed  tbe  advantage  of  being  able 
to  visit,  and  personally  study,  every  important  find  bearing  on  Prehistoric 
Man,  in  almost  every  museum  of  Europe. 

Nor  must  his  other  essays  be  overlooked,  such  as  one  on  the  curious 
subject  of  "  Skull  Trephining,"  removing  during  life,  or  after  death, 
portions  of  the  bony  covering  of  the  human  brain,  possibly  attempts 
to  cure  diseases,  or  to  relieve  the  consequences  of  injuries ;  and,  strange 
.as  it  may  seem,  it  is  suggested,  with  much  probability,  employing  these 
detached  pieces  of  human  bone  for  amulets  and  charms.  In  pursuit  of 
this  investigation,  Dr.  Munro  has,  for  several  years,  collected  scattered 
facts  from  various  sources,  and  added  to  them,  by  his  own  inquiries, 
several  important  additional  observations,  so  that  at  present  a  new 
chapter  on  the  past  history  of  our  race  has  resulted.  Up  to  the  present 
no  such  artifically  perforated  skulls  are  known  in  Ireland  referable  to 
prehistoric  or  early  historic  times,  though  cranial  injuries  are  not 
unfrequent,  and  a  large  number  of  perforating  wounds  of  the  skull  were 
found  in  the  remains  of  the  great  Donnybrook  massacre  amongst  its  700 
or  800  victims. 

Respecting  another  Paper,  describing  the  wooden  implements  pro- 
visionally called  "  Otters."  It  contains  an  exhaustive  summary  of  all 
yet  ascertained  about  their  archeology.  This  country  had  the  merit  of 
contributing  the  first  published  example  of  these  objects,  one  of  which 
was  figured  and  described  in  an  early  volume  of  the  first  series  of  the 
Ulster  Journal  of  Archaeology,  found  in  the  parish  of  Aghadowey,  county 
Deny.  The  description  and  drawing  there  given  are  alike  valuable,  but 
the  conflicting  opinions  about  its  probable  uses  are  amusing.  By  some  it 
was  supposed  to  be  designed  to  catch  fish,  which  is,  indeed,  we  believe, 
its  real  intention  ;  again  it  was  thought  to  form  some  kind  of  pump  ;  to 
be  intended  to  mould  "sods  of  turf,"  a  material  better  known  out  of 
Ireland  as  "peat";  or  even  applicable  for  a  "  cheese-press."  Since 
this  time  several  examples  were  found  imbedded  deep  in  peaty  deposits 
in  many  continental  countries  from  Germany  to  Italy.  One,  which  was 
found  in  Wales,  was  supposed  to  be  a  "  musical  instrument,"  for  what 
reason  it  is  difficult  to  surmise. 

Dr.  Munro  has  long  devoted  his  studies  to  these  traps,  and,  finally, 
Ireland  has  topped  the  record,  no  less  than  nine  specimens  being  recently 
got  imbedded  in  peaty  bog,  at  Larkhill,  county  Fermanagh,  near  Castle- 
caldwell,  on  the  estate  of  the  late  J.  C.  Bloomfield,  Esq. 

NOTICES    OF   BOOKS.  197 

Mr.  Hugh  Allingham,  of  Ballyshannon,  deserves  the  credit  of 
thoroughly  working  out  the  history  of  these  finds,  of  which  he  has 
published  an  account  in  this  Journal  for  1896,  p.  379.  They  have,  thanks 
to  him,  found  a  resting-place  in  the  Museum  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy. 
Another  specimen  of  one  of  these  traps  is  preserved  in  the  collection  of 
the  late  Canon  Grainger.  We  call  attention  to  these  Irish  specimens, 
for  it  settles  the  suggestion  that  they  were  used  to  snare  "  beavers," 
for  the  beaver  was  at  no  time  an  inhabitant  of  this  country.  It 
would  be  almost  as  difficult  to  understand  how  otters,  or  wild  fowl, 
could  be  caught  with  such  affairs.  We  are  disposed  to  the  simpler 
conclusion  of  their  being  intended  to  catch  pike  of  large  size  by 
night-lines.  If  we  are  informed  aright,  somewhat  similar  arrangements 
of  baited  hooks  attached  to  a  board  were  used  in  the  English  lakes,  and 
in  some  parts  of  Ireland  not  many  years  since,  by  poachers  ;  if  so,  the 
name  "Otter"  would  signify  something  equally  destructive  to  fish  at 
night,  as  that  quadruped  or  the  poacher  himself. 

Two  other  Papers,  on  Bone  Skates  and  on  Prehistoric  Saws  and 
Sickles,  are  deserving  of  mention,  the  latter  possessing  for  us  local 
claims,  for  whilst  bone  skates  are  undescribed  here,  and  in  England 
confined  to  a  small  coast  district,  extending  along  the  eastern  shoreland 
from  London  to  York,  they  are  abundant  in  Holland,  Denmark,  and 
North  Germany.  On  the  other  hand,  Ulster  has  yielded,  in  comparative 
abundance,  knives  with  serrated  edges,  made  from  flint ;  and  flakes  of  the 
same  material,  "  so  serrated  at  the  edge,  that  a  person  at  once  comes  to 
the  conclusion  that  they  had  been  prepared  as  saws,"  as  our  Fellow, 
W.  J.  Knowles,  has  stated;  and  also  these  "  hollow  scrapers,"  with 
neatly- worked  edges  in  the  form  of  a  semicircle,  which  appear  to  belong 
specially  to  our  flint  districts,  with  rare  exceptions,  together  with  those 
Dr.  Munro  groups,  the  well-known  toothed  flint  weapons  from  Scandi- 
navia, bronze  saws  (very  rare  with  us),  and  sickles  of  bronze  and  iron. 
It  will  appear,  from  this  brief  notice,  that  a  series  of  articles,  requiring 
patient  study,  and  abounding  in  archgeologic  research,  are  placed  at  our 
disposal  in  these  pages,  for  which  we  thank  its  author,  and  would  ask 
for  more  at  his  hands. 

W.  F. 

JOUR.  R.S.A.I.,  VOL.  VII.,   *"T.  II.,  5lH  SEH. 


THE  SECOND  GENERAL  MEETING  of  the  Society  for  the  year  1897  was 
held  (by  permission  of  the  Mayor)  in  the  Council  Chamber  of  the 
Tholsel,  Kilkenny,  on  Monday,  19th  April,  1897,  at  1  o'clock,  p.m.  ; 

COLONEL  PHILIP  DOYNE  VIGORS,  J.P.,  Vice-President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  following  took  part  in  the  proceedings  : — 

Felloivs :— The  Rev.  J.  F.  M.  ffrench,  M.R.I.A.,  Vice- President ;  Robert  Cochrane, 
F.S.A.,  M.R.I. A.,  Hon.  General  Secretary  and  Treasurer ;  G.  D.  Burtchaell,  M.A., 
M.R.I. A.,  Assistant  Secretary  and  Treasurer  ;  Richard  Colles,  B.A.  ;  John  Cooke,  M.A.  ; 
Patrick  M.  Egan;  Richard  Langrishe,  F.R.I.A.I.  ;  the  Rev.  Patrick  Power;  Edward 
Perceval  Wright,  M.A.,  M.D.,  M.R.I. A. 

Members: — J.  St.  Clair  Boyd,  M.D.  ;  M.  J.  C.  Buckley;  Miss  Byrne;  John 
Carolan,  J.P.  ;  Major  J.  H.  Connellan,  J.P.,  D.L.  ;  John  Commins  ;  Miss  Field; 
Arthur  Hade,  C.E.  ;  the  Rev.  Canon  Hewson,  B.A.  ;  M.  W.  Lalor ;  E.  W.  Love- 
grove,  M.A.  ;  Mrs.  M'Donnell;  Patrick  O'Leary ;  P.  J.  O'Reilly  ;  N.  Power  O'Shee, 
J.P.,  D.L.  ;  Thomas  Rice;  P.  Shannon;  the  Rev.  T.  R.  Walsh,  P.P.  ;  R.  Blah- 
White  ;  W.  Grove  White,  LL.B.  ;  Miss  K.  E.  Younge. 

The  Hon.  Secretary  read  a  letter  from  the  Right  Hon.  0' Conor  Don, 
President  of  the  Society,  regretting  his  inability  to  be  present. 

The  Chairman  said  that,  before  they  commenced  the  proceedings,  he 
should  like  to  give  expression  to  their  regret  at  the  enforced  absence  of 
their  President,  0' Conor  Don.  The  utmost  importance  was  attached  to 
these  local  meetings,  as,  owing  to  them,  the  increased  interest  taken  in 
archaeology  through  the  country  had  been  very  marked  ;  and  he  thought 
they  might  attribute  the  non-destruction  of  a  large  number  of  our  old 
buildings  and  the  preservation  of  others,  as  well  as  the  recovery  of  a 
great  many  articles  of  immense  value  to  the  spread  of  the  light  that  was 
now  taking  place  throughout  the  land.  They  had  also,  within  quite  a 
recent  period,  new  local  societies  in  connexion  with  their  society,  started, 
such  as  in  Waterford,  Cork,  Belfast,  and,  coming  nearer  home,  Kildare  ; 
and  last,  but  not  least,  he  saw  that  one  had  recently  been  started  in 
Limerick.  There  were  other  counties  rich  in  archaeological  interest,  such 
as  Galway  and  Londonderry,  and  he  hoped  that  they  would  follow  the 
good  example  set  by  those  places  he  had  mentioned.  He  attached  much 
importance  to  local  museums,  and  he  was  glad  to  see  the  work  that  had 
been  done  in  this  direction.  His  own  county  town  (Carlow),  amongst 
the  number,  had  started  a  museum  in  the  town  hall,  for  which  a  grant 
was  made  by  the  town  commissioners.  He  thought  that  the  work  in 
which  they  were  engaged  did  not  rest  solely  with  Members.  Outsiders, 
who  did  not  belong  to  the  Society,  might  assist  a  great  deal  in  carrying 


out  the  objects  they  had  in  view.  There  was  no  one  who  was  not  aware 
of  the  injury  that  had  been  done  to  castles  and  abbeys,  in  which  this 
country  was  so  rich.  Now,  that  should  be  put  a  stop  to  if  possible,  and 
objects  of  interest  should  be  brought  under  the  notice  of  the  Secretary 
of  the  Society,  or  a  local  Member  where  possible.  He  was  sure  the 
Council  would  be  only  too  glad  to  receive  information  from  any  person 
relating  to  any  object  of  interest,  or  dealing  with  injuries  to  existing 
ancient  buildings.  In  conclusion  the  Chairman  said  that  the  Society 
was  especially  indebted  to  the  Press  for  spreading  the  light. 

The  Minutes  of  the  Annual  General  Meeting  were  then  read  and 

The    following    Candidates,    recommended    by   the    Council,    were 

unanimously  elected : — 


Frost,  James,  M.R.I. A..,  j. p.  (Member,  1871),  54,  George-street,  Limerick:  pro- 
posed by  Robert  Cochrane,  F.S.A.,  Hon.  General  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

M'Chesney,  Joseph  (Member,  1890),  Holywood,  Co.  Down :  proposed  by  Francis 
Joseph  Bigger,  M.U.I. A.,  Fellow. 

O'Donoghue,  Charles,  J.P.,  Ballinahown  Court,  Athlone :  proposed  by  W.  P. 
Kelly,  Fellow. 


Archdall,  Right  Rev.  Mervyn,  D.D.,  Bishop  of  Killaloe,  Clarisford  House, 
Killaloe  :  proposed  by  the  Very  Rev.  Robert  Humphreys,  M.A.,  Dean  of  Killaloe, 

Bain,  Andrew,  D.I.,R.I.C.,  Newcastle  "West,  Co.  Limerick  :  proposed  by  Thomas 
Hayes,  c.i.,  R.I.C. 

Berry,  Hugh  F.,  B.A.,  16,  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  and  Mourne  House,  Fortwilliam 
Park,  Belfast:  proposed  by  the  Rev.  Professor  Stokes,  D.D.,  M.R.I. A. 

Burke,  Rev.  Thomas,  P.P.,  Ballindereen,  Kilcolgan,  Co.  Galway :  proposed  by 
the  Very  Rev.  J.  Fahey,  P.P.,  V.F. 

Burke,  Rev.  W.  P.,  Catherine- street,  Waterford:  proposed  by  the  Rev.  P.  Power, 

Campbell,  A.  Albert,  Solicitor,  2,  Lawrence-street,  Belfast :  proposed  by  D.  J. 

Caruth,  'Norman  C.,  Solicitor,  Ballymena  :  proposed  by  W.  J.  Knowles,  Vice- 

Crosthwait,  Rev.  Edward,  B.A.,  The  Lodge,  Bagnalstown :  proposed  by  Colonel 
P.  D.  Vigors,  Vice- President. 

Cummins,  John,  Desart,  Cuffe's  Grange,  Kilkenny :  proposed  by  the  Rev.  Canon 
Hewson,  B.A. 

Drummond,  Michael,  M.A.,  Q.C.,  51,  Lower  Baggot-street,  Dublin  :  proposed  by 
G.  A.  P.  Kelly,  M.A.,  Fellow. 

Fenton,  Rev.  C.  O'Connor,  B.A.,  105,  Botanic-road,  Liverpool:  proposed  by  Mrs. 

Fletcher,  Rev.  Victor  J.,  it. A.,   Malahide :  proposed  by  the  Rev.  Professor  Stokes, 

D.D.,  M.R.I. A. 

Frewen,  William,  Solicitor,  Nelson-street,  Tipperary  :  proposed  by  the  Rev. 
Denis  Hanan,  D.D. 

Gleeson,  Michael,  Crown  Solicitor,  Nenagh  :  proposed  by  the  Very  Rev.  Robert 
Humphreys,  M.A.,  Dean  of  Killaloe,  Fellow. 

Glynn,  William,  J.P.,  Kilrush  :  proposed  by  Bartholomew  O'Hennessy. 

Greer,  Thomas  Mac  Gregor,  Solicitor,  Ballymoney  :  proposed  by  W.  Grove 
White,  LL.B. 

Hartigan,  P.,  Castleconnell :  proposed  by  O'Donovan,  Fellow. 

Hennessy,  Bryan,  South-street,  New  Ross:  proposed  by  P.  A.  Pope,  Fellow. 

Kiernan,  Mrs.,  Leitrim  Lodge,  Dalkey  :  proposed  by  Miss  Banim. 


Kiernan,  Thomas,  Leitrim  Lodge,  Dalkey  :  proposed  by  Miss  Banim. 

Limerick  Institution,  The  Hon.  Secretary  of,  99,  George -street,  Limerick  :  pro- 
posed by  P.  J.  Lynch,  Fellow. 

M'Cann,  David,  Manager,  National  Bank,  Kilkenny  :  proposed  by  M.  M. 
Murphy,  M.R.I. A.,  Fellow. 

M'Cormick,  "William,  M.A.,  Ardnaree,  Monkstown,  Co.  Dublin :  proposed  by  the 
Rev.  J.  W.  R.  Campbell,  M.A. 

M'Donnell,  Mrs.,  68,  Rathgar-road,  Dublin:  proposed  by  John  Carolan,  J.P. 

Molony,  Henry  G.,  M.D.,  Odellville,  Ballingarry :  proposed  by  George  James 
Hewson,  M.A.,  Fellow. 

Mulqueen,  John  T.,  Inspector,  Inland  Revenue,  Nairn,  N.B.  :  proposed  by 
Samuel  Scott. 

Munce,  James,  ASSOC.  M.  INST.  C.E,  Alexandra  Park,  Holywood,  Co.  Down  :  pro- 
posed by  Joseph  M 'Cheney. 

Murphy,  Miss,  77,  Ulverton-road,  Dalkey  :  proposed  by  Miss  Banim. 

Murray,  J.  W.  Brady,  B.A.,  Barrister-at- Law,  J.P.,  Northampton  House,  Kinvara  : 
proposed  by  R.  J.  Kelly,  B.L.,  J.P. 

Nason,  William  H.,  M. A.,  42,  Dawson-street,  Dublin:  proposed  by  George  D. 
Burtchaell,  M.A.,  M.R.I. A.,  Fellow. 

O'Connell,  Rev.  Daniel,  B.D.,  c.c.,  81,  Quay,  "Waterford  :  proposed  by  the  Rev. 
P.  Power,  Fellow. 

O'Connor,  M.  J.,  Solicitor,  2,  George -street,  Wexford  :  proposed  by  G.  E.  J.- 
Greene, M.A.,  sc.  D.,  Fellow. 

O'Duffy,  John,  Dental  Surgeon,  54,  Rutland -square,  Dublin  :  proposed  by 
G.  D.  Burtchaell,  M.A.,  M.R.I.A.,  Fellow. 

Rice,  Thomas,  5,  Carlisle-street,  Dublin:  proposed  by  George  Healy,  J.P. 

Roberts,  Edward,  M.A.,  H.  M.  Inspector  of  Schools,  Plas  Maesinda,  Carnarvon  : 
proposed  by  the  Rev.  Canon  D.  Jones,  M.A. 

Russell,  William,  c/o  Foster,  Green,  &  Co.,  High-street,  Belfast :  proposed  by 
S.  F.  Milligan,  Vice -President. 

Smyth,  Thomas,  2,  Lower  Ormond-quay,  Dublin  :  proposed  by  George  Healy,  J.P. 

Spaight,  Colonel  W.  F.,  Union  Hall,  Leap,  Co.  Cork :  proposed  by  0' Donovan, 

Thomas,  W.  J.,  Mullingar:  proposed  by  the  Rev.  Sterling  de  Courcy  "Williams,  M.A. 


The  Auditors'  Report  and  Statement  of  Accounts  for  the  year  1896 
was  read,  showing  a  balance  to  credit  for  the  year  ended  December  last 
of  £38  Us.  6d.  The  capital  account  now  amounts  to  £1,000  invested 
in  2f  Consols  in  the  name  of  the  trustees. 

Mr.  Cooke,  one  of  the  Auditors,  moved  the  adoption  of  the  Report. 
He  had  examined  the  accounts  of  the  Society  for  several  years,  and  there 
was  no  doubt  of  the  highly  satisfactory  state  in  which  they  now  were. 
There  was  not  only  a  balance  to  credit,  but  they  had  also  a  capital  sum 
£1,000.  The  Society,  they  knew,  published  a  Journal,  which  ranked 
amongst  the  best  of  the  journals  in  the  United  Kingdom,  and  was  cheaper 
than  any  other  journal  he  knew.  In  addition  to  that  they  brought  out 
an  annual  volume.  Although  the  Members  had  increased  slightly,  the 
expenses  of  supplying  the  Journal  and  the  annual  volume  kept  up  a 
heavy  expenditure.  He  had  only  to  say  in  conclusion  that  the  accounts 
of  the  Society  could  not  possibly  be  better  kept.  From  the  way  the 
financial  statement,  vouchers,  and  documents,  were  presented  to  him  and 
his  colleague,  they  had  the  highest  appreciation  of  the  manner  in  which 
Mr.  Cochrane  did  his  duty,  ably  seconded  by  Mr.  Burtchaell. 



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Mr.  Egan  seconded  the  motion.  He  said  that  the  large  sum  to  the 
capital  account  was  a  very  fair  indication  of  the  stability  of  the  Society, 
and,  he  thought,  was  a  reason  for  congratulation  on  behalf  of  the  Society, 
and  a  source  of  thanks  to  the  officials  and  to  the  Council.  If  the  trans- 
actions of  the  Society  had  not  been  very  well  managed  such  a  creditable 
state  of  affairs  would  not  exist. 

The  motion  was  passed  unanimously. 

Mr.  M.  M.  Murphy,  Fellow,  whose  name  was  down  on  the  notice  to 
read  a  Paper  on  "  Sir  Biehard  Shee's  Alms-house,  Kilkenny,"  wrote  as 
follows  : — 

"It  is  stated  in  the  Programme  that  I  will  read  a  Paper  on  'Sir  Richard 
Shee's  Alms-house.'  I  did  say  I  would  read  a  Paper  on  'The  Museum  and 
Sir  Richard  Shee's  Alms-house,'  of  a  purely  historical,  character,  but  owing  to 
the  correspondence  which  recently  appeared  in  the  newspapers,  I  consider  it 
advisable  to  hold  over  this  Paper  until  our  next  Meeting." 

Mr.  Burtchaell,  Fellow,  explained  that,  owing  to  pressure  of  business, 
he  had  not  time  to  prepare  his  promised  Paper  on  "Kells  in  Ossory." 

The  following  Paper  was  read  (by  Mr.  Burtchaell),  and  referred  to 
the  Council : — 

"  The  Rangers  of  the  Curragh  of  Kildare,"  by  Lord  Walter  Fitz  Gerald,  M.K.I.A., 
Vice- President. 

The  following  Paper,  on  the  list,  was  referred  to  the  Council : — 
"Ardfert  Friary    and   the    Fitz  Maurices,   Lords  of  Kerry"    (concluded],  by 
Miss  Hickson. 

The  following  notice  of  motion  was  handed  in  by  Mr.  Langrishe,  to 
be  submitted  to  the  next  General  Meeting  to  be  held  at  Lismore,  county 
Waterford,  on  the  12th  of  June  next : — 

"  That  as  the  Science  and  Art  Department  of  the  Committee  of  Council  for 
Education  have,  by  their  letter  of  the  10th  day  of  April,  intimated  that  they  will 
not  accept  the  care  of  the  collection  of  objects  now  placed  in  the  Museum  at 
Kilkenny,  the  care  of  the  said  collection  be  vested  in  a  Committee  of  not  more 
than  nine  Fellows  or  Members  of  this  Society,  to  be  hereafter  named,  with  power 
to  appoint  one  of  their  number  as  Secretary,  such  Committee  to  be  elected 
annually  at  the  General  Meeting  in  January  of  each  year ;  and  that  the  sum  of 
£10  per  annum  be  paid  to  such  Committee  by  the  Treasurer  on  or  before  the  1st 
day  of  February  in  each  year,  provided  that  suitable  rooms,  for  housing  the  said 
collection,  shall  have  been  obtained  in  Kilkenny,  and  proper  arrangements  for 
conserving  and  exhibiting  the  same  shall  have  been  made  by  the  said  Committee 
to  the  satisfaction  of  the  Council  of  this  Society." 

The  Meeting  then  adjourned  for  luncheon,  at  two  o'clock  ;  and,  at 
three  o'clock,  various  places  of  interest  in  the  city  were  visited,  under 
the  guidance  of  Mr.  Egan.  The  Members  then  returned  to  the  Club 
House  Hotel,  where  dinner  was  served  at  6.30. 



Ten  Members  of  the  Society  dined  at  the  Club  House  Hotel  at 
7  o'clock,  after  which  the  Evening  Meeting  was  held  at  8  o'clock. 

The  Chairman  mentioned  that  the  Eight  Rev.  W.  Pakenham 
Walsh,  D.D.,  Bishop  of  Ossory,  had  asked  him  to  express  his  regret  at 
not  being  able  to  be  present  at  their  meeting,  and  to  say  that,  were  it  not 
for  the  state  of  his  health,  it  would  have  afforded  him  great  pleasure 
to  be  there 

Dr.  Wright  read  a  Paper  by  Mr.  G.  H.  Kinahan,  M.E.I.A.,  Fellow, 
on  "Ancient  Otter-traps,"  which  was  referred  to  the  Council  for 

Mr.  Cochrane  read  a  Paper  by  Mr.  H.  T.  Knox,  M.R.I. A.,  on  "  Castle 
Hag,  in  Lough  Mask,"  which  was  also  referred  to  the  Council  for 


Some  interesting  exhibits  were  laid  on  the  table  for  the  inspection  of 
the  Members. 

Mr.  W.  F.  Budds,  J.P.,  sent  the  following : — Long  bronze  ear-ring  date 
unknown,  found  at  Courtstown  Castle ;  Caraccas  silver  coin,  1  oz.  in 
weight;  coins  of  the  reign  of  James  II.,  1689;  bronze  axe,  9  oz.  in 
weight,  found  in  a  bog  near  Athy. 

Mr.  Langrishe  exhibited  some  documents,  one  being  a  patent  of 
George  II.,  dated  1739,  to  Robert  Langrishe  as  sheriff  of  the  county 
Kilkenny,  also  the  appointment  of  Samuel  Millbank  as  sub-sheriff  by 
Robert  Langrishe,  same  date,  and  Samuel  Millbank's  bond  to  Robert 
Langrishe  for  £2,000  for  performing  the  duties,  and  a  deed  with  three 
impressions  of  the  seal  of  John  Langrishe,  who  was  the  county  high 
sheriff  in  1696. 

Mr.  !N".  Power  O'Shee  exhibited  an  original  patent  for  the  O'Shee 
coat-of-arms  dated  1582,  and  a  Bull  of  Pope  Urban  VIII.,  dated  1636, 
to  Peter  Archer,  Pastor  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Church,  Kilkenny,  to  erect 
a  cathedral  church  in  Kilkenny  under  the  patronage  of  the  O'Shee 
family,  and  which  was  never  built.  He  also  showed  the  cartulary  of 
Sir  Richard  Shee,  containing  an  interesting  record  of  some  of  the  great 
families  in  the  counties  of  Kilkenny  and  Tipperary  who  were  pursued  as 
rebels  by  Lord  Thomas  de  Rokeby  in  1346,  the  expenses  of  the  expedi- 
tion being  stated,  and  also  contains,  under  the  sign  manual  of  Sir  William 
Drury,  Queen  Elizabeth's  Lieutenant  in  Ireland  at  the  time,  a  certificate 
as  to  the  authenticity  of  each  of  the  documents.  Another  exhibit  was 
an  index  to  the  foregoing,  containing  the  genealogy  of  the  O'Shee  family. 
Mr.  O'Shee  further  showed  an  original  duplicate  of  the  will  of  Sir 
Richard  Shee,  dated  1604,  one  of  the  three  copies  made  for  Sir  Richard's 
three  sons ;  a  lament,  in  Irish,  for  Richard  Power  of  Gardenmorris, 
composed  by  one  of  his  female  relatives ;  a  deed  of  sale  of  Sir  Richard 
Shee's  hospital,  as  the  almshouse  in  Rose  Inn-street  was  then  called,  to 


a  merchant  in  Waterford,  by  Edmond  Shee,  and  another  deed  of  its 
repurchase,  in  1779,  by  the  present  Mr.  O'Shee's  grandfather,  John 
O'Shee,  who  bought  it  for  £20  when  it  was  in  ruins. 

Mr.  Blair  White  proposed  a  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Langrishe,  Mr. 
Power  O'Shee,  and  Mr.  Budds,  for  their  interesting  and  instructive 

Mr.  O'Reilly  seconded  the  vote  of  thanks,  which  was  passed. 

The  Chairman  said  that  it  gave  a  zest  to  their  meetings  to  have  such 
exhibits  as  those  which  they  had  seen  brought  forward,  and  he  hoped 
that,  on  future  occasions,  local  gentlemen  who  had  objects  of  this  kind 
under  a  bushel,  as  it  were,  would  produce  them  for  the  inspection  of 

The  Society  then  adjourned  until  its  next  Meeting,  at  Lismore,  on 
12th  June. 


On  Tuesday  morning,  April  20th,  several  Members  started  from  the 
Club  House  Hotel  on  the  Excursion  which  had  been  arranged  in  con- 
nexion with  the  Kilkenny  Meeting.  They  first  visited  Kells  and  the  Priory, 
where  Mr.  Egan  gave  a  short  account  of  the  history  of  the  Canons  Regular 
of  St.  Augustine  at  Kells,  after  which  some  time  was  spent  in  examining 
the  ruins  and  monuments.  Luncheon  was  provided  under  the  shelter  of 
the  central  tower.  The  party  left  at  two  o'clock  for  Kilree,  where  they 
visited  the  ruined  Celtic  church,  which  contains  amongst  other  tombs  an 
elaborately  sculptured  one  of  Richard  Cornerford,  of  Danganmore,  who 
died  in  1612,  on  the  side  slab  of  which  are  sculptured  the  emblems  of 
our  Lord's  Passion,  and  a  representation  of  a  cock  with  extended  wings 
crowing  on  the  edge  of  a  pot,  somewhat  similar  to  that  depicted  on  the 
tomb  of  Edmond  Purcell  in  St.  Canice's  Cathedral.  Mr.  Langrishe  here 
read  an  account  sent  to  him  by  Miss  Banim,  Member,  of  a  legend 
referring  to  this  which  she  had  heard  from  an  old  Irish-speaking  story- 
teller in  county  Donegal  last  year.  After  examining  this  very  interesting 
church  with  its  later  chancel,  the  round  tower  standing  to  the  north-west 
of  which  within  the  graveyard,  and  the  ancient  Celtic  cross  standing 
about  fifty  yards  to  the  west  in  the  adjoining  field,  the  party  proceeded 
to  Aghaviller,  situate  in  the  demesne  of  Castle  Morres,  where  they 
inspected  the  fourteenth-century  house  and  the  remains  of  the  round 
tower  standing  in  the  graveyard.  Proceeding  by  Sheepstown,  they 
visited  the  ancient  church  which  has  been  illustrated  in  the  Journal  of 
the  Society,  and  here  a  Paper  by  Mr.  Murphy  was  read  giving  the 
references  to  this  church  in  the  "  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters"  and  other 
documents.  The  excursion  party  returned  by  way  of  Kells,  arriving  at 
6  p.m.,  completing  the  whole  programme,  notwithstanding  the  wetness 
of  the  day. 

(JouR.  R.S.A.I.,  VOL.  VII.,  FIFTH  SERIES,  1897.; 

In  description  of  Plates  I.,  II.,  III.,  and  IV.,  pages  3,  5,  7,  and  9,  for 
"one-fourth  size,"  read  " half  linear. " 

In  Plates  V.  and  VI.,  pages  11  and  13,  for  "two-fifths  natural  size,"  read 
' '  three-fourths  linear. ' ' 

For  "  one-fourth  size,"  under  figure  50,  p.  15,  read  "natural  size." 




FOR   THE   YEAR   1897. 


BY  DR.  S.  A.  D'ARCY,  MEMBER. 

PART    I. 

"17"  ILLY  VILLA  LAKH,  in  which  this  crannoge  is  situated,  takes  its  name 
from  the  townland  in  which  part  of  it  lies.  Killy  villa  is  the 
Anglicised  form  of  the  Irish  name  Coill-a*  -bhile,  the  wood  of  the  bile,  or 
old  tree.  This  I  learnt  from  an  old  man,  one  of  the  last  speakers  of  Irish 
now  remaining  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  I  subsequently  verified  his 
translation  by  the  help  of  Dr.  Joyce's  work,  "Irish  Names  of  Places." 
The  name  is  an  inappropriate  one  for  the  townland  at  the  present  day, 
as  the  place  is  bare  enough  of  trees,  but  doubtless  was  accurately  de- 
scriptive of  it  at  one  time,  as  numy  relics  of  bygone  vegetation,  in  the 
shape  of  large  trunks  of  black  oak,  are  to  be  seen  lying  in  the  moory  soil 
which  surrounds  the  lake.  Bog-oak  is  also  largely  used  by  the  farmers 
in  the  neighbourhood  for  gate-posts,  supports  for  out-houses,  &c.  No 
doubt  also  the  trees  (oak,  birch,  hazel,  and  fir),  which  formed  the  frame- 
work of  the  crannoge,  grew  in  its  immediate  vicinity  ;  and  I  have  spoken 
with  old  men  who  remember  to  have  been  told  by  their  fathers  of  the  fir 
woods  which  once  existed  there.  The  lake,  which  forms  one  of  a 
cluster  of  four,  is  a  small  one.  It  is  evident  that  its  proportions  have 
shrunk  considerably,  as  white  shell  marl  forms  the  substratum  of  the 
surrounding  bog,  showing  that  it  was  formerly  part  of  the  lake  bottom, 

JOUR.  R.S.A.I.,  VOL.  VII.,  PT.  III.,  OTH  8ER.  Q 


the  water  having  been  displaced  by  the  gradual  growth  of  peat.  This 
shrinkage,  however,  must  have  taken  place  at  a  very  remote  period,  as 
roots  and  portions  of  the  stems  of  black  oak,  and  of  other  trees,  may  be 
seen  in  situ,  just  at  the  present  margin  of  the  lake.  It  is  obvious  that  the 
water  must  have  reached  its  present  level  before  the  seeds  of  these  trees 
could  have  been  deposited  there.  I  think  it  probable  also  that  the 
crannoge  was  built  when  the  lake  was  of  about  the  same  depth  as  at 
present,  for  the  water  at  its  ancient  level  would  (as  far  as  can  be  roughly 
gauged  by  the  eye)  have  submerged  it,  even  should  the  structure  then 
have  stood  many  feet  higher  than  is  the  case  at  present,  which  hypothesis 
however  may  be  dismissed  as  an  impossibility ;  for  the  elevation  of  the 
island  at  the  time  when  it  ceased  to  be  occupied,  must  of  course  have 
been  much  the  same  as  it  is  to-day,  plus  some  depth  of  mould  derived 
from  the  decayed  vegetable  matter  of  centuries.  No  doubt  some  degree 
of  subsidence  took  place  in  all  fascine-dwellings,  yet  this  must,  from  the 
nature  of  its  causation,  have  been  at  its  maximum  comparatively  soon 
after  their  construction,  or  at  all  events  before  they  were  abandoned ; 
and  instances  have  been  brought  to  light  of  crannoges  having  had 
additions  made  to  their  height  at  various  times.1  This  lake,  which  is 
situated  about  five  and  a  half  miles  from  Clones,  and  nearly  a  mile  from 
the  village  of  Eosslea,  county  Fermanagh,  four  hundred  yards  distant 
from  the  right-hand  side  of  the  county  road,  leading  from  the  latter  place 
to  Scotstown,  is  (as  I  see  by  the  Indices  to  the  Townland  Surveys  of  the 
counties  of  Fermanagh  and  Monaghan)  bisected  by  the  boundary  line 
between  these  counties ;  the  Fermanagh  half  lying  in  the  townland  of 
Killyvilla,  and  the  Monaghan  in  that  of  Kilcorran.  In  the  latter  half  is 
the  crannoge.  It  presents  the  appearance  of  a  small  island,  slightly 
oval  in  shape,  sloping  gradually  on  all  sides,  from  about  the  centre 
downwards  to  the  water's  edge,  and  measuring  65  feet  in  length  by 
52£  feet  in  breadth.  The  water  which  surrounds  it  is  from  8  to  10  feet 
in  depth  round  the  margin,  except  on  its  eastern  aspect,  where  the 
crannoge  is  distant  only  a  few  feet  from  the  lake-shore,  A,2  and  where 
the  water  averages  about  2  feet  in  depth  at  the  winter  level  of  the  lake, 
and  in  very  dry  summers  almost  disappears.  The  crannoge,  prior  to- 
excavation,  was  covered  with  a  dense  vegetation,  the  most  notable 
feature  of  which  was  a  broad  belt  of  the  garden  black  currant,  the 
bushes  extending  round  the  structure,  from  the  water's  edge  inwards. 
These  must  of  course  have  been  planted  in  comparatively  recent  times  ;. 
in  fact  the  old  lake-dwelling,  its  origin  forgotten,  was  converted 
into  a  sort  of  garden.  Strange  to  say,  however,  before  I  began  to 
excavate,  I  learnt  that  a  vague  impression  existed  in  the  vicinity,  to  the 

1  "  The  Lake  Dwellings  of  Ireland,"  by  W.  0.  Wood-Martin,  p.  31  ;  and  Journal, 
K.H.A.A.I.,  vol.  vii.  (4th  Ser.),  No.  65,  pp.  374  and  375. 

2  The  letters  in  the  text  refer  to  the  plan  of  the  crannoge  on  opposite  page. 



effect  that  "  the  island  was  made  with  stuff  carried  in  from  a  neighbour- 
ing field,"  at  an  indefinite  but  comparatively  modern  date,  by  a  former 
local  landowner.  Whether  there  is  a  grain  of  genuine  tradition  in  this, 
incorporated,  with  modern  additions,  or  whether,  as  is  probable,  some 
soil  may  have  been  deposited  on  the  crannoge  at  the  time  of  the  gardening 
operations,  thus  giving  rise  to  the  story  in  its  entirety,  it  would  be  hard 


to  say.  Others  had  an  idea  that  the  place  was  a  kind  of  cemetery,  and 
that  "a  man  had  been  buried  there."  Whitethorn  bushes,  elders,  and 
sallows,  also  flourished  in  rank  luxuriance,  and  the  prostrate  trunks  of 
several  tall  poplars  were  to  be  seen,  lying  on  the  surface  in  process  of 
slow  decay,  their  branches  trailing  into  the  surrounding  water;  a  plentiful 
crop  of  ivy,  nettles,  and  reeds,  &c.,  growing  breast  high,  added  to  the 



difficulty  of  clearing  for  excavation.  Hound  the  shelving  margin  of  the 
island,  lying  in  the  shallow  water,  many  bones  could  be  seen,  most  of 
them  broken  and  splintered  for  the  purpose  of  extracting  the  marrow, 
and  covered  with  a  white  concretion  of  lime  salts  derived  from  the  lake 
water.  Bones,  more  or  less  broken,  are  also  found  by  the  turf-cutters, 
in  the  bog  lying  east  of  the  crannoge.  On  careful  inspection  round  the 
margin  of  the  structure,  on  the  western  and  southern  sides,  the  heads  of 
a  row  of  encircling  oak  piles  B,  just  projecting  above  the  mud,  could  be 
detected.  A  breakwater,  composed  of  stones,  c,  also  exists  here.  It  is 
worthy  of  remark  that  the  crannoge  was  much  more  strongly  and  solidly 
constructed  at  the  south  and  west  than  at  any  other  point,  as  it  was  here 
comparatively  unsheltered,  and  had  to  withstand  the  heavy  wash  of  the 
lake  in  a  gale  :  stiff  clay,  D,  stones,  and  the  heaviest  timber,  E,  laid  bare 
in  the  whole  structure,  were  employed,  outside  of  which,  as  before 
mentioned,  were  the  piles  in  some  places  two  or  three  deep,  and  the  stone 
breakwater.  The  northern  and  eastern  sides,  on  the  other  hand,  being 
near  the  land,  and  sheltered  by  high  hills,  were  not  nearly  so  carefully 
constructed,  and  no  perpendicular  piles  could  be  detected.  About  ten 
yards  from  the  north-eastern  shore  of  the  island,  and  close  to  the  belt  of 
bullrushes  which  fringes  the  lake  margin,  a  solitary  stake,  F,  was  observed, 
rising  about  two  feet  above  the  surface  of  the  water,  which  is  here  about 
six  feet  in  depth.  On  pulling  it  up  it  proved  to  be  an  oak  sapling, 
sharpened  at  the  lower  end,  evidently  by  a  metal  instrument.  Its  use  is 
conjectural :  it  is  almost  certainly  coeval  with  the  period  of  occupation 
of  the  crannoge,  as  no  timber  of  the  kind  now  grows  within  some  miles 
of  the  locality.  The  country  people  here  at  the  present  day  occasionally 
make  use  of  similar  stakes,  usually  fir  saplings,  driving  them  into  the 
mud  at  the  bottom  of  a  lake  at  certain  places  where  the  fishing  is  known 
to  be  good  ;  to  these  their  boats  are  moored,  and  such  stakes  go  by  the 
name  of  "  anchors."  The  one  near  the  crannoge  may  have  been  used  for 
a  similar  purpose  by  its  inhabitants,  or  it  may  perhaps  be  one  of  the 
supporting  piles  of  a  gangway  connecting  the  crannoge  with  the  main- 
land, A,  the  others  having  either  sunk  down  into  the  lake-bed,  or  been  re- 
moved. The  planks  of  black  oak  roughly  dressed  with  an  axe  or  adze, 
lying  near  the  margin  of  the  island,  and  seen  at  G,  may  possibly  also  be 
the  remnants  of  such  a  gangway  ;  the  direction  in  which  they  lay  with 
regard  to  the  stake,  lends  some  colour  to  this  theory. 

If  a  gangway  existed,  the  reason  why  communication  with  the  land 
was  made  in  this  direction,  and  not  in  that  where  the  shore  was  nearer, 
appears  to  have  been  that  whereas  at  the  latter  point  there  was  a  soft 
peat  bog,  now  cut  away,  at  the  former  the  ground  rises  slightly,  and  is 
firm.  Gangways  and  causeways  have  been  frequently  noticed  in  con- 
nexion with  Irish  crannoges.1  About  150  yards  to  the  south-east  of  the 

1  "  The  Lake-Dwellings  of  Ireland,"  pp.  43-45,  166,  167,  172,  190,  193,  194, 
199,  207,  220,  224,  226,  234. 


erannoge,  on  the  summit  of  a  small  round  hill,  is  a  circular  rath  of  small 
size.  This  juxtaposition  of  rath  and  crannoge  might,  perhaps,  give  some 
support  to  the  theory  that  crannoges  were  merely  temporary  refuges.1 
This  rath  has  been  used  as  a  cemetery  for  a  number  of  years  by  some 
members  of  the  Society  of  Friends,  and  is  surrounded  by  what  I  believe  to 
be  modern  rubble- work,  in  which  is  an  entrance  closed  by  a  small  iron 
gate  ;  some  trees,  chiefly  firs,  have  also  been  planted  round  it.  Similar 
instances  of  ancient  structures  being  used  as  modern  burying-grounds 
appear  not  to  be  very  rare  in  Ireland.2  I  know  of  one  other  instance  of 
the  kind  in  this  neighbourhood.  Besides  the  fort  above-mentioned,  three 
other  lisses  (in  two  cases  this  word  "  lis"  being  prefixed  to  the  names  of 
their  respective  townlands)  and  four  crannoges  lie  within  a  radius  of  one 
mile  from  the  crannoge  in  Killyvilla  Lake,  the  nearest  lake-dwelling  to  it 
being  situated  within  view,  in  the  next  lake  but  one.  These  remains 
give  evidence  of  an  extensive  ancient  settlement.  I  have  been  informed 
that  twenty  or  thirty  years  ago  some  weapons  (variety  unspecified)  and 
two  copper  vessels,  one  very  large,  and  the  other  smaller,  were  accidentally 
discovered  through  the  removal  of  stuff  for  top-dressing  to  the  depth  of 
about  two  feet,  presumably  from  one  of  the  above-mentioned  crannoges, 
which  is  situated  in  the  marsh,  at  the  southern  end  of  Drumacrittin 
Lake.  The  weapons  are  said  to  have  been  "  sent  to  a  museum,"  and  the 
vessels  "  sold  in  Clones"  ;  but  there  are  no  means  of  verifying  the  tale 
after  such  a  lapse  of  time.  An  iron  sword,  however,  with  a  wooden 
handle,  and  bronze  mountings,  has  come  into  my  possession.  It  is  said 
to  have  been  found  many  years  ago  in  the  same  (Drumacrittin)  crannoge, 
but  it  differs  in  many  respects  from  the  usual  type  of  crannoge  sword. 
There  is  a  legend  current  among  the  peasantry  concerning  Killyvilla 
Lake  which,  as  such  folklore  is  fast  dying  out,  is  worthy  of  being  re- 
corded. The  lake  (so  the  tale  runs)  is,  or  was,  inhabited  by  water-horses. 
These  steeds,  it  is  alleged,  were  seen  at  various  times,  grazing  on  the 
shore,  but  immediately  disappeared  into  the  water  on  the  slightest  alarm. 
It  is  also  related  that  one  of  their  foals  was  once  captured,  taken  away 
to  a  distant  place,  and  in  course  of  time  trained  for  use.  It  was  a  beautiful 
animal,  and  proved  most  docile,  till  one  day  it  happened  to  be  passing  the 
lake  of  its  birth,  into  which,  despite  the  efforts  of  its  rider,  it  plunged, 
both  horse  and  man  disappearing  from  view  ;  the  mangled  corpse  of  the 
horseman  rose  to  the  surface  some  time  afterwards,  but  the  horse  was 
never  seen  more.  As  bones  of  the  horse,  and  an  iron  horseshoe,  were 
among  the  "  finds"  in  the  crannoge,  one  might  ask,  is  there  any 
connexion  between  them  and  the  legend  which  is  probably  identical,  if 
somewhat  altered  in  detail,  with  that  common  throughout  Ireland, 

1  "The  Lake-Dwellings  of  Ireland,"  p.  35. 

2  "Irish  Names  of  Places"   (Joyce),  vol.  i.,  p.  316;  and  Journal  R.H.A.A.I.> 
vol.  viii.  (4th  Ser.),  Nos.  73  and  74,  p.  275. 


concerning  lake  monsters  ?l  Exactly  the  same  legend  appears  to  occur 
also  in  "  Manx  Folklore."2 

But  to  turn  from  legend  to  fact — an  old  man,  who  resides  in  the 
townland,  told  me  (and  I  have  no  reason  to  doubt  his  statement)  that  many 
years  ago,  while  dragging  the  lake  at  its  southern  extremity,  near  the 
shore,  in  order  to  clear  the  aquatic  weeds  out  of  the  mouth  of  a  drain,  he 
drew  up  a  human  skeleton,  with  the  skull  attached.  This,  he  says,  startled 
him  so  much,  that  he  threw  the  bones  back  again  into  the  water,  and  de- 
sisted from  further  dragging.  I  persuaded  him  to  drag  the  place  over  again 
in  my  presence,  but  with  negative  results.  This,  however,  might  be  due  to 
his  having  missed  the  exact  spot,  or,  as  he  observed,  to  the  accumulation 
of  mud  and  decaying  vegetable  matter  having,  in  the  course  of  years, 
covered  the  remains,  which  may  or  may  not  have  been  those  of  one  of 
the  original  inhabitants  of  the  crannoge,  or  their  contemporaries.  I  may 
here  mention  that  the  island,  as  well  as  some  of  the  neighbouring  cran- 
noges,  is  said  to  have  been  frequented,  in  the  early  part  of  the  present 
century,  for  the  purpose  of  poteen  distillation;  and  it  was,  and  still  con- 
tinues to  be,  a  favourite  vantage-ground  for  disciples  of  Izaak  Walton. 

My  excavations  were  carried  on  sporadically  during  the  summers  of 
1893,  1894,  and  the  summer  and  autumn  of  1895,  when  the  work  was 
finished.  Every  spadeful  of  stuff  was  carefully  broken  down  by  hand, 
so  that,  if  possible,  not  the  smallest  relic  should  escape  notice ;  but  the 
welling-up  of  water,  as  the  trenches  were  cut  down  to  the  lake  level, 
was  a  serious  impediment.  The  excavations,  when  completed,  disclosed 
the  following  particulars  as  to  the  construction  of  the  crannoge  :  namely, 
that  it  was  a  fascine-dwelling,  lying  partially  on  a  small  natural  shoal  of 
marl,  H,  which  had  evidently  been  selected  as  a  suitable  site,  but  was 
not  of  sufficient  extent  to  accommodate  more  than  about  one-third  of  the 
structure.  This  portion,  however,  was  the  most  solidly  built  part  of  the 
island,  being  formed  of  large  tree  trunks,  E,  some  of  them  quite  18  inches 
in  diameter,  lying  in  parallel  rows,  each  one  in  contact  with  the  other. 
There  were  three,  and  in  some  places  four,  superimposed  layers  of  these 
logs,  chiefly  birch,  the  silvery  bark  looking  as  fresh  as  when  the  trees 
were  cut ;  the  wood,  however,  could  be  sliced  with  the  spade  as  easily  as 
cheese  is  cut  with  a  knife.  Many  of  the  logs,  especially  in  the  lower 
layers,  had  been  charred,  no  doubt  to  enable  them  the  better  to  resist 
decay.  Oak  and  fir  timber  was  also  observed.  The  lowest  layer  of  logs 
lay  directly  on  the  marl,  which  was  tolerably  hard,  and  on  which  their 
impress  could  be  seen,  after  they  had  been  raised.  Above  the  wood  was 
a  thick  layer  of  earth  and  stones ;  the  latter  for  the  most  part  small, 
though  occasional  large  boulders  of  sandstone  occurred,  especially  near 

1  "  Irish  Names  of  Places"  (Joyce),  vol.  i.,  p.  197  and  following. 

2  "  Further  Notes  on  Manx  Folk-lore,"  by  A.  W.  Moore,  M.A.  — Z%*  Antiquary, 
August,  1895,  pp.  230,  231. 


the  margin.  Here  also  a  particularly  tenacious  kind  of  clay,  D,  was 
found  to  exist  in  certain  places  ;  when  this  was  reached,  the  pick  was 
in  constant  requisition.  Outside  of  all  was  the  perpendicular  piling,  B, 
and  the  breakwater  of  stones,  c,  before  referred  to.  The  central  part  of 
this  section  of  the  crannoge  was  higher  above  the  water-level  than  any 
other  in  the  whole  structure,  the  trench  cut  here  measuring  about  5  feet 
in  depth  from  the  surface  to  the  marl  below. 

Here  also,  I  think,  in  all  probability,  was  the  principal  house  site, 
since  it  would  naturally  be  the  driest,  and  would  afford  the  firmest  foun- 
dation ;  and  also  because  at  this  place  was  unearthed  a  large  hearth,  i, 
consisting  of  a  heap  of  fire-marked  rubble- stone,  covered  with  a  great 
quantity  of  ashes,  the  earth  underneath  and  around  being  burnt  almost 
to  the  consistence  of  brick.  Several  large  flags  of  sandstone,  K,  were 
found  about  a  foot  below  the  surface,  near  the  centre  of  the  island,  three 
paces  to  the  north  of  the  hearth.  They  may  have  been  adjuncts  to  it, 
subsequently  disturbed,  but  bore  no  marks  of  fire.  Small  heaps  of  ashes 
and  charcoal  were  occasionally  found,  at  various  depths,  in  different 
parts  of  the  island ;  they  probably  served  as  temporary  cooking  places,  as 
a  few  small  pieces  of  calcined  bone  were  generally  found  mixed  with 
them.  A  short  distance  to  the  west  of  the  hearth  was  an  extensive 
kitchen  midden,  L,  broken  bones,  and  small  fragments  of  pottery,  being 
abundant  there.  The  remaining  portion  of  the  crannoge,  M,  rested  on 
the  soft  mud  of  the  lake-bed.  It  was  somewhat  lower  than  the  part 
first  described,  measuring  at  its  highest  point  about  4  feet  from  the 
surface  to  the  bottom.  The  lowest  layer  consisted  generally  of  quantities 
of  bracken,  fern,  and  moss,  compressed  almost  to  the  consistence  of  peat 
by  the  weight  of  the  superincumbent  mass  ;  in  some  places,  however, 
peat  itself  had  been  used.  Above  this  was  a  thick  stratum,  composed  of 
branches  of  oak,  hazel,  and  blackthorn.  On  the  branches  large  stones 
had  been  deposited  in  many  places,  to  assist  in  consolidating  the  mass 
below.  In  some  places,  too,  horizontal  rows  of  logs  were  met  with  on 
top  of  the  branches ;  they  were  chiefly  cut  from  young  oak  trees  of 
no  great  thickness.  Perpendicular  oak  piles  were  also  of  frequent  occur- 
rence, driven  downwards  through  the  strata,  evidently  for  the  purpose 
of,  as  it  were,  nailing  them  together,  into  the  mud  below.  The  upper- 
most layer  consisted  of  clay  and  gravel.  At  one  place,  N,  an  immense 
quantity  of  bark  and  wood-chips,  chiefly  of  oak,  was  found,  such  as 
would  be  struck  off  with  an  axe  ;  this  lay  deep  down  within  a  few  inches 
of  the  mud.  It  is  evident  that  this  was  the  place  where  many  of  the  piles 
for  the  building  of  the  crannoge  were  dressed  and  sharpened.  I  was 
struck  by  a  curious  point  as  to  the  time  of  year  at  which  the  foundations 
of  this  crannoge  were  probably  laid,  from  observing  that  the  hazels  and 
blackthorns  had  evidently  been  covered  with  nuts  and  sloes  at  the  time 
when  they  were  placed  in  their  present  position ;  quantities  of  these 
(the  nuts  brown  and  ripe-looking)  being  present  among  the  twigs.  But 

212          ROYAL    SOCIETY    OF    ANTIQUARIES    OF   IRELAND. 

for  these  evidences  one  would  naturally  have  thought  that  such  a  work 
would  have  heen  begun  in  spring  or  early  summer,  so  as  to  have  all 
completed  before  the  storms  and  floods  of  the  ensuing  winter.  On  the 
other  hand,  of  course,  with  a  large  number  of  men  engaged  in  the  work, 
the  crannoge  may  have  been  erected  in  a  short  time.  None  of  the 
timbers  showed  any  mortice  and  tenon  arrangement,  such  as  I  have  seen 
so  often  mentioned  in  descriptions  of  Irish  lake-dwellings,  neither  were 
any  of  the  logs  split  or  squared  in  nny  way.  The  trees,  as  they  came 
from  the  forest,  were  simply  denuded  of  their  branches,  and  cut  into 
convenient  lengths  of  about  5  or  6  feet.  Such  of  the  perpendicular 
piles  as  could  be  drawn  up  entire  had  their  lower  ends  well  sharpened, 
'with  long,  clean  cuts,  evidently  of  a  sharp  metallic  hatchet.  In  fact 
it  was  quite  clear  that  metallic  tools  had  been  used  in  preparing  all 
the  wood-work  of  the  structure.  None  of  the  cuts,  however,  showed 
evidence  of  the  saw ;  even  the  largest  trees,  at  the  cutting  of  which  its 
use  would  have  saved  some  labour,  having  been  chopped  into  logs.  The 
only  portions  of  the  wood-work  on  which  any  extra  attention  had  been 
bestowed  were  the  planks  of  bog-oak,  G,  before  referred  to ;  these  had 
been  roughly  dressed,  probably  with  an  adze,  and  lay  about  a  foot  below 
the  present  surface.  The  way  in  which  they  were  arranged  suggested  a 
gangway,  or  landing-stage  ;  for  if  they  were  used  here  merely  in  lieu  of 
the  ordinary  horizontal  logs,  why  was  so  much  extra  labour  expended  in 
dressing  and  splitting  tough  black  oak  into  planks,  especially  when  this 
was  not  thought  necessary  in  the  case  of  any  of  the  other  crannoge 
timbers?  One  of  these  boards,  however,  had  not,  in  my  opinion,  been 
originally  intended  for  the  purpose  to  which  it  was  here  put ;  it  will  be 
described  when  treating  of  the  articles  discovered  formed  of  wood. 
One  or  two  logs  of  bog-oak  were  also  found  in  the  lowest  stratum  of  the 
foundation,  which  shows  that  at  whatever  date  the  crannoge  was  built 
this  wood  was  then  as  much  a  relic  of  bygone  vegetation  as  it  is  at  the 
present  time.  The  relics  discovered  were  unimportant  and  few  (with 
the  exception  of  pottery  fragments)  in  comparison  with  the  magnificent 
"  finds "  recorded  in  many  Irish  crannoges,  yet  some  of  them  possess 
features  which  I  believe  are  unique  in  their  way. 


The  following  articles  were  found  : — A  hammer-head,  or  pounder.  It 
is  exactly  5  inches  in  length,  and  is  quadrangular,  each  of  its  four  faces 
measuring  about  2^-  inches  at  the  broadest  point.  Composed  of  an 
exceedingly  fine-grained,  hard  variety  of  sandstone,  which  occurs  natu- 
rally in  the  district,  this  implement  has  been  shaped  by  the  process 
technically  known  as  "pecking."1  When  thus  blocked  into  shape  the 
hammer  was  smoothed  or  polished  to  a  certain  extent,  but  not  sufficiently 
to  entirely  obliterate  the  minute  pitting  due  to  the  former  process.  The 

1  "  Flint  Chips,"  pp.  572  and  573. 


broader  or  hammering  end  shows  marks  of  considerable  wear  and  tear. 
This  implement  may  simply  have  been  a  hand-tool  for  smashing  marrow- 
bearing  bones,  and  the  like;  but  I  think,  from  its  shape,  that  most 
probably  it  was  at  one  time  furnished  with  a  handle,  for,  being  both 
four-sided  and  conical,  if  a  tough  piece  of  wood  was  chosen,  and  a 
quadrangular  aperture  cut  in  it  of  sufficient  size  to  grip  the  head  firmly 
at  the  centre,  the  whole  being  strengthened  by  being  bound  round  with 
a  thong,  every  blow  on  the  working  end  would  then  serve  to  tighten  the 
head  in  its  place.  The  fact  that  the  smaller  end  bears  practically  no 
marks  of  use  favours  the  theory  that  there  was  a  haft ;  for,  of  course, 
any  forcible  blow  on  this  end  would  obviously  have  at  once  dislodged 
head  from  handle.  If,  also,  the  implement  was  merely  intended  for 
a  hand-tool,  it  is  improbable  that  it  would  have  been  shaped  in  this  way } 
or,  in  fact,  that  it  would  have  received  any  artificial  shaping  at  all,  as 
all  the  other  hammer- stones  found,  nine  in  number,  wei  e  merely  natural 
pebbles,  a  few  being  slightly  smoothed.  They  had  evidently  never  been 
hafted,  and,  moreover,  bore  marks  of  use  on  both  ends  as  a  rule,  which, 
no  doubt  would  be  the  case  with  the  specimen  under  consideration  also, 
but  that  some  strong  reason  existed  for  avoiding  the  use  of  the  smaller 
end.  This  hammer,  hafted  in  some  such  way  as  described,  would  be 
very  suitable  for  driving  down  piles,  as  well  as  for  fracturing  the  larger 
marrow-bones,  &c.  It  was  found  about  2  feet  below  the  surface,  among 
the  broken  bones  and  pottery  of  the  midden.  L. 

A  couple  of  those  relics,  known  as  "tracked  stones,"  were  found. 
Though  not  particularly  rare  in  Ireland,  they  are  so  in  Irish  crannoges. 
I  at  present  only  know  of  two  other  Irish  lake-dwellings  where  such 
stones  have  occurred  ;  and  in  all  the  lists  of  "finds"  appearing  in 
"  The  Lake-Dwellings  of  Ireland  "  I  can  see  no  mention  made  of  them, 
unless  the  reference  to  "two  weapon-sharpeners  of  a  remarkably  hard 
stone  resembling  quartz,"  at  p.  199,  note( giving  list  of  articles  discovered 
in  the  large  crannoge,  in  the  townland  of  Cloneygonnell,  otherwise 
Tonymore,  county  Cavan),  could  have  anything  to  say  to  them.  The 
first  specimen,  fig.  1  (p.  215),  is  a  quartz  pebble,  about  £  inch  in  thick- 
ness. On  each  face  is  to  be  seen  a  well-marked  groove,  running  in  a 
direction  diagonal  to  the  long  axis  of  the  stone  ;  the  two  grooves  also* 
run  in  opposite  diagonal  directions  to  each  other ;  beside  the  end  of  one 
of  them,  the  beginning  of  a  third  groove  may  be  seen.  This  stone  was 
found  in  the  lowest  stratum  of  the  foundation,  at  least  4  feet  from  the 
surface,  in  the  midst  of  the  mass  of  chips  and  bark,  IT.  Here  also  wa& 
found  the  knife-blade  of  iron,  fig.  5  (p.  215),  and  the  leather  sheuth, 
illustrated  by  fig.  9  (page  215).  The  second  specimen  is  3  inches  long, 
by  2£  broad.  Strange  to  say,  it  is  composed  of  soft  sandstone.  I  am  not 
aware  that  many  other  specimens  of  the  kind  have  been  found  formed  of 
such  a  friable  substance.  The  grooves  on  each  face  also  run  diagonally, 
as  in  the  case  of  fig.  1  ;  but  they  are  much  larger  in  every  way,  being. 


nearly  the  full  length  of  the  stone,  and  quite  i-  inch  broad.  This  is,  no 
doubt,  due  to  the  soft  consistence  of  the  stone,  which  wore  away  much 
more  rapidly  than  the  hard  quartz.  .In  the  centre  of  one  groove  is 
a  well-marked  pit.  This  stone  was  found  near  the  surface,  to  the  west 
of  the  midden,  L.  It  seems  an  undecided  point  what  purpose  these  relics 
served,  some  regarding  them  as  "  point-sharpeners  "  for  sharpening 
small  tools  of  metal,  others  as  strike-a-lights  for  striking  fire  with  flint; 
but  the  specimens  found  in  this  crannoge  were  certainly  not  used  for  the 
latter  purpose.  I  speak  from  experience ;  for  being  a  firm  believer  in 
the  adage,  that  a  very  minute  quantity  of  practice  is  worth  an  immense 
amount  of  theory,  I  chose  a  suitable  quartz  pebble,  and  with  a  piece  of 
flint  tried  to  convert  it  into  a  ''tracked  stone,"  as  nearly  resembling 
fig.  1  as  possible.  The  attempt,  however,  was  a  complete  failure.  I 
produced  enough  fire  to  cause  a  respectable  conflagration  had  the  sparks 
fallen  on  anything  combustible ;  but  had  little  else  to  show  for  my 
pains,  except  a  wide  white  streak  parallel  to  the  long  axis  of  the 
pebble,  composed  of  minute  scores,  and  very  unlike  the  smoothly-made 
grooves  on  fig.  1.  Anyone  who  carefully  examines  this  specimen  must 
see  that  these  grooves  were  evidently  formed,  not  by  anything  having 
been  struck  against  the  stone,  but  by  friction,  some  hard  substance 
having  been  rubbed  on  it  for  a  considerable  length  of  time,  or  on  frequent 
occasions,  always  exactly  at  the  same  place.  The  only  places  where  a 
few  small  scores  exist  are  in  two  spaces  extending  from  the  correspond- 
ing ends  of  both  grooves  to  the  extremity  of  the  stone ;  otherwise,  the 
grooves  themselves  and  the  surfaces  of  the  stone  in  their  immediate 
neighbourhood  are  smooth  and  show  no  scores  or  peckings,  which  I  have 
no  doubt,  from  my  own  experience,  would  be  the  case  had  the  main 
''tracks"  been  made  by  percussion  with  flint,  unless  it  were  possible 
to  strike  with  the  accuracy  of  some  kind  of  iron  automaton,  so  that  the 
flint  would  always  impinge  on  exactly  the  same  spot.  .Besides,  is  there 
any  reason  to  suppose  that  the  users  of  these  stones,  even  if  by  dint  of 
long  practice  they  could  strike  with  this  accuracy,  would  see  any  parti- 
cular utility  in  doing  so  every  time  they  wanted  to  strike  a  light?  The 
fact  that  the  "tracks"  in  this,  as  well  as  in  all  other  specimens  of 
which  I  have  read  descriptions,  run  diagonally,  is  not  easily  explained. 
It  certainly,  however,  militates  against  the  strike-a-light  theory ;  for 
unless  one  wished  to  do  a  purposely  inconvenient  thing,  one  would  never 
attempt  to  hold  the  pebble  as  striker  in  the  right  hand  in  such  a  way  as 
to  strike  the  flint  diagonally.  I  found  that  this  could  be  far  more 
easily  accomplished  by  holding  the  stone  in  the  left  hand,  and  striking 
the  flint  diagonally  across  it.  Plenty  of  sparks  were  produced  by  this 
plan ;  but  it  seems  rather  an  unnatural  method  of  doing  things,  the 
holding  of  the  stone  as  striker  in  the  right  hand  being  undoubtedly  the 
usual  mode  of  procedure.  I  think  the  only  way  that  the  apparent 
universality  of  the  diagonal  groove  in  connexion  with  these  relics  can 


Objects  found  in  Killyvilla  Crannoge,  near  Clones.     (The  scale  shown  does  not  apply  to  the  leather 
knife-case,  fig.  9,  which  is  53  inches  long.) 



be  accounted  for  is,  that  it  may  have  resulted  from  some  "  tip  "  or  small 
trade  secret  known,  and  in  use,  among  these  ancient  craftsmen,  carpen- 
ters, and  others,  when  sharpening  their  tools,  hut  now  as  much  forgotten 
as  themselves.  In  fact,  since  there  is  no  smoke  without  fire,  these  men 
must  have  ground  their  tools  in  such  a  way  as  to  make  grooves  in  this 
particular  direction,  because  it  was  the  most  convenient  plan. 

The  fact  that  fig.  1  was  found  not  far  from  an  iron  knife-blade  is 
suggestive,  as  is  also  the  fact  that  a  blackish  coloumation  is  visible  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  the  grooves,  which  is  evidently  foreign  to  the 
stone  and  superficial.  I  believe  this  to  be  due  to  the  conversion  of  a  film 
of  iron  deposited  on  the  quartz,  from  constant  friction  with  tools  of  that 
metal,  into  the  black  tannate  of  iron,  by  the  action  of  the  tannic  acid 
contained  in  the  oak  bark  in  which  the  stone  was  found  lying. 

I  may  here  mention,  that  I  tried  the  experiment  of  rubbing  an  awl. 
on  a  quartz  pebble,  and  I  found  no  difficulty  in  making  a  pretty  smooth 
groove,  which  was  covered  with  a  film  of  iron.  Another  thing  that 
tells  against  the  strike-a-light  theory  is,  that  no  flint  was  found  near 
the  stone,  which,  judging  from  the  place  where  it  was  found,  must  have 
been  used  for  sharpening  some  of  the  tools  with  which  the  piling,  &c., 
of  the  crannoge  was  being  made.  The  implement  was  doubtless  lost 
among  the  debris  of  chips  and  bark,  and  in  due  course  was  covered  over  by 
the  successive  layers  that  went  to  form  the  structure.  Even  had  flint 
been  found  in  proximity  to  the  pebble,  it  is  scarcely  likely  that  the 
slush  of  the  lake-bed  would  have  been  chosen  as  a  suitable  place  for  a 
fire,  nor  would  one  naturally  suppose  that  objects  found  in  such  a  place 
had  anything  to  do  with  producing  fire.  The  material,  also,  of  which 
the  second  specimen  is  composed  affords,  I  think,  strong  evidence  of 
the  uses  to  which  both  were  put.  It  is  just  possible,  as  I  found,  to 
strike  a  few  sparks  with  flint  and  a  piece  of  sandstone,  greatly  at  the 
expense  of  the  softer  substance  ;  but  the  utter  improbability  of  an  unsuit- 
able material,  like  sandstone,  having  been  used  for  such  a  purpose,  when 
quartz  was  abundant,  is  obvious,  nor  are  the  grooves  on  this  specimen 
such  as  would  be  made  by  flint.  They  have  been  worn  by  rubbing ;  and,  as 
everyone  knows,  sandstone  is  a  very  suitable  material  for  sharpening  a 
metallic  tool.  Fig.  1,  as  well  as  being  "tracked,"  is  also  a  hammer- 
stone,  both  ends  showing  four  well-marked  facets  separated  by  slight 
ridges.  "What  more  natural  than  that  the  long,  narrow,  weak  blade 
of  the  knife  found  near  it  might  often  have  become  bent ;  and,  when 
this  occurred,  might  not  the  instrument  have  been  laid  on  a  log,  and 
the  convexity  then  hammered  straight  with  this  stone. 

The  late  Sir  William  Wilde,  in  the  "  Catalogue  of  the  Museum  of  the 
Koyal  Irish  Academy,"  pp.  74,  75,  76,  and  77,  gives  a  description  of 
several  "  tracked  stones,"  under  the  heading  of  "  sling- stones."  Of  one 
specimen  he  remarks: — "In  the  centre  of  each  flat  surface  may  be 
observed  a  slight  indentation,  such  as  might  be  effected  by  rubbing 
with  a  metal  tool."  And  of  two  others  : — "  They  both  bear  the  indented 


line  on  each  side.  This  mark  is  sometimes  polished  like  the  rest  of  the 
surface,  hut  more  frequently  hears  the  mark  of  a  tool,  as  if  worked  in 
hy  sharpening  the  point  of  a  knife  or  dagger,  for  which  use  they  may 
have  "been  occasionally  employed."  Of  the  nine  specimens  of  these 
"  sling-stones,"  then  in  the  collection  of  the  Academy,  all  were  composed 
of  quartz  rock,  except  Nos.  1  and  9,  which  were  formed  of  sandstone, 
and  No.  2  of  limestone.  Three  examples  are  figured  at  p.  75  of  the  Cata- 
logue, one  of  them,  fig.  56,  No.  3,  showing  the  characteristic  oblique  groove. 

An  object  formed  of  black  chert,  beautifully  polished.  It  is  3|- 
inches  long  by  1  inch  broadband  in  shape  exactly  resembles  a  bean 
pod  ;  two  or  three  nicks  have  been  worn  on  its  edges,  and,  when  viewed 
in  certain  lights,  some  slight  striae  are  plainly  perceptible"  on  all  its 
surfaces.  From  these  indications  I  have  no  doubt  that  it  was  used  as  a 
burnisher.  It  would"  equally  well  have  served  as  a  touchstone  for 
testing  the  purity  of  gold,  and  it  is  possible  that  it  may  have  been  put 
to  both  these  uses.  It  was  found  about  2  feet  below  the  surface,  in  the 
midden,  L,  close  to  the  hammer-head  already  described. 

A  whetstone,  quadrangular  in  shape,  and  composed  of  sandstone.  '  It 
is  5  inches  long  by  •£  inch  broad  ;  the  extremities  are  conical.  The 
object  closely  resembles  a  cigar  which  has  been  tightly  compressed  by 
its  fellows  in  a  box.  It  bears  little  or  no  marks  of  wear,  and  was  found 
2  or  3  feet  below  the  surface,  to  the  north  of  the  midden,  L.  Two  other 
whetstones  were  found,  and  portion  of  a  fourth.  The  perfect  specimens 
are  oblong  in  shape ;  one  is  composed  of  rather  coarse  sandstone,  the 
other  of  soft  whet-slate.  The  fragment  is  formed  of  sandstone,  and  is 

An  oval  hammer-stone,  one  of  nine  discovered,  and  the  most  typical 
of  them.  It  is  composed  of  a  hard,  light-green  coloured  stone,  and  has 
been  artificially  smoothed.  It  measures  4  inches  in  length  by  2£  in 
breadth ;  a  flattened  facet  appears  on  both  ends.  This  object  was  found 
near  the  surface,  just  at  the  water's  edge,  at  the  western  side  of  the 
island.  In  addition  to  the  oval  hammer-stones,  some  smooth  oval  pebbles, 
composed  chiefly  of  quartz,  were  found;  and  although  they  bear  no 
marks  of  use,  they  had  evidently  been  brought  to  the  crannoge  with  the 
intention  of  using  them  as  hammer-stones. 

A  round  object  composed  of  soft  sandstone.  It  is  about  the  shape 
and  size  of  a  small  orange,  and  is  covered  with  minute  pits,  probably  due 
to  hammering.  There  were  seven  others  discovered  of  various  sizes  ; 
none,  however,  quite  so  accurately  shaped  or  pitted  in  the  same  way  as 
this  one. 

Two  flint  implements.  The  first  specimen,  from  its  notched  edge, 
looks  as  though  it  had  been  used  as  a  strike -a-light  with  a  piece  of 
steel;  certainly  no  "tracked  stone"  ever  made  such  marks.  A  small 
flint  core  found  is  shown  in  one  of  the  illustrations  to  be  included  in  the 
second  part  of  this  Paper.  Twenty- seven  fragments  of  flint,  exclusive 


of  these,  were  found.  They  are  all  very  small ;  and  although  one  or  two 
of  them  may  possibly  he  imperfect  or  unfinished  implements,  I  think 
they  are  chiefly  chips,  such  as  would  be  struck  off  in  making  strike-a- 
lights. In  fact,  I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  all  the  flint  found  in  the 
crannoge  was  used  in  producing  fire. 

Eighteen  pieces  of  querns  were  found,  chiefly  lower  stones,  as  far  as 
could  be  judged  from  the  fragments  ;  they  were  of  the  ordinary  kind,  and 
composed  of  sandstone.  All  were  found  near  the  surface,  at  the  western 
side  of  the  island,  with  the  exception  of  one  lower  stone,  the  most  perfect 
portion  discovered,  measuring  16  inches  in  diameter,  which  lay  near  the 
centre  of  the  crannoge,  deep  down  on  top  of  the  stratum  of  branches. 
Having  been  rendered  useless  from  a  slight  fracture,  it  had  been  placed 
there  to  assist  in  consolidating  them.  The  querns  had  all  been  formed  by 
"pecking,"  the  tool-marks  appearing  very  distinctly  on  all  the  fragments. 


Fig.  3  (page  215)  illustrates  a  fine  specimen  of  a  bronze  ring-pin 
six  inches  long,  the  metal  of  which  it  is  composed  being  of  a  golden  colour. 
The  ring  consists  of  a  piece  of  bronze  wire  tapering  slightly  from  the 
centre  to  both  extremities,  the  upper  surface  of  the  head,  not  seen  in 
the  illustration,  is  quadrilateral,  and  is  crossed  by  two  diagonal  grooves, 
which  form  a  design  resembling  the  letter  X.  The  hole  in  the  head  for  the 
ring  is  slightly  smaller  at  one  side  than  at  the  other,  and  has  been  drilled, 
for  on  looking  through  the  aperture  in  a  good  light,  a  slight  circular  ridge 
left  by  t-he  tool  may  be  seen.  From  certain  mould-marks  which  have 
not  been  obliterated,  it  is  plain  that  the  whole  shank  was  originally  cast 
quadrangular,  and  a  small  portion,  afterwards  slightly  decorated  with  a 
graver,  having  been  allowed  to  retain  this  shape  in  order  to  serve  as  a 
head,  the  rest  was  rounded  off  at  the  edges  by  a  process  of  hammering 
and  grinding,  the  marks  of  which  are  plainly  visible.  The  burnisher 
(the  fourth  object  of  stone  before  described)  would  have  been  very 
useful  here  for  giving  the  finishing  touches.  This  pin  was  not 
found  during  the  period  of  the  excavations.  The  way  in  which  I 
obtained  it  is  rather  peculiar.  I  was  called  one  night  to  see  a  patient, 
who  had  formerly  been  for  a  long  time  a  Member  of  the  Royal  His- 
torical and  Archaeological  Association  of  Ireland.  We  got  into  conver- 
sation about  this  crannoge,  when  he  informed  me  that  over  twenty  years 
ago,  a  man,  since  deceased,  had  shown  him  a  bronze  pin,  which  he  said  he 
had  found  on  the  shore  of  the  island  in  Killyvilla  Lake  while  fishing. 
My  friend  told  him  to  keep  the  pin  safe  as  it  was  well  worth  preserving, 
and  suggested  to  me  that  possibly  it  might  still  be  in  the  house  of  the 
finder's  brother,  who  resides  in  the  village  of  Rosslea.  To  him  I  hastened 
next  day,  and  was  fortunate  enough  to  find  the  pin  hanging  from  a  nail 
in  the  wall.  The  owner  seeing  that  I  evidently  would  appreciate  it, 
very  kindly  presented  it  to  me.  When  one  takes  into  consideration  the 


number  of  fishermen,  poteen  makers,  and  casual  visitors,  who  have  fre- 
quented this,  as  well  as  probably  most  other  ancient  structures  of  the 
kind  during  the  centuries  that  have  elapsed  since  they  ceased  to  be  in- 
habited, it  seems  highly  probable  that  our  crannoges  have  been  gradually 
rifled  of  any  objects  left  lying  on  the  surface,  as  in  addition  to  the  pin 
so  strangely  recovered,  I  was  told  by  a  neighbouring  farmer  who  came 
one  day  to  view  the  excavations  that  a  few  years  ago  having  had  occasion 
to  visit  the  island,  he  picked  up  "  a  small  black  square  stone  that  looked 
like  a  sharpening-stone,"  which,  however,  had  unfortunately  been  since 

Fig.  4  (p.  215)  is  a  piece  of  bronze.  It  is  about  as  thick  as  a 
sixpence,  and  is  of  a  pale  yellow  colour.  This  object  has  been  cast  in 
its  present  shape,  as  the  condition  of  the  edges,  which  are  rough,  and 
slightly  rounded,  does  not  appear  to  show  that  it  was  cut  from  a  larger 
sheet.  Two  dumb-bell  shaped  holes  (not  represented),  which  I  believe 
to  be  rivet  holes,  would  seem  to  show  that  the  object  was  at  one  time 
attached  to  something  else,  perhaps  a  handle.  It  may,  however,  have 
simply  served  as  a  patch. 

There  was  also  found  a  circular  piece  of  bronze,  slightly  shorter  in 
diameter  than  a  halfpenny  of  the  present  currency,  and  about  as  thick  as  a 
well-worn  sixpence.  The  colour  of  the  metal  is  rather  remarkable ;  it 
evidently  contains  a  much  larger  percentage  of  copper,  and  is  therefore 
redder  than  the  ordinary  antique  bronze.  When  first  found,  this  object 
was  as  bright  as  the  day  it  was  cast,  and  before  the  mud  was  rubbed  off, 
resembled  a  coin  so  much  that  the  workmen  became  greatly  excited, 
thinking  that  we  had  at  last  "  struck"  the  "  crock  of  goold,"  a  search 
for  which  many  of  the  country  people  thought,  was  the  object  of  the 
excavations.  The  surfaces  of  this  object  are  not  burnished  or  smoothed 
in  any  way  ;  it  has  evidently  been  cut  from  a  larger  sheet  of  metal,  and 
is  I  think  in  an  unfinished  state,  having  been  possibly  designed  for  some 
such  purpose  as  the  head  of  a  pin.  Both  this  and  the  preceding  piece  of 
bronze  were  found  within  a  short  distance  of  each  other,  near  the  northern 
shore  of  the  crannoge,  in  the  midst  of  a  mass  of  oak  branches  and  bracken 
fern,  which  here  formed  the  first  stratum  above  the  mud.  It  has  since 
struck  me  that  these  objects  owed  their  brightness  when  found  to  the 
fact  that  they  had  lain  steeping  in  an  acidulous  solution,  produced  by  the 
acid  contained  in  these  vegetable  substances  diluted  with  water.  They 
have  since  become  somewhat  tarnished  from  exposure  to  the  atmosphere. 


The  following  articles  were  discovered  : — A  dagger  or  short  sword,  so 
much  corroded  that,  with  the  exception  of  the  tang,  it  is  almost  a  mass 
of  rust,  and  it  consequently  broke  into  fragments  the  moment  it  was 
touched.  These  pieces,  however,  I  carefully  collected,  and  I  think 
recovered  them  all,  so  that  the  total  length  of  the  weapon,  17  inches,  can 
be  pretty  well  ascertained.  The  tang  measures  4f  inches  long,  and  the 
blade  If  inches  broad,  at  its  widest  part.  Most  crannoge  swords  are 

220          ROYAL    SOCIETY    OF    ANTIQUARIES    OF    IRELAND. 

described  as  having  remarkably  small  handles,  and  hence  it  has  been 
inferred  that  the  users  of  them  must  have  been  a  diminutive  race. 
Judging  from  the  tang,  however,  the  handle  of  this  specimen  would  have 
afforded  a  comfortable  grip  for  the  hand  of  any  ordinary  sized  man.  A 
groove  can  be  traced  on  the  fragments  of  the  blade  on  both  sides,  for  a 
distance  of  4^-  inches  downwards  from  the  line  of  junction  of  blade  and 
tang.  The  shape  of  the  point  is  the  most  remarkable  feature  about  this 
weapon,  its  outlines  being  concave.  This  object  was  found  lying  just 
.under  the  surface  sod,  towards  the  western  side  of  the  crannoge. 

Fig.  5  (p.  215)  is  a  knife  blade  5  inches  long,  including  the  tang; 
it  is  about  £  inch  broad  at  the  widest  part,  and  was  found  near  the 
"  tracked  stone,"  fig.  1  (p.  215),  and  the  sheath  illustrated  by  fig.  9 
(p.  215). 

Another  knife-blade,  judging  from  its  shape,  seems  a  more  modern 
specimen  than  the  foregoing ;  and  it  possibly  may  be  a  modern  article 
dropped  perhaps  by  some  fisherman,  as  it  was  found  just  at  the  surface, 
under  a  heap  of  withered  leaves,  almost  at  the  water's  edge,  at  the 
eastern  side  of  the  crannoge.  The  object  may,  however,  get  the  benefit 
of  the  doubt :  it  is  S-^V  inches  long,  by  nearly  £  inch  broad. 

A  large  nail,  or  spike,  7  inches  long.  It  was  found  among  the  stones 
of  the  hearth  i. 

<•;  '.A  swivel  ring,  measuring  2  inches  in  the  clear;  what  appear  to  be 
the  remnants  of  a  chain  link  are  attached  to  the  lower  end  of  the  stud. 
This  object  was  found  a  couple  of  feet  below  the  surface,  near  the  centre 
of  the  island  :  it  may  have  been  used  for  tethering  cattle. 

That  portion  of  a  small  axe-head  which  projected  in  front  of  the 
handle,  the  hinder  part  having  been  broken  off.  It  is  3^  inches  lon<r  by 
3  inches  wide  at  the  cutting  edge,  and  was  found  near  the  surface,  at 
the  western  side  of  the  crannoge. 

A  horse-shoe  of  medium  size ;  one  of  the  extremities  has  been  broken 
off,  but  the  other  shows  that  there  were  no  raised  heels.  It  was  found 
on  the  inner  side  of  the  mass  of  stiff  clay,  D,  at  the  eastern  side  of  the 
island,  about  a  foot  below  the  surface. 

A  staple,  found  near  the  surface,  at  the  western  side  of  the  island. 

A  conical  object  4  inches  long,  by  about  3  inches  broad  at  the  top. 
It  is  clearly  broken  off  something  else,  and  bears  some  resemblance  to 
the  small  end  of  an  anvil,  or  to  the  leg  of  a  massive  pot.  It  was  found 
close  to  the  surface,  near  the  midden  L.  Twelve  other  pieces  of  iron 
were  found,  some  of  them  evidently  mere  fragments,  perhaps  of  the  same 
article,  and  all  of  them  so  much  corroded,  that  their  use  could  not  be 
determined.  One  is  a  rough  shapeless  lump  weighing  7£  Ibs.,  found  near 
the  surface,  close  to  the  sword.  I  may  add  that  all  the  objects  of  iron 
were  in  a  very  corroded  state,  and,  with  the  exception  of  the  knife-blade, 
fig.  5  (p.  215),  lay  near  the  surface. 

(To  le  continued.} 

BY  E.  A.  S.  MACALISTEE,  M.A. 

TN  July  of  last  year  (1896),  while  enjoying  the  hospitality  of  the 
Rev.  E.  F.  Hewson,  I  had  an  opportunity  of  examining  the  Gowran 
stone  for  the  third  and  fourth  time,  and  of  paying  my  first  visit  to  the 
comparatively  recent  discoveries  at  Legan  and  Lamogue.  The  Kilkenny 
Oghams  having  been  lately  the  subject  of  discussion,  the  present  seems 
to  be  a  favourable  opportunity  for  recording  some  observations  then 
made  by  me  upon  these  monuments. 

Two  or  three  years  ago,  when  open-air  epigraphy  was  to  some  extent 
a  new  subject  to  me,  I  visited  Gowran,  taking  with  me  copies  of  the 
transcripts  published  in  their  respective  books  by  Mr.  Brash  and  Sir  S. 
Ferguson.  I  then  thought  I  had  made  out  IQADIERACIAS  MAQI  ...  D  ... 
QO  MUCOI  .  .  .  ,  a  reading  which  nearly  agrees  in  number  and  position  of 
scores  with  Sir  S.  Ferguson's,  though  he  has  read  it  in  the  reverse  direc- 
tion. I  published  this  reading  in  the  Academy  for  29th  December 
1894,  marking  as  obscure  the  initial  IQ,  and  suggesting  that  EEACIAS 
might  be  a  form  of  the  more  common  EKCIAS.  This  reading,  however,  I 
must  withdraw,  as  there  are  several  errors  in  it. 

When  I  revisited  the  stone  last  year  I  had,  in  addition  to  the  two 
copies  mentioned  above  and  my  own,  the  copy  made  by  the  Rev.  E.  Barry, 
and  published  by  him  at  p.  350  of  the  Journal,  ser.  v.,  vol.  v.  I  went 
very  carefully  over  the  whole  inscription — a  process  much  easier  than  it 
formerly  was,  as  Canon  Hewson  has  brought  the  stone  out  of  the  ruined 
nave  of  his  fine  church,  to  the  chancel,  where  it  is  under  cover  and  in  a 
more  diffused  light — and  compared  it  with  these  copies.  I  came  to  the 
conclusion  that  all  four  transcripts  were  more  or  less  inaccurate. 

Mr.  Brash  is  the  most  correct,  but  he  errs  on  the  side  of  incomplete- 
ness. He  has,  moreover,  taken  two  accidental  flaws  on  the  top  of  the 
stone  as  a  G  ("  Og.  Mon.,"  p.  281). 

Sir  S.  Ferguson,  as  well  as  myself,  was  misled  by  some  chisel-marks 
before  the  IE  on  the  left-angle ;  these  are  not  Oghmic.  He  also  assumed 
the  existence  of  antitheticals,  reading  LASICAEEIGNI  when  he  must  have 
seen  LACISAKEIGNI  ;  and  he  also  read  MAQI  MUCOI  on  the  other  angle 
("Ogh.  Inscr.,"  pp.  74-5). 

I  cannot  satisfy  myself  that  the  word  LI,  read  by  Father  Barry,  is  on 
the  stone  ;  in  the  place  indicated  I  see  nothing  but  scratches,  to  me 
meaningless.  His  DALO,  too,  I  regard  as  impossible,  for  reasons  to 
be  presently  noted. 

I  do  not  think  that  the  inscription  was  cut  on  more  than  two  arrises, 

JOITU.   U.S. A. I.,  VOL.  VII.,  PT.  III.,   OTH  SF.K.  E 


or  that  anything  is  gained  by  inverting  the  old-established  order  of  read- 
ing.    I  now  read — 


Maqi  E  KAC  1         A       S      M    A 

11—  ««.  / 

...        D.I  MA      Q      AMU          C        O        1        ... 

Except  in  one  point  this  reading  agrees  with  that  of  Canon  Hewson  ; 
and  as  he  has  exceptional  opportunities  for  examining  the  stone,  this 
fact  affords  no  small  presumptive  evidence  of  accuracy. 

The  right  angle  is  the  more  easily  disposed  of,  and  we  shall  accord- 
ingly discuss  it  first.  It  commences  with  a  name  whose  only  certain 
letter  is  the  penultimate  D.  The  H-side  of  the  arris  is  here  smooth  and 
uninjured  ;  the  B-side  is  chipped  away  by  a  series  of  flakes.  The  damaged 
surface  is  triangular  in  shape,  the  apex  meeting  the  arris  before  the  two 
vowel  points.  Diagramatically  this  may  be  thus  represented — 

— 11  _ 


Now  it  is  obvious  to  anyone  inspecting  the  stone  (1)  that  no  over- 
scores  (HDTCQ,  scores)  except  the  D  could  have  existed  in  this  name  ;  (2) 
that  under-scores  (BLVSN  scores)  might  have  existed  before  the  D,  but 
none  could  have  existed  after  it,  for  their  ends  would  have  appeared 
below  the  line  of  chipping  (this  places  Mr.  Brash's  DEGO  and  Father 
Barry's  DALO  out  of  court) ;  (3)  that  the  name  must  have  been  very  short. 
From  (1)  and  (2)  it  follows  that  vowel-points  alone  followed  the  D  ; 
there  is  just  room  for  five  in  all,  so  I  read  i.  Some  such  name  as  BLADI 
or  BODI  would  satisfy  all  the  conditions. 

This,  however,  leads  us  to  an  anacoluthon,  for  ...  DI  would  be 
genitive,  and  MAQA  seemingly  nominative.  Such  a  grammatical  error 
does  not  surprise  us  in  Latin  inscriptions  Avritten  by  Celts,  as  in  TALOEI 
ADVENTI  MAQERAGI  FiLivs  at  Pant  y  Polion,  Caermarthen.  In  Professor 
Rhys' s  tentative  treatment  of  the  Bressay  stone  a  similar  anacoluthon 
is  postulated — 

the  cross      of  Nahhtvvddaftft's     daughter  (gen.}    wife  (now.)       of  Maqqddrroann 
;~0   .'  F~ 

But,  as  we  shall  see  in  considering  the  Legan  stone,  we  need  not 
assume  that  the  Kilkenny  engravers  could  not  write  their  vernacular 

The  stone  has  been  treated  as  a  building-stone  ;  to  adapt  it  as  such, 


the  entire  surface  has  been  spalled,  and  no  respect  has  been  paid  to  the 
inscription.  The  history  of  the  stone 'is  precisely  the  same  as  that  of 
the  Seskinan  and  Kilmolash  monuments.  A  vicious  series  of  spalls  has 
completely  carried  off  the  name  which  followed  HTTCOI,  and  not  a  score 
of  it  is  now  recoverable. 

Returning  now  to  the  left  angle  we  may  note,  first  of  all,  that  it  is 
quite  beyond  question  that  the  termination  of  the  name  here  written 
was  IAS,  not  os,  as  Mr.  Brash  gives  it. 

The  principal  crux  in  the  whole  inscription  is  the  initial  lacuna. 
Here  again  a  rough  diagram  may  be  employed  to  point  out  in  what  the 
difficulty  of  the  reading  lies  : — 


Before  the  i  the  arris  on  both  surfaces  is  chipped  away.  At  just  the 
proper  distance  from  the  i  to  allow  of  the  insertion  of  AQ,  is  the  end  of  the 
tail  of  an  M  ;  but  immediately  before  the  i  is  the  top  of  a  single  score, 
startlingly  like  an  H.  This  cannot  be  taken  as  the  last  score  of  the  Q, 
for  an  inspection  of  the  angle  will  show  that  the  ends  of  the  companion 
scores  would  have  survived  if  any  had  existed.  There  are  only  two 
alternatives— to  reject  the  M  as  one  of  the  many  flaws  in  the  stone,  and 
read  HIERACIAS  ;  or  to  reject  the  H,  and  read  MAQIERACIAS.  From  a  mere 
inspection  of  the  stone  alone,  either  course  might  be  followed  ;  but  argu- 
ment may  be  brought  to  bear  strongly  in  favour  of  the  latter  alternative. 

In  the  first  place  MAQIERACIAS,  in  the  form  MAQIERCIAS,  is  a  well- 
established  Oghmic  name.  We  find  it  at  Roovesmore  and  Coumeenoole  ; 
a  somewhat  later  form,  MAQQIERCCTA,  occurs  on  a  stone  now  at  Burnham. 
The  interpolated  A  is  merely  an  auxiliary  vowel,  such  as  is  interpolated 
into  words  like  "  arm,"  "helm,"  in  Ireland  to-day. 

Secondly,  the  seeming  H  score  would,  if  complete,  be  somewhat 
longer  than  the  other  consonantal  side  scores  in  the  inscription.  On  the 
other  hand  the  hypothetical  Q  scores  would  be  somewhat  shorter.  There 
is  a  spall  knocked  off  the  angle,  slightly  to  the  left  of  H,  which  would 
exactly  account  for  them. 

Thirdly,  -IAS  is  a  feminine  genitive  termination,  and  a  prefixed  MAQI  is 
required  to  masculinise  the  name  and  make  it  stand  in  proper  apposition 
with  the  following  MAQI.  The  masculine  form,  corresponding  to  ERCIAS, 
is  *ERCAS,  later  ERCA,  which  is  given  us  at  Bally eightragh. 

Fourthly,  for  anything  analogous  to  HIERACIAS  we  should  have  to 
(1)  go  to  Greece,  (2)  assume  the  existence  of  a  digraph  IE  in  Oghams, 
(3)  assume  a  Greek  with  a  father  whose  name  made  a  genitive  in  i,  and 
whose  parentage  was  sufficiently  well-known  in  Ireland  to  be  traced  at 
least  to  a  grandfather. 



Fifthly,  the  letter  H  has  not  yet  been  found  in  a  Celtic  Ogham  of  the 
Ogham  period,  and  perhaps  we  may  he  almost  safe  in  saying  will  not. 
Of  course  in  late  revivals  of  the  Ogham,  written  after  H  had  been  adopted 
as  a  symbol  of  the  "  aspiration"  of  consonants,  wo  naturally  find  H  ; 
thus  the  Clonmacnoise  stone  gives  us  BOCHT,  the  Kilmallock  ink-bottle 
MOCHOLMOG,  and  the  St.  Gall  Priscian  MINCHASC.  These,  however,  do  not 
date  from  the  "  classical "  Ogham  period.  All  instances  of  its  use  in  what 
may  be  called  true  Oghams,  given  by  Brash  and  others,  are  erroneous.  Thus 
SAHATTOS,  at  Colbinstown,  ought  to  be  IVACATTOS  ;  FAUAHG,  at  Tullaherin, 
should  be  viu  .  .  .or  possibly  VIAR  .  .  .  ;  while  the  mysterious  HABAM,  at 
Ross  Hill,  I  have  found  to  be  merely  a  set  of  scratches  without  any 
meaning  whatever.  The  letter  occurs  freely  in  the  Pictish  stones ;  but 
these  can  hardly  be  brought  in  as  evidence  in  a  question  of  Celtic  use. 

It  might  be  asked  why,  if  it  was  never  used,  this  letter  was  provided 
with  a  place  in  the  alphabet.  The  same  might  be  asked  of  -//ft  , 
which  occurs  once  only.  This  would  lead  us  too  far  out  of  our  way  to 
discuss  at  present,  as  it  involves  the  whole  question  of  the  origin  of  the 
Ogham  alphabet — a  subject  which  is,  to  say  the  least,  obscure.  But 
one  little  hint  might  be  given.  It  is  generally  assumed  that  the  Ogham 
is  a  Celtic  invention  ;  but  is  this  so  ?  Judging  from  the  frequency  with 
which  these  two  characters  are  used  in  the  few  inscriptions  in  the  Pictish 
tongue  which  we  have,  it  certainly  seems  to  fit  that  language  better  than 
the  Celtic.1 

Leaving  this  question  thus  at  the  threshold,  and  returning  to  the 
Gowran  stone,  we  must  now  examine  an  important  problem  connected 
with  it — namely,  the  relative  date  of  the  cross  and  the  writing. 

Here  we  find  ourselves  on  the  horns  of  several  dilemmas  at  once  ;  but 
the  questions  involved  can  be  reduced  to  two  :  was  the  stone  intended  to 
stand  upright  or  lie  flat  ?  and,  is  the  sibilant  genitive  a  proof  oi  early  date  ? 

1.  If  the  stone  was  meant  to  stand  upright,  cadit  quaestio  ;  the 
cross  is  later  than  the  Ogham  :  for  I  have  too  much  confidence  in  the 
common  sense  of  the  inhabitants  of  Ireland  during  the  Ogham  period  to 
believe  in  the  intentional  burial  of  either  one  or  the  other.  Here  I  will, 
no  doubt,  be  reminded  of  the  Fothad  Airgthech  story  in  the  "  Lebor 
na  h-Uidre"  ;  but  (1)  this  story  is  from  its  nature  obviously  mythical, 
and  of  less  value  archa3ologically  than  from  the  point  of  view  of  the 
folklorist :  (2)  the  writer  of  the  tale  in  its  present  form  clearly  knew 
little  or  nothing  of  actual  Ogham  inscriptions,  for  otherwise  he  would 
not  have  cast  his  legend  in  a  formula  entirely  foreign  to  their  usual 
purport  (the  change  from  Fothad  to  Eoehaid,  of  which  much  has  been 
made,  merely  shows  that  the  scribe  was  sleepy,  or  his  exemplar  damaged) : 
•(3)  the  burial  of  the  inscription  is,  I  suspect,  introduced  for  dramatic 

1  The  scribe  of  the  "Book  of  Ballymote"  seems  to  have  had  an  inkling  of  a 
possible  non-Aryan  origin  for  the  Ogham  script:  for  he  assigns  it  to  the  Tuatha  De 
Dunann,  whatever  the  exact  meaning  of  this  ascription  may  be. 


effect  merely  ;  how  tame  it  would  have  been  had  Cailte  read  the  inscrip- 
tion straight  off,  instead  of  prophesying  that  certain  specified  words 
would  he  found  underground! 

But  it  is  not  certain  that  the  Gowran  stone  was  not  regarded  as 
a  flag,  meant  to  lie  with  its  cross-signed  surface  uppermost.  The  smooth- 
ness of  this  face  renders  this  conceivable,  and  I  hardly  think  the  blank 
butt  is  long  enough  to  have  held  the  stone  firmly  in  the  ground.  But 
possibly  the  masons  have  shortened  it. 

2.  If,  again,  we  could  assign  a  certain  fixed  date  before  which  to 
place  inscriptions  with  sibilant  genitives,  and  after  which  to  place  the 
remainder  of  our  monuments,  we  might  hope  to  settle  this  and  many 
other  questions.  But  it  seems  to  me  impossible  to  do  so.  I  do  not 
think  we  can  go  further  than  to  say  that  given  two  inscriptions  in  the 
same  district,  of  which  one  displays  sibilant  genitives  and  the  other  does 
not,  then  the  former  may  be  regarded  as  the  older.  Thus,  Ardmore  I 
may  be  regarded  as  older,  perhaps  considerably  so,  than  Kilgrovane  I  ; 
but  I  should  be  very  sorry  to  regard  all  stones  with  s-genitives  as  being 
as  old  as  the  Ardmore  stone.  We  do  not  know  whether,  in  that  non- 
literary  age,  the  changes  of  language  took  place  at  equal  rates  all 
over  Ireland;  and  allowance  must  be  made  (1)  for  the  revival  of  the 
s  in  one  or  two  late  stones  as  a  kind  of  affectation  of  archaism,  and 
(2)  for  the  retention  of  the  s  by  some  names  longer  than  others.  The 
Arraglen  stone  is,  perhaps,  the  best  example  of  the  first.  Here  we  have 
QBIMITIEEOS,  associated  with  COMOGANN,  a  form  which  (compared  with 
COIMAGNI  at  the  neighbouring  Ballinvoher)  shows  the  former  stone  to 
be  somewhat  later  than  the  latter  —  itself  by  no  means  an  early  inscrip- 
tion. Of  names  which  retained  the  s  later  than  others,  one  example  is 
EECE,  the  very  name  which  we  have  here  at  Gowran.  We  have  IVTAQI- 
ERCIAS  associated  with  BOVINIA[S]  at  Coumeenooie, 

The  Leg  an  stone  is  difficult  to  read  ;  my  copy  differs  in  two  places 
from  Father  Barry's  — 


The  first  difficulty  in  this  inscription  is  -^--#*-**M+-.  I  have  no 
theory  to  proffer  as  to  its  meaning  ;  but  some  obvious  general  state- 
ments can  be  made  concerning  it. 

1  .  It  cannot  be  a  verb,  for  it  is  never  at  the  commencement  of  the 
sentence,  and  is  always  constructed  with  genitives. 

2.  It  cannot  be  a  noun  in  the  nominative  case,  for  Celtic  syntax 
would  require  it  to  precede  the  word  which  would  depend  on  it  —  here 

3.  It  might  be  a  noun  in  the  genitive,  in  apposition  to  LOEBI,  with 
MAQQU-MUCCOI  depending  on  it  ;  but  this  does  not  seem  probable. 


226          ROYAL   SOCIETY    OF    ANTIQUARIES    OF    IRELAND. 

4.  It  invariably  follows  the  principal  name,  therefore  probably 
qualifies  it  in  some  way,  and  is  -therefore  probably  an  adjective  in  the 
genitive  case. 

The  nominative  would  most  likely  be  *KOOS,  or  perhaps  *KOE,  like 
KOSTECE,  LUGUVVE,  ivvENE  ;  and  the  word  KOI  would  of  course  be  dis- 
syllabic, just  as  MUCOI  is  trisyllabic  (mucoi). 

Adjectives,  or  their  equivalents,  are  common  enough  in  MSS.  as 
qualifying  adjuncts  to  proper  names  :  e.g.  Bodb  Derg,  Brian  Borama. 
But  they  are  extremely  rare  in  Oghams  —  one,  equally  obscure  in  mean- 
ing, occurs  in  the  Whitefield  (?)  inscription  — 


It  follows,  from  the  frequency  of  the  word,  that  KOI  must  represent 
some  elementary  attribute,  probably  introduced  to  distinguish  the  person 
so  qualified  from  some  co-parental  namesake  :  the  case  of  the  three 
Collas  is  a  well-known  example  of  the  inconvenient  practice  of  calling- 
several  brothers  by  the  same  name.  Some  such  meaning  as  "young" 
would  suit  requirements,  though  it  should  go  without  saying  that  I  do 
not  desire  to  suggest  analogies  between  KOI  and  65. 

The  next  words,  MAQQU-MUCCOI,  recall  the  MAQA-MOCOI  in  a  similar 
position  at  Gowran.  In  both  places  the  construction  seems  to  me 
analogous  to  that  quasi-  agglutination  which  Prof.  Ilhys  has  detected 
in  some  Irish  Oghams.  Thus  we  have  — 

BIR  MAQI  MUCOI  ROTTAis,       ;/•••.      .         .         ,         Drumloghan, 

TOGITTACC    MAQI   SAGARETTOS,  "    .  .  . 

and  several  others,  where  BIR-MAQ  and  similar  combinations  are  treated 
as  one  word  with  a  common  genitive  ending  ;  BIR-MAQI  for  BIRI  MAQI. 

Before  applying  this  principle  to  the  stone  before  us,  it  will  be  neces- 
sary to  determine  what  meaning  we  are  to  assign  to  MUCOI.  Here  I 
must  confess  myself  unable  to  follow  Father  Barry.  At  p.  351,  in  his 
first  paper  on  the  Kilkenny  stones,  he  says:  —  "In  texts  of  the  Old 
Irish  period,  MOCCU-,  MOCU-,  and  MAcetf-,  in  the  sense  of  remote  descen- 
dant, are  found  in  compound  family  names,"  and  gives  a  series  of 
examples  ;  further  on  he  alludes  to  the  confusion  which  subsequently 
arose  between  this  element  and  mac  ui.  Yet  on  Oghams  he  simply 
takes  MUCOI  to  be  a  variant  of  MAQI,  to  distinguish  a  common  noun  from 
a  member  of  a  proper  name.  This,  so  far  as  I  know,  is  unsubstantiated, 
and  seems  to  me  to  be  strained  ;  and  one  important  item  in  his  argument 
is  not  quite  accurate  :  namely,  that  "  in  perfect  inscriptions  MUCOI,  with 
or  without  an  intervening  proper  name,  is  ever  preceded  by  a  MAQI." 

1  The  nominative  form  -AC  shows  that  the  inscription  must  be  divided  as  thus 
given,  and  not  into  GOSOCTEAS  MOSAC  MAKI  M,  as  analogies  with  Lugnagappul,  &c., 
would  lead  us  to  suppose. 

NOTES    ON    SOME    OF    THE    KILKENNY    OGHAMS.  227 

THe  italics  are  mine.  That  there  are  exceptions  to  the  rule  the  following 
list  will  show:  — 

ANAVLAMATTIAS  MUCOI  maqiELURi  AVI  AKEEAS,  Roovesmore  I,  Cork, 
FEQEEQ  MOQOI  GLUNLEGGET,         .         .         .     Monataggart  I,  Cork, 
CONUNETT  MOQI  coNUEi,  .         .         .     Camp,  Kerry  [F.], 

GOSOCT  .  s  MUCOI  MAQiE  .  .  .,       .         .         .     Garranmillon  I,   Water- 
ford  [H.],, 

...  GNI  MUCOI  GUN  ...  .         .         .     Kilgrovane    IV,    Water- 


COLLABOTA  MUCOI  LUMMINA  MAQI  LAPACCA,  .     Dromore,  Waterford, 
(?)BIVODON  MUCOI  ATAK,  .         .         .     Kilbeg,  Waterford, 

all  in  the  genitive  ;  and— 

CATABAR  MOCO  FiMiQOEB,  .         .         .     Ballyquin,    "Waterford 

[*•],   . 
LUGUVVE  MOCCO  MAQIMEQ  .  .  .,     .         .         .     Aghacarrible  III, 

in  the  nominative. 

Bearing  in  mind  Father  Barry's  quotations,  from  the  "  Book  of 
Armagh,"  which  is  as  near  to  the  Ogham  period  as  our  MS.  literature 
can  bring  us,  there  is  nothing  in  these  inscriptions  to  prevent  our  trans- 
lating MOCO  as  "  descendant."  And  we  are  justified  in  this,  when  we 
remember  how  MUCOI  is  associated  in  three  groups  of  stones,  with  appa- 
rently tribal  or  eponymic  names  ;  DOVINIA(S),  four  times  in  Corkaguiney  ; 
TOICAC(I),  thrice  at  Dunloe  ;  KETASEGAMONAS,  twice  (?  thrice)  in  the  Decies. 
The  Dunloe  stones  are  especially  instructive.  I  have  not  seen  them,  but 
the  latest  copies  are  : — 




Here,  if  MUCOI  =  son,  No.  2,  with  all  its  s-genitives,  must  be  contemporary 
with  1,  and  only  a  generation  older  than  3.  It  is  fair  to  compare  stones 
of  the  same  group  thus  together,- and  to  pronounce  this  impossible.2 

1  [F.]  denotes  that  Sir  S.  Ferguson,  and  [H.]  that  Canon  Hewson,  is  responsible 
for  the  reading  selected  ;  those  unmarked  are  all  from  my  own  notes.     One  reading 
would  bring  Drumloghan  VI  into  this  list ;  on  the  other  hand,  a  variant  lection  would 
strike  Garranmillon  1  out  of  it.     I  have  queried  the  Kilbeg  reading,  on  which  Brash, 
Professor  Rhys,  and  myself  were  agreed,  on  account  of  the  revolutionary  transcript 
of  it  published  by  Father  Barry.     The  Kilgrovane  stone,  even  if  it  did  begin  with 
MAQI,  is  in  place  here,  for  the  MAQI,  being  at  the  commencement  of  the  inscription, 
^was  part  of  the  name  which  followed.    I  am  not  quite  certain  of  the  two  last  names  in 
the  Dromore  inscription  ;  but  of  the  essential  portion — its  formula — I  have  no  doubt. 

2  DEGOS  lost  its  s  in  the  genitive .  later  than  some  other  names,  as  is  shown  by 
Drumloghan   X,    DEAGOS   MAQI  MUCOI  .  .  .  ENAI  (for  .  .  .  ENAIS).      This  fact  lends 
additional  weight  to  the  argument  as  far  as  the  relative  date  of  Nos.  1  and  2-  are 
concerned.     No.  3  is  supposed  later  than  No.  2,  because  TOICACI  has  shed  its  final  i: 
but  perhaps  an  i  has  been  lost  from  the  stone. 


MTJCO  must,  however,  mean  something  more  than  "descendant"; 
for  then  we  should  be  unable  to  distinguish  between  A.  MTJCOI  B.  and 
A.  MAQI  MTJCOI  B.  The  descendant,  i.e.  the  head  of  the  clan  descended 
from  the  ancestor  named,  seems  best  to  fit  the  sense  required.  This 
would  give  MUCO  a  kind  of  honourable  sense  ;  and  it  is  not  irrelevant  to 
notice  that  the  majority  of  stones  commemorating  a  MUCO  are  of  large  size, 
as  though  by  their  barbaric  grandeur  to  do  increased  honour  to  the  memory 
of  the  chief.  The  Roovesmore,  Monataggart,  Camp,  Garranmillon,  and 
Ballyquin  stones  are  exceptionally  large  ;  the  others  are  of  respect- 
able dimensions  ;  the  Dromore  stone  seems  to  be  the  surviving  member 
of  a  once  remarkable  and  elaborate  monument.  If  Professor  Rhys* 
brilliant  equation  of  the  name  TOBANIAS,  on  the  Ballycrovane  stone, 
to  the  name  of  the  Gaulish  goddess,  TUEANIS,  be  accepted,  AVI  on  that 
stone  must  be  equivalent  to  MTJCOI,  and  its  colossal  dimensions  may  also 
be  used  as  an  illustration  of  this  general  principle. 

The  formula  MAQA-MUCOI  would  then  assume  a  definite  meaning,  "  son 
of  the  chief,"  not  unlike  the  modern  "  heir  apparent  "  ;  l  and  its  occa- 
sional treatment  as  one  simple  word  would  be  natural.  The  Legan  stone 
gives  us  a  later,  but  almost  identical  form  ;  for  as  QU  =  Q,  and  QQU  =  QQ 
=  Q,  and  cc  =  c  in  Oghams,  MAQQU-MUCCOI  =  MAQMUCOT. 

I  read  the  eponymic  name  EEINI,  though  with  some  little  doubt  about 
the  last  three  letters  ;  the  N  is  badly  cut,  and  is  not  at  right  angles  to 
the  stem  line.  The  doubled  E  seems  certain  to  me  ;  compare  ERUANAN 
at  Aghadoe  and  MAQI-EEEODAGNI  at  Ballyknock,  and  with  the  whole 
name,  BINT  at  Fardell,  Devonshire. 

The  Lamogue  stones  are  very  interesting  additions  to  our  epigraphic 
record.  Jn  accordance  with  the  practice  which  I  usually  follow,  I  shall 
treat  the  SEVEREIT  stone  as  Lamogue  I,  that  being  the  order  adopted  by 
the  first  published  (Canon  Hewson's)  copy,  though  having  regard  to  the 
relative  importance  of  the  two  I  should  have  been  inclined  to  commence 
with  the  other. 

At  the  stone  itself  I  made  — 

the  penultimate  E  being  four  broken  notches  in  the  stone,  and  my  rubbing 
shows  the  same  thing;  but  philological  considerations  as  well  as  the 
careful  examination  of  a  photograph,  which  I  took,  makes  me  think  that 
Father  Barry  is  probably  right  in  reading  AIS.  There  is  no  such  termi- 
nation in  Oghams  as  -ES,*  and  this  fact  struck  me  at  the  time  of  my 

1  This  modern  instance  is  merely  quoted  as  a  rough  parallel  :  of  course  the  chief's 
son  was  by  no  means  always  the  heir  apparent. 

2  Brash's  CAKKICES  is  wrong,  being  properly,  as  well  as  I  can  make  out,  CARUICAI. 
In  AVITTORIGES  the  termination  is  not  -ES,  but  -GES,  a  variant  of  -IAS,  just  as  is  -GAS 
•in  the  very  interesting  Dingle  fragment,  where  we  have  [AV  FJETORIGAS.     Compare 


NOTES    ON    SOME    OF    THE    KILKENNY    OGHAMS.  229 

examination  of  the  stone,  but  stupidly  enough  it  did  not  occur  to  me  to 
look  for  an  alternative  reading. 

I  cannot,  however,  agree  with  Father  Barry's  restoration  of  the 
missing  part  of  the  inscription  :  there  is  not  room  for  it.  The  T  of 
SEVERRIT  is  just  under  the  shoulder  of  the  stone,  which  is,  I  think, 
original,  not  formed  by  fracture.  The  letters  that  once  were  on  the  top 
are  lost,  not  by  fracture  of  the  upper  part  of  the  stone,  but  by  extensive 
spalling.  Canon  Hewson,  in  whose  company  I  visited  Lamogue,  agreed 
with  me  that  there  was  hardly  room  even  for  MAQI. 

The  termination  -AIS  I  am  inclined  to  regard  rather  as  an  early  form 
of  -AI  (as  -AS  is  of  -A),  than  of  a  genitive  by  attenuation  of  a  nominative 
-AS.  We  find  it  in  the  name  DOLATIBIGAIS,  on  the  Ardmore  stone,  in 
company  with  unquestionably  early  genitives,  while  the  seemingly  late 
form  BIK,  at  Drtimloghan,  has  already  been  explained  as  an  example  of 
£w<m-agglutmation,  and,  therefore,  probably  rather  early. 

Lamogue  II  is  more  interesting  and  even  more  perplexing.  I 
make — 


D      O     V     A       T        TJ        C          I 

--m-lL+H-^-ilL- ,- 

V       UDU       L     A      T      A      N       AG          I        A 


"When  I  saw  Canon  Hewson's  description  of  this  monument,  at  p.  27 
of  the  Journal  for  1896,  I  at  once  suspected  that  AVI  had  a  place  in  the 
inscription.  But  at  the  spot  I  could  not  identify  any  such  word.  It 
seemed  to  me  then  that  there  never  had  been  any  characters  in  the  five 
inches  between  the  end  of  DOVATTJCI  and  the  commencement  of  VTJD, 
&c. ;  in  fact,  that  the  former,  an  obvious  and  well-known  name,  was 
separated  from  the  rest  of  the  legend,  as  is  FEQREQ  on  the  Monataggart 
stone.  Nor  could  I  find  more  than  three  points  between  the  second  v  and 
the  D  :  the  first  and  third  are  marked  in  my  note  as  faint.  The  third 
character  of  the  second  group  of  letters  I  made  D,  not  T.  I  remember 
considering  the  possibility  of  this  character  having  three  scores,  but 
rejecting  it.  The  sixth,  like  the  eighth,  I  make  to  consist  of  one 
vowel-point  only,  in  the  centre  of  a  space  unusually  long — 3£  in.  I 
also  recollect  reading  this  sixth  character  as  o  at  first,  but  making  A  in 
a  second  reading.  The  vowels  are  drilled  out,  not  punched.  I  accepted 
the  final  A,  but  Father  Barry  seems  to  have  disposed  of  it. 

As  to  the  interpretation  of  the  inscription,  I  cannot  claim  to  have 
made  much  progress  j  but  I  take  it  the  verbation  would  be — 


in  which  word-division  I  am  largely  influenced  by  a  mysterious  inscrip- 
tion at  Kinard  in  Kerry,  near  Dingle.     Here  we  have 



A  tentative  analysis  of  this  inscription  claims  a  short  digression.  In 
the  first  place  I  gather  from  what  appears,  to  be  an  incidental  reference  to 
it  in  Professor  Rhys'  analysis  of  the  inscriptions  seen  at  the  Joint  Meeting 
of  the  R.  S.  A.  I.  and  the  Cambrian  Archseological  Society,  in  Kerry, 
and  from  Father  Barry's  inclusion  of  it  in  a  list  of  inscriptions  show- 
ing the  word  AFI  (AVI),  that  both  these  authorities  read  it  in  the 
inverse  direction  ;  and  certainly  part  of  it,  so  read,  yields  the  satisfactory 
sequence  of  letters  LLOTJTI  AVI.  But  I  examined  this  stone  with  all 
possible  care  last  summer,  considering  especially  its  interpretation  when 
read  thus ;  I  failed,  however,  to  find  anything  intelligible  in  the 
SANGATU  which  certainly  precedes  the  LLOTITI,  or  the  equally  embarrass- 
ing SEUSA,  which  follows  the  AVI.  Moreover,  the  transcript  above  set 
forth  follows  the  ordinary  course  of  reading :  the  reader  stands  with 
the  inscribed  angle  to  his  left,  commences  from  the  bottom  (in  this 
prostrate  stone  satisfactorily  marked  out  by  the  blank  end  that  once 
stood  in  the  ground)  and  reads  up  to  the  top  along  the  top  arris. 

The  initial  A  is  probably  some  separate  vocable,  and  possibly  an 
abbreviation  for  ANM — though  it  is  always  objectionable  to  take  a  diffi- 
cult letter  or  series  of  letters  in  an  inscription  for  an  abbreviation  till  all 
other  possibilities  have  been  excluded.  At  any  rate  an  inscription  at 
Ballintaggart  seems  to  show  the  same  phenomenon  of  a  prosthetic  A: 
here  we  have  A  XEVEITTI,  where  KEV  is  apparently  a  phonetic  expression 
of  the  sound  of  Q  (=  QV)  ;  the  name  being,  as  I  take  it,  the  same  as  the 
<IRITTI  that  the  Ballyneanig  stone  gives  us.  CUECITAIVI  recalls  CUKO- 
CEiwivi,  found  at  Trallong,  according  to  one  reading ;  it  is,  no  doubt, 
equivalent  to  the  CURCITTI  of  another  of  the  Ballintaggart  group,  and 
both  are  clearly  derivatives  (diminutives  ?)  from  CURC.  The  concluding 
word  DUVANGAC  may  possibly  be  a  derivative  adjective  from  the  name 
Duben,  the  genitive  of  which  we  have  in  the  form  DOVINIA(S)  several 
times  in  the  barony  of  Corkaguiney,  and  which  was  the  name  of  the 
eponymous  ancestress  of  the  race  which  inhabited  that  district ;  the  N  I 
regard  as  gutturalised  into  NG  by  the  attraction  of  the  c.  The  residual 
VOD,  which  also  appears  at  Lamogue,  is  very  puzzling.  One  interpreta- 
tion only  has  occurred  to  me,  which  I  do  not  regard  as  other  than  a  wild 
piece  of  guesswork,  almost  overstepping  the  bounds  of  legitimate  con- 
jecture :  namely,  that  VO-D  =  fui-t  =  Old  Irish  ba,  bu.  The  most  that 
can  be  said  for  this  rendering  is  that  it  makes  sense  on  the  Kinard  stone, 
especially  having  regard  to  the  seemingly  nominative  form  of  DUVANGAC  : 
but  the  genitives  on  the  Lamogue  stone  are  in  the  way  of  such  an  inter- 

A  word  about  the  transliteration  of  -j|y  in  conclusion.  The  only 
authority  for  rendering  this  F  universally  is  the  Bally  mote  and  similar 
keys ;  but  these,  with  every  respect  to  their  authors,  were  written  at  a 
non-critical  time,  long  after  Ogham  had  ceased  as  a  medium  of  communi- 
cation ;  and  the  puerilities  of  which  the  scribes  were  guilty  in  their 

NOTES    ON    SOME    OF    THE    KILKENNY    OGHAMS.  231 

"  variations  "  on  the  Ogham  theme  considerably  weaken  their  evidence. 
Contemporary  documents,  on  the  other  hand,  unanimously  render  the 
letter  by  v,  both  medially  and  initially  :  I  allude,  of  course,  to  the 
bilinguals  of  South  Britain  and  Ireland.  But  Oghmic  -jjp  passes 
initially  into  Old  Irish  /,  medially  into  I  :  and  in  some  late  inscriptions 
-yyy,  in  initial  position,  does  apparently  equal  r ;  thus  we  probably  have 

FEQEEQ  at  Monataggart,  FUR-DDRANN  at  Tinnehally.     Assuming  the  cor- 


rectness  of  the  published  copy  of^  Eathcroghan  I,  which  I  have  not 
seen,  both  transformations  are  exemplified  by  it ;  for  its  VEAICCI  MAQJ 
MEDVVI  is  certainly  "  of  Fraech,  son  of  Medb  "- — quite  independently  of 
the  (most  improbable)  contingency  of  this  being  actually  the  memorial 
of  the  Fraech,  who  married,  or  wanted  to  marry,  our  great  national 
heroine's  daughter  Findabar. 

It  is  with  considerable  diffidence  that  I  thus  venture  to  question 
some  of  Father  Barry's  readings  and  deductions,  and  I  need  hardly  say 
that  it  is  in  no  cavilling  spirit  that  I  do  so.  I  have  nothing  but  admira- 
tion for  the  zeal,  learning,  and  ingenuity  he  has  shown  in  the  interpre- 
tation of  these  ancient  epigraphs.  But  it  is  only  by  opposing  theory  to 
theory,  and  reading  to  reading,  that  we  can  hope  ultimately  to  attain  the 
truth  in  a  subject  beset  with  so  many  difficulties. 



(Concluded  from  page  239,   Vol.   VL,  Fifth  Series.} 

have  seen  that  there  is  not  a  particle  of  trustworthy  evidence  to 
prove  that  Raymond  Le  Gros  left  any  issue.  On  the  contrary, 
Giraldus,  his  cousin-german,  contemporary,  and  warm  admirer,  distinctly 
tells  us  he,  Raymond,  left  no  issue  by  his  wife,  Basilia  ;  nor  does  Giral- 
dus say,  as  he  does  of  some  other  invaders,  that  he  left  illegitimate 
children,  while  the  State  Papers  and  old  records  show  that  his 
nephew,  William  de  Carew,  son  of  his  eldest  brother,  Odo  de  Carew, 
succeeded  to  his  lands  in  Leinster.  It  is  therefore  amongst  some  of 
Raymond's  numerous  nephews  and  grand-nephews,  living  in  the  thir- 
teenth century  in  Leinster,  Munster,  and  Connaught,  that  we  must  look 
for  the  heirs  of  such  lands  as  he,  with  the  help  of  his  brothers,  acquired 
in  Ireland.  To  identify  and  trace  with  perfect  accuracy  the  descent  of 
that  one  of  Raymond's  nephews,  or  grand-nephews,  who  founded  the 
baronial  family  at  Lixnaw,  is  an  impossibility  at  present,  nor  can  it 
ever  be  done  until  all  the  medieval  Irish  State  Papers  have  been 
calendared  on  the  plan  adopted  by  Mr.  Sweetman,  by  competent  Irish 
scholars  :  (see  Journal,  vol.  vi.,  Fifth  Ser.,  p.  233). 

But  by  a  careful  study  of  those  mediaeval  Irish  State  Papers  which 
Mr.  Sweetman  and  Mr.  Handcock  have  calendared  so  well,  and  by  col- 
lating those  documents  with  such  portions  of  the  Irish  annals  and  tra- 
ditions as  are  trustworthy  in  genealogical  matters,  we  may  certainly  be 
able  to  correct  the  errors  of  the  modern  pedigree-makers,  and  to  form  a 
reasonable  judgment  about  the  origin  of  this  ancient  baronial  family 
whose  history  for  many  generations  was  virtually  the  history  of  Kerry. 
It  is  necessary  when  beginning  our  researches  to  bear  in  mind  that, 
between  1200  and  1500,  surnames,  as  we  understand  them,  were  only  in 
process  of  formation,  and  that  the  process  in  Ireland  and  Wales  was 
much  slower  than  in  England.  Lodge  and  Archdall  (Peerage  of  Ireland, 
vol.  ii.,  p.  185,  Ed.  1789)  say,  that  the  founder  of  Ardfert  Friary,  in  or 
about  1253,  was  the  first  to  assume  the  surname  of  Fitz  Maurice.  But 
the  State  Papers  prove  that  this  was  not  the  case,  and  that  for  many 
generations  after  that  date  the  Lords  of  Kerry  used  patronymics,  as  did 
their  Geraldine  cousins  of  Desmond  and  Leinster,  causing  some  confusion 
in  their  genealogies  before  the  creation  of  the  Earldoms  of  Kildare  and 
Desmond.  Raymond  Le  Gros,  as  he  was  nicknamed,  signed  himself 

ARDFERT    FRIARY,    AND    FITZ  MAURICES    OF    KERRY.         233 

Raymond  Fitz  William,  as  the  son  of  William  Fitz  Gerald,  elder  brother 
of  Maurice  Fitz  Gerald  (v.  Giraldus,  Book  i.,  chap,  xiii.,  and  Journal, 
vol.  vi.,  p.  227,  Fifth  Series) ;  and  Raymond's  younger  brother,  Griffin, 
also  used  the  patronymic ;  while  Odo,  their  eldest  brother,  called  him- 
self Odo  de  Carew,  from  his  lordship  of  Carew  Castle  in  Wales  (Ibid. 
p.  230).  The  sons  of  Griffin  called  themselves  Gilbert,  Matthew,  Ray- 
mond, and  Griffin  Fitz  Griffin  ;  while  their  sons  and  some  of  the  grand- 
sons of  Odo  de  Carew  used  the  patronymics  of  Fitz  Raymond,  Fitz 
Nicholas,  and,  sometimes,  the  territorial  surname,  de  Carew,  indifferently. 
We  have  seen  (ttid.  p.  232)  that  the  pedigree  of  William  Fitz  Gerald's 
descendants  drawn  up  by  Anstis,  Ulster  King,  and  shown  by  Mr.  Pole 
Carew  of  Anthony,  in  Cornwall,  to  the  late  Sir  John  Maclean,  F.S.A., 
was  proved  correct  by  Sir  John's  exhaustive  researches  in  the  unpublished 
State  Papers  of  the  thirteenth  century,  so  far,  that  is,  as  it  related  to  Odo 
de  Carew,  eldest  brother  and  heir  of  Raymond,  and  Odo's  son,  William 
de  Carew,  in  1213  ;  and  the  fact  that  he,  William,  was  a  Geraldine,  not 
a  Montgomery,  as  some  genealogists  asserted  he  was.  Anstis  also  was 
correct  in  stating  that  Odo  had  three  brothers,  viz.  Raymond  Le  Gros, 
who  died  s.  p.,  William,  and  Griffin  ;  but  Anstis  was  wrong  in  stating 
that  Griffin  died  s.  p.\  and  Sir  John  Maclean  followed  him  in  this  error, 
because  when  he  wrote  in  1851,  the  thirteenth-century  State  Papers 
relating  to  Ireland  had  not  been  arranged  and  calendared.  At  page  184 
of  the  third  volume,  Fifth  Series,  of  this  Journal,  in  a  very  interesting 
Paper  on  the  Kilkenny  Geraldines,  Mr.  G.  D.  Burtchaell,  Fellow, 
quotes  a  register  of  the  monastery  at  Kells,  in  Kilkenny,  preserved  in 
Trinity  College  Library,  which  states  that  Griffin  Fitz  William  left 
two  sons,  Matthew  and  Griffin,  and  that  the  last-mentioned  left  two 
sons,  Raymond  and  Gilbert.  But  Mr.  Burtchaell  admits,  in  a  foot- 
note, that  an  Inquisition  amongst  the  State  Papers  of  1290,  calen- 
dared by  Mr.  Sweetman,  proves  that  this  pedigree  in  the  register  of  the 
Kells  monastery  is  wrong.  This  register  seems  to  be  only  a  copy  of  an 
original,  written  probably  in  the  fifteenth  century  ;  and  for  this  and 
other  good  reasons,  it  cannot  be  accepted  as  correct  against  the  legal 
evidence  of  the  following  Inquisition  of  1290.  Still,  on  one  point,  the 
monastic  register  does  supply  an  omission  in  the  Inquisition  by  giving 
Griffin  Fitz  William  a  son  named  Griffin.  This  omission,  however,  is  not 
an  error,  but  was  simply  caused  by  this  Griffin  Fitz  Griffin  not  being  in 
any  way  concerned  with  the  legal  proceedings  disclosed  in  the  Inqui- 
sition. We  have  full  evidence,  however,  that  he  existed  and  was  a 
magnate  of  Ireland  in  1220.  He  is  mentioned  in  a  Charter  of  Thomas 
Fitz  Anthony,  Lord  of  Decies  and  Desmond,  before  1224,  granting  lands 
to  the  Cistercian  monastery  of  St.  Mary's,  Dublin.  In  this  Charter, 
calendared  by  Sir  J.  T.  Gilbert,  P.S.A.,  he  is  called  "  Griffin  filio  Griffini 
tune  Vice-Comite  de  Dungarvan."  In  1218  the  Bishop  of  Waterford 
complained  to  the  King  and  Council  that  Fitz  Anthony  and  Griffin  Fitz 


Griffin,  had  unjustly  disseised  him  of  the  castle  and  lands  of  Lismore, 
Ardmore,  and  Ardfinnan  (Calendar,  1.  S.  P.,  vol.  i.,  p.  126). 

Mr.  Sweetman  in  the  third  vol.  of  his  Calendars  of  same,  has  the  fol- 
lowing abstract  of  the  above-mentioned  Inquisition  : — 

"  DUBLIN,  May  6th,  1290.— The  jurors  upon  their  oath  say,  that 
Raymond  Le  Gros  enfeoffed  his  brother  Griffin  Fitz  "William,  of 
Fynnore  and  Kells  in  Fothered,  for  the  service  of  two  knights  of 
his  Court  at  the  Castle  of  Fothered,  and  that  after  Griffin's  death, 
Gilbert,  his  son  and  heir,  succeeded  to  his  inheritance,  that  Gilbert 
begot  a  daughter  named  Clarice,  who  was  a-half  year  old  when 
her  father  died;  nevertheless,  after  Gilbert's  death,  Matthew  Fitz 
Griffin,  brother  of  Gilbert,  entered  the  lands,  and  held  them  all  his 
life,  and  after  Matthew's  death  Raymond,  his  brother,  entered  the 
lands,  and  held  them  for  seven  years;  then  Clarice,  aforesaid,  went 
to  William  de  Dene  and  Richard  of  Rochelle,  locum  tenens  of  John 
Fitz  Geoffrey!  then  Justiciary,  and  promised  to  each  of  them  a  third 
of  the  lands,  provided  they  would  aid  her  in  recovering  them.  By 
their  counsel  and  aid,  Clarice  recovered  the  lands  in  the  Court  of 
the  Liberty  of  Carlow,  and  having  had  seisin,  she  enfeoffed  "William 
: .  de  Dene  and  Richard  of  Rochelle,  respectively,  of  one-third  of  them, 
rendering  each  one  penny  a-year  at  Easter ;  and  afterwards  Clarice 
enfeoffed  John  Fitz  John,  her  son,  of  her  own  third  part  of  them 
with  the  demesne  of  the  said  "William  and  Richard  ;  and  after  some 
time,  John  enfeoffed  William  de  Dene  aforesaid  of  his  third  part 
in  free  socage,  yearly  rendering  at  Easter  three  pence,  or  a  pair  of 
iron  spurs.  They  further  say,  that  the  said  William  de  Dene  went 
to  William  de  Maleherbe,  then  Seneschal  of  Carlow,  and  gave  him 
a  sum  of  money  to  receive  suit  of  Court  at  the  castle  of  Fothered, 
and  to  render  the  service  aforesaid  of  two  knights  to  the  Earl 
Marshal  at  that  castle  for  the  lands  of  Fynnore  and  Kells,  which 
service  the  said  William  rendered  all  his  life  ( Q.  R.  Irish  Exchequer 
Records,  531,  No.  9  ;  Sweetman's  Calendar,  L  S.  P.,  vol.  iii., 
p.  294)." 

Here  we  have  legal  evidence  of  the  existence  of  three  sons  of  Griffin 
Fitz  William,  said  by  Anstis,  and  others,  to  have  died  childless,  and 
-further  the  Inquisition  shows  us  that  the  eldest  of  the  three  died  first, 
leaving  only  an  infant  daughter  named  Clarice.  The  Inquisition  also  is 
very  interesting,  as  showing  us  how  justice,  was  bought  and  sold  in  those 

1  John  0' Donovan,  in  his  notes  to  the  Four  Masters,  vol.  iii.,  p.  315,  and  other 
writers,  have  mistaken  this  John  Fitz  Geoffrey  for  a  son  of  Geotirey  de  Marisco, 
Justiciary  in  1224.  Dugdale  shows  thait  John  Fitz  Geoffrey  was  the  son  of  Geoffrey 
Fitz  Piers,  created  Earl  of  Essex,  hy  King  John,  a  connexion  of  the  De  Says  and 

ARDFERT    FRIARY,    AND    FITZ  MAURICES    OF    KERRY.        235 

old  days,  and  how  difficult  it  was  for  daughters  to  hold  their  inheritance, 
and  how  by  degrees  the  descendants  of  William  Fitz  Gerald  were 
"  elbowed  "  out  of  Leinster  by  the  heirs  of  Strongbow  and  Eva.  Giraldus 
tells  us  that,  at  even  an  earlier  date,  Raymond  Le  Gros  and  Fitz  Stephen 
were  obliged  by  Fitz  Adelm  to  move  westward  into  "remote  and  barren 
territories"  (Giraldus,  Book  n.,  chap,  xv.,  p.  276).  Odo  de  Carew's 
descendants  and  representatives,  marrying  amongst  the  Digons,  and  the 
De  Mohun's  connexions,  or  descendants  of  Strongbow  and  Eva's  heirs, 
continued  to  hold  Idrone,  but  the  youngest  branches  of  William  Fitz 
Gerald's  family,  nephews  and  grand-nephews  of  Odo  and  Raymond  Le 
Gros,  and  the  younger  grandsons  of  Odo,  evidently  moved  westward  into 
the  "  remote  territories  "  of  Giraldus'  history  obtained  by  Fitz  Stephen, 
De  Cogan,  and  Raymond,  in  Desmond  and  Kerry,  by  the  power  of  the 
sword  confirmed  by  royal  grants.  The  brilliant  valour  of  the  Irish  tribes 
in  those  territories  would  have  proved  more  than  a  match  for  that  of 
the  invaders  but  for  the  clan  system  which  the  Rev.  Dr.Todd  in  his  notes 
to  the  Wars  of  the  Gael  with  the  Gaill,  truly  said,  made  an  Irish  army  a 
"  rope  of  sand  "  against  an  enemy.  As  it  was,  the  English  invaders  had 
to  fight  desperately  for  every  acre  they  obtained  west  of  the  Barrow  and 
the  Maine ;  and  could  only  hold  what  they  did  obtain,  by  intermarriages 
with  members  of  certain  Irish  clans  whom  they  conciliated  by  helping 
them  to  fight  a  rival  clan,  and  by  adopting  the  old  Irish  usages  of  fos- 
terage, tanistry,  gavelkind,  tributes  in  kind,  &c. 

The  history  of  Matthew  Fitz  Griffin  and  his  connexion  with  Carrick- 
mac  Griffin,  or  Carrick-on-Suir,  will  be  found  in  Mr.  Burtchaell's  before- 
mentioned  Paper.  As  this  Inquisition  states  that,  at  Matthew's  death, 
his  brother  Raymond  succeeded  to  the  lands  unjustly  detained  from  their 
niece  by  both  brothers  in  her  minority,  we  may  suppose  that  the  Kells 
monastic  register  in  Trinity  College  is  right  in  stating  that  Matthew  died 
S.2)-  But  we  have  no  good  proof  that  Raymond  Fitz  Griffin  died  child- 
less. The  monastic  register  seems  to  say  he  did,  but  as  it  is  proved 
incorrect  respecting  Raymond's  and  Matthew's  parentage  by  the  Inquisi- 
tion given  above,  we  cannot  look  on  it  as  trustworthy  evidence  for  the 
pedigree  of  Griffin  Fitz  William's  descendants.  We  find  from  the  Irish 
State  Papers  that  Raymond  Fitz  Griffin,  Clarice's  uncle,  was  living  in 
July,  1255,  and  contesting  her  claims  to  her  father's  land,  and  that  he 
still  held  lands  in  Leinster  in  1279  (Calendar,  I.  S.P.,  vol.  ii.,  pp.  74, 
326).  In  1278  and  in  1282  a  William  Fitz  Raymond  was  a  juror  on  im- 
portant Inquisitions  taken  at  Clonmel.  The  inquisition  of  the  latter 
year  was  to  ascertain  the  possessions  of  John  Fitz  Thomas  (Fitz  Gerald) 
in  Desmond  at  the  time  of  his  death  in  battle  at  Callan,  near  Kenmare,  in 
1261,  when  William  de  Dene,  Justiciary,  who  had  aided  Clarice  as  the 
Inquisition  of  1290  tells  us,  was  also  killed  by  the  victorious  O'Sullivans, 
Mac  Carthys,  O'Driscolls,  and  other  Munster  tribes.  Philip  Fitz  Ray- 
mond was  an  inhabitant  of  Waterford  in  1286  (Calendar,  vol.  iii.,  p.  94). 


If  it  be  said  those  Fitz  Raymonds  may  have  been  sons  of  a  Raymond 
<le  Carew,  I  do  not  doubt  that  this  is  probable  enough,  for  there  were, 
at  least,  two  Raymond  de  Carews  living  in  Tipperary  in  1290  (Ibid. 
p.  355) ;  and  in  a  schedule  of  debts  of  John  of  Callanin  the  eleventh  and 
twelfth  years  of  Edward  I.  the  name  of  Raymond  de  Carew  of  Water- 
ford  appears,  while  in  1277  William  de  Carew  held  the  serjeantry  of 
the  county  Waterford  in  fee  (Ibid.  pp.  263  and  498).  But  it  is  to  be 
remembered  that  those  Carews,  if  they  were  not  the  descendants  of 
Griffin  Fitz  William,  and  his  sons,  in  the  male  or  female  line,  were  cer- 
tainly his  nephews  or  grand-nephews,  and  the  nephews  or  grand-nephews 
of  Raymond  Le  Gros,  and  sons  or  grandsons  of  his  brother  and  heir,  Odo 
de  Carew  (v.  Journal,  Part  3,  vol.  vi.,  p.  237).  Lodge  and  Archdall, 
writing  more  than  120  years  ago,  had,  no  doubt,  access  to  old  papers  of 
more  or  less  value  at  Lixnaw  Court,  and  elsewhere  now  lost  or  dispersed. 
They  also  carefully  noted  the  Kerry  traditions  of  different  branches  of 
the  Fitz  Maurice  family  at  that  place,  and  atCosfealy  (Duagh)  and  Bal- 
lykealy.  I  am  myself  very  sceptical  of  the  value  of  such  traditions,  and 
think  Irish  writers  are  generally  disposed  to  depend  on  them  too  much. 
But  not  the  less  do  I  believe  that  traditions  should  never  be  altogether 
disregarded  by  students  of  history  and  genealogy,  because  they  often  in- 
dicate in  a  confused,  vague  way,  where  the  truth  lies,  and  help  us  to 
reach  it  by  patiently  collating  them  with  contemporary  legal  documents. 

Now  one  of  the  oldest  traditions  gleaned  by  Archdall  and  Lodge  in 
Kerry,  about  the  first  Fitz  Maurice,  Lord  of  Kerry,  the  founder  of  the 
Franciscan  friary  at  Ardfert,  was,  that  he  was  the  son  of  Maurice  Fitz 
Raymond  by  Joanna,  daughter  (she  was  really  niece)  of  Meyler  Fitz  Henry, 
Justiciary  of  Ireland,  from  1204  to  1208,  and  that  this  Maurice  was  son 
of  Raymond  Le  Gros.  The  traditions  further  stated  that  said  Thomas 
Fitz  Maurice,  first  Lord  of  Kerry,  son  of  Maurice  Fitz  Raymond,  married 
Grace,  daughter  of  Dermot  Mac  Murrogh,  King  of  Leinster,  in  1170,  and 
was  buried  with  her  circa  1181,  under  an  altar  tomb,  close  to  the  high 
altar  of  the  Ardfert  Friary,  of  which  we  have  had  such  faithful  sketches 
from  Mr.  Wakeman's  gifted  pencil  and  pen.  (See  Journal,  vol.  v.,  Fifth 
Series,  pp.  37  and  38,  and  330).  Contemporary  history,  as  I  have  said, 
proves,  that  the  first  step  in  those  descents  is  wrong,  the  vague  tradition 
that  Raymond  Le  Gros  left  a  son  Maurice,  has  no  support  in  that  history. 
The  Fitz  Henry  wife,  tradition  says,  brought  Rattoo,  Ballyheigue,  and 
Kilbury,  as  her  dowry  to  her  husband  Maurice  Fitz  Raymond,  and  as 
those  lands,  or  some  of  them,  are  proved  by  the  State  Papers  of  1203-10, 
to  have  belonged  to  Meyler  Fitz  Henry,  and  were  afterwards  amongst 
the  earliest  possessions  of  the  Lords  of  Kerry,  we  may  accept  as  true 
these  traditions  of  the  marriage  and  the  dowry.  But  as  regards  the 
tradition  that  Thomas  Fitz  Maurice,  son  and  heir  of  Maurice,  and  his 
Fitz  Henry  wife,  married  the  daughter  of  King  Dermot  Mac  Murrogh  of 
1170,  chronology  and  history  alike  prove  that  it  cannot  be  correct,  and 


we  must  therefore  reject  it.  Dermot  Mae  Murrogh  or  Dermot-na-nGall 
(i.e.  Dermot  of  the  English  strangers),  as  he  was  called  by  his  country- 
men, died  in  1171,  at  the  age  of  eighty  one,  according  to  John  O'Donovan 
in  his  notes  to  the  Four  Masters,  vol.  ii.,  page  1182.  A  daughter  of 
his,  born  in  1161,  would  therefore  have  been  almost  a  centenarian  in 
1253,  and  far  too  elderly  a  bride  for  a  grandson  of  Raymond  Le  Gros, 
who  died  in  1183  (Four  Masters,  notes,  page  61,  vol.  iii.).  But  a  grand- 
daughter or  great-granddaughter  of  King  Dermot  would  have  been 
of  a  suitable  age  in  1253,  for  a  bride  of  a  grandnephew  of  Raymond 
Le  Gros,  and  we  shall  presently  see  that  such  a  marriage  did  really  take 

The  contemporary  accounts  of  Dermot  Mac  Murrogh's  children  are 
meagre  and  contradictory.  They  give  him  at  least  two  sons,  Connor  and 
Donald.  Giraldus  says,  the  former  only  was  legitimate ;  but  Maurice  Regan, 
Dermot's  secretary,  writes  of  Donald  as  a  legitimately  born  prince.  Giral- 
dus says  that  Eva,  the  wife  of  Strongbow,  whom  her  father  King  Dermot 
made  heiress  of  Leinster,  had  sworn  in  England  that  Donald  was  illegiti- 
mate. But  on  such  a  point  Giraldus  cannot  be  a  trustworthy  authority. 
Whatever  may  have  been  the  number  of  King  Dermot' s  legitimate 
children,  the  claims  of  Eva,  as  heiress  of  Leinster,  were  wholly  illegiti- 
mate according  to  Irish  law.  They  were  invented  in  face  of  it,  by 
Dermot  to  obtain  the  aid  of  Strongbow  against  his  own  countrymen,  and 
were  enforced  and  maintained  by  the  swords  of  Strongbow  and  his 
English  followers.  If  Dermot  left  no  adult  male  issue,  the  heir  to  his 
dominions,  according  to  Irish  law  and  usage,  was  his  tanist  brother, 
Murrogh-na-nGael  (*'.  e.  Murrogh  of  the  Irish)  as  he  was  called,  because 
he  opposed  Dermot  and  his  English  allies,  and  under  that  law  and  usage 
Eva  could  never  be  heiress  of  Leinster.  She  and  her  only  child  Isabel, 
wife  of  the  Earl  Marshal,  probably  both  fully  recognized  this  fact,  and 
the  latter  is  said  to  have  predicted  that  the  breach  of  Irish  law  by  her 
Irish  grandfather  King  Dermot,  would  result  in  the  disappointment  of 
Strong-bow's  hopes,  for  that  her  own  five  sons  would  die  without  male 
heirs,  and  that  Leinster  would  again  pass  away  in  the  female  line  to 
strangers.  If  Isabel  or  any  one  else  made  such  a  prediction  we  know 
that  it  was  actually  verified  before  1320  in  a  very  remarkable  manner. 
No  impartial  student  of  history  can  doubt  that  Dermot  Mac  Murrogh 
was  a  bad  king  and  a  bad  man,  but  the  evil  wrought  by  such  men  to 
their  own  confusion  and  ultimate  loss,  often  results  in  some  good  to 
generations  that  come  after  them.  The  soul  of  goodness  in  things 
evil  is  a  mystery,  but  a  powerful  witness  against  a  desolating  spirit  of 

Leaving  the  dreary  bloodstained  records  of  the  old  Leinster  king's  life, 
I  believe  that  the  true  explanation  of  the  Kerry  traditions  of  a  descendant 
of  his  having  been  buried  with  her  husband  in  the  Friary  of  St.  Francis 
at  Ardfert,  will  be  found  in  the  following  facts.  In  the  Chartulary  of 

JOUR.  R.S.A.I.,  VOL.  YII.,  PT.  III.,   5'1'H  SER. 


St.  Mary's  Abbey,  Dublin,  edited  by  Sir  J.  T.  Gilbert,   F.S.A.,  we  find 
a  document  drawn  up  circa  1230,  to  settle  a  dispute  concerning  the  lands 
of  Glancullen,  between  the  abbot  and  monks  of  that  community,   and 
Johannes  Gillaholmoc  and  his  wife  "  Claricia  filia  Gilbertifilii  Griffini" 
The  husband  and  wife  demised  Glancullen  for  the  good  of  their  own,  and 
their  ancestor's  souls,   to  the  said  abbey,  at  a  rent  of  one  mark  yearly, 
and  after  her  husband's  death  Clarice  gave  a  confirmation  (also  calendared 
by  Sir  J.  T.  Gilbert)  of  this  grant.      John  O'Donovan  in  his  notes  to  the- 
Four  Masters  (vol.  ii.  p.  847),  and  Sir  J.  T.  Gilbert  in  his  valuable  history 
of  Dublin,  and  his  edition  of  the  before  mentioned  Chartulary,  have  given 
an  account   of  the   powerful  Leinster  chief  Donnel  Mac  Gillaholmoge, 
servant  of  St.  Mocholmoge,  or  Gillaholmoc,   who  is  said  to  have  been 
the  founder  of  St.  Mary's  Abbey.      He  married  a  daughter   of  Xing 
Dermot  Mac  Murrogh,  and  had  by  her  a  son  Dermot,  who  was  the  father 
of  the  above-mentioned  John  Gillaholmoc,  the  husband,  as  proved  by  the 
charter  of  Glancullen  to  St.  Mary's,  of  Clarice  proved  by  same,  and  also  by 
the  Inquisition  of  1290,  to  have  been  the  granddaughter  of  Griffin  Fitz- 
William   and  the  grandniece  of    Raymond  Le  Gros.      It  is  matter  of 
history,  that  the  chief  invaders  of  Ireland  in  1169-72,  and  their  descen- 
dants, were  connected  by  constant  intermarriages.      Maurice  de  Carew,  a 
grandnephew  or  great-nephew  of  Raymond  Le  Gros,  claimed  as  we  have 
seen  (Journal,  Part  3,  vol.  vi.,  Fifth  Series,  p.  324,  and  Lynch's  Feudal 
Dignities  of  Ireland,  p.  152),  lands  in  Desmond  in  1311,  in  right  of  his 
descent  from  De  Cogan  and  Fitz  Stephen,  to   whom  Henry  the  Second 
had  granted  all  the  lands  lying  between  Waterford  and  Brandon  Hill,  in 
Kerry.     His  claim  as  lord  paramount  of  certain  lands  in  this  wide  district 
was   allowed  by  a  royal   mandate   still  lying  among   the   Memoranda 
Exchequer  MSS.,  fourth  and  fifth  Edward  II.,  in  the  Dublin  Public  Record 
Office,  of  which  I  had  an  official  certified  copy  made  in  1 895.    My  belief — 
subject  to  correction  by  the  as  yet  unpublished  and  unarranged   State 
Papers  of  mediaeval  times  in  London  and  Dublin — is,  that  a  daughter  of 
John  Gillaholmoc  (grandson  of  Dermot  Mac  Murrogh' s  daughter)  and  his 
wife  Clarice,   granddaughter  of  Griffin,   brother  of  Raymond  Le  Gros, 
married  Thomas  Fitz  Maurice,  first  Lord  of  Kerry,  son  of  a  Maurice  Fitz 
Raymond,  whose  father,  Raymond,  was  either  the  Raymond  Fitz  Griffin 
of  the  Inquisition  of  1290,  or  else  his  cousin,  a  Raymond  de  Carew,  and 
that  the  old  Kerry  tradition  recorded,  but  slightly  confused,  as  usual,  the 
relationship  which  did  really  exist  between  the  wife  of   Lord  Kerry 
and  the  Leinster  royal  family  of  1200-60.     She  was  not  of  course  the 
daughter  of  King  Dermot,  dead  in  1171,  at  the  age  of  eighty-one,  but  the 
daughter  of  his  great-grandson  John  Gillaholmoc,  living  between  1215  and 
1245  (v.  Sweetman's  Calendar  I.  S.  P.  vol.  i.  pp.  88  and  53.)    The  descents, 
in  brief,  reconciling  the  traditions  and  history  were  as  follows : — 



Raymond  Le  Gros, 
died*,  .p.  1183. 

Griffin  Fitz  William. 

Odo  de  Carew,  father  of  William 
and  Raymond  de  Carew. 

Gilbert  Fitz  Griffin. 

Clarice,  only  child,  v.  Inquisi-  =  John    Gillaholmoc, 

tion  of  1290— Gal.  I.  S.  P., 
vol.  iii.,  p.  294,  and  Gilbert's 
"Chartulary  of  St.  Mary's." 

great  grandson  of 
King  Dermot  Mac 

Grace,  or  Grany,  Gillaholmoc, 
great  great  granddaughter  of 
King  Dermot  Mac  Murrogh. 

Raymond  Fitz  Griffin. 

Maurice  Fitz  Raymond  mar- 
ried Joanna  Fitz  Henry, 
heiress  of  Rattoo,  Killury, 
and  Bally heigue,  in  Kerry. 

Thomas  Fitz  Maurice,  first 
Lord  of  Kerry,  buried, 
with  his  wife,  in  the 
Franciscan  Friary  at  Ard- 
fert  in  1280  (Archdall's 
"Lodge,"  vol.  ii.). 

I  do  not  insist  that  this  short  table  of  descents,  framed,  after  carefully 
collating  the  thirteenth-century  State  Papers  and  monastic  chartularies 
with  the  traditions  of  Kerry,  for  six  hundred  years,  about  the  wife  of  its 
first  Lord,  is  indisputably  correct.  But  I  maintain  that  it  has  reason  and 
history  to  support  it,  and  is  much  more  likely  to  be  correct  than  any 
other  put  forth  up  to  the  present  time,  founded  on  the  mythical  traditions 
about  a  supposed  son  of  Raymond  Le  Gros,  whose  cousin -german, 
contemporary  and  loving  admirer,  Giraldus  Cambrensis  says,  left  no 
children  by  his  wife  Basil ia  De  Clare,  and  whose  illegitimate  son,  if  he 
ever  existed  (we  have  not  a  particle  of  proof  he  ever  did  exist),  would 
assuredly  never  have  been  allowed  by  his  De  Carew  and  Fitz  Griffin 
cousins  to  seize  on  the  lands  of  their  uncle,  which  lands  they  helped  him 
to  acquire  in  Desmond  and  Kerry.  The  Annals  of  Innisfallen  show  us 
how  William,  the  eldest  son  of  Odo  de  Carew,  after  the  death  of  his  uncle 
Raymond  Le  Gros,  whose  heir  he  was,  extended  his  conquests  into  Des- 
mond, and  built  castles  at  Kenmare  and  other  parts  of  the  present  county 
Kerry,  including  Lixnaw,  according  to  an  ancient  Irish  MS.,  which 
Florence  Mac  Carthy  Reagh,  son  in-law  of  Mac  Carthy,  Earl  of  Clancare, 
showed  to  Sir  George  Carew  in  1599  (see  Journal,  Part  3,  vol.  vi., 
Fifth  Series,  p.  233).  The  heirs  of  this  William  de  Carew  resided  at 
Mulresford  in  Devonshire,  or  in  Idrone  in  Leinster,  but  we  may  reasonably 
suppose  one  of  his  younger  sons  or  grandsons,  or  one  of  his  younger 
nephews,  or  Fitz  Griffin  cousins,  bearing  the  favourite  Christian  name  of 
Raymond,  in  memory  of  their  great  collateral  ancestor,  was  made  by  him 
Warden  of  his  castles  and  lands  in  Desmond  and  Kerry,  doing  knightly 
service  for  them,  as  the  Barrys  and  some  of  the  Geraldines  are  shown  to 
have  done  in  1311,  by  the  before-mentioned  royal  mandate  to  Maurice  de 

Thus  Raymond  Fitz  Griffin,  or  Raymond  de  Carew  was,  I  feel  sure, 
the  grandfather  of  the  first  Lord  Kerry,  who  used  the  patronymic  of 



Thomas  Fitz  Maurice,  and  who  from  being  a  great  feudal  tenant  on  his 
Carew  cousin's  Kerry  lands,  after  the  usual  Geraldine  fashion,  soon  be- 
came the  chief  lord  of  the  district.  The  encroachments  of  the  Earl 
Marshal's  heirs  in  Leinster,  and  subsequently  the  Wars  of  the  Roses  in 
England,  drew  the  eldest  branch  of  William  de  Carew's  family  back  to 
Devonshire,  where  their  most  valuable  estates  under  royal  grants  lay,  so 
that  the  younger  branch  at  Ardfert  andLixnaw  had  nothing  to  fear  from 
them.  But  by  degrees,  between  1230  and  1330,  the  descendants  of  Fitz- 
Griffins  and  Carews  at  those  places  found  formidable  rivals  in  their  kins- 
men, the  descendants  of  Thomas  Mor  Fitz  Gerald,  father  by  his  wife 
Elinor  de  Marisco  of  John  Fitz  Thomas  Fitz  Gerald,  who  fell  at  the 
battle  of  Callan,  in  1261,  the  husband  of  Fitz  Anthony's  heiress.  Those 
powerful  and  warlike  magnates  and  their  descendants  the  Earls  of  Des- 
mond, slowly  but  surely  encroached  on  the  territories  of  the  old  Lords  of 
Kerry,  and  waxed  so  great  after  1329,  that  it  is  popularly  supposed  the 
latter  were  originally  their  vassals.  But  the  reverse  was  the  fact  as  the 
medieval  State  Papers  prove.  An  Inquisition  taken  at  Kilmallock,  on 
the  8th  of  August,  1282,  to  ascertain  what  lands  and  tenements  John 
Fitz  Thomas  Fitz  Gerald  held  at  the  time  of  his  death  in  the  battle  of 
Callan,  just  twenty- one  years  before,  says — 

"  The  said  John  Fitz  Thomas  held  at  his  death  .  .  .  (land)  called 
Acumkery,  in  the  county  of  Kerry,  of  Sir  Milo  de  Courcy,  for  the 
service  of  two  knights,  wont  to  be  worth  in  the  time  of  the  said  John 
£100,  but  now  worth  only  £50;  besides  the  thirds  of  the  Lady 
Matilda  de  Barry,  who  was  the  wife  of  Maurice  Fitz  John,  the 
greater  part  of  which  is  destroyed  by  the  war  of  the  Irish  ;  and  half 
a  cantred  at  Denloyth  of  Geoffrey  Tyrel  at  20  marks  of  rent  a-year, 
wont  to  be  worth  forty  pounds,  now  worth  twenty  marks ;  and  one 
theodum  in  Moyhynwyr  of  William  de  Coher  (query  ?  Poer)  for  six- 
pence a  year,  and  suit  at  the  Court  of  Maurice  Fitz  Thomas  at  Altry, 
and  half  the  service  of  a  knight  worth  twenty  marks  a  year ;  and 
three  carucates  at  Ogenathy  Donechud  wont  to  be  worth  in  time  of 
peace  forty  marks  and  now  worth  nothing,  for  they  all  lie  in  the 
power  of  the  Irish,  etc."  (Sweetman's  Calendar  I.  S.  P.  vol.  ii., 
p.  429.) 

This  and  other  passages  in  the  enormously  long  Inquisition  of  1282 
show  us  how  the  Irish  tribes  had  reconquered,  at  and  after  the  battle  of 
Callan,  almost  all  Kerry  and  West  Desmond  from  the  English.  The 
Acumkery  of  the  Inquisition  is,  as  the  late  eminent  Irish  scholar,  W.  M. 
Hennessy,  M.R.I.A.,  Assistant  Keeper  of  the  Records,  told  me,  a  misspelling 
by  the  old  English  scribe  of  Aicme  Ciarraighe,  or  the  district  occupied  by 
the  Aicme,  i.e.  the  tribes  of  King  Ciar,  from  whom  descended  the  O'Coffeys 
(Maelcobha),  kings  of  Kerry,  ancestors  of  the  O'Connors  Kerry  of  later 
ages(v.  O'Donovan's^ZVbtes  to  the  Four  Masters,  vol.  ii.,  p.  891,  A.D.  1067). 

ARDFERT    FRIARY,    AND    FITZ  MAURICES    OF    KERRY.       241 

Mr.  Sweetrmm,  in  the  first  volume  of  his  Calendars  of  the  I.  S.  P.,  gires 
the  grants  of  King  John  to  Meyler  Fitz  Henry  of  Aicme  Ciarraighe, 
Huerba,  and  other  lands  in  Kerry.  The  latter  district  was  Hi  Feorna  (or 
as  it  is  written  in  the  Tudor  State  Papers,  Offeriba  and  Hy  Fearba), 
which  lay  around  the  north-west  coasts  of  Tralee  and  Ballyheigue 
bays,  and  no  doubt  those  cantreds  formed  part  of  the  dowry  of  the 
Fitz  Henry  mother  of  Thomas,  first  Lord  of  Kerry.  The  De  Courcys 
were  probably  sub-feudatories  of  portions  of  Fitz  Henry's  grant ;  for 
an  account  of  Wardships  and  Escheats  in  the  Public  Record  Office, 
Dublin,  and  in  the  Carew  MSS.  at  Lambeth,  says  that  in  1318  the 
Lady  Annora  De  Courcy  held  in  dower,  amongst  other  lands  in  Munster, 
the  "rents  and  issues,  warrens,  fisheries  and  perquisites  of  the  Court 
of  Ballionry  (Ballyconry),  Glenardule  and  Fenoad  (Fenit)  in  Kerry." 
Moyhynwyr  seems  to  be  the  modern  Meenanare  in  Clanmaurice,  and 
the  important  point  in  the  above  Inquisition  for  our  present  purpose 
is,  that  it  shows  us,  on  the  sworn  evidence  of  a  jury  of  Kerry  and 
Cork  gentlemen  in  1282,  that  at  the  time  of  his  death  at  Callan,  in 
1261,  John  Fitz  Thomas  Fitz  Gerald  was  not,  as  is  popularly  supposed, 
chief  owner  of  lands  in  Kerry,  but  the  feudal  tenant  of  small  portions 
of  the  county,  under  the  De  Courcys  and  the  Fitz  Maurice  Lords  of 
Kerry,  and  that  he  not  only  paid  rent  to  a  sub-feudatory  of  the  latter, 
but  did  service  at  his,  Maurice  Fitz  Thomas  Fitz  Maurice's  (Second 
Lord  of  Kerry)  manorial  Court  at  Altry,  recte  Altraighe,  which  O'Douo- 
van,  Dr.  Reeves,  and  other  eminent  Irish  scholars  tell  us  was  the  district 
around  Tralee,  extending  from  near  Fenit  to  near  Castleisland.  After 
1290,  year  by  year,  the  descendants  of  John  of  Callan,  recovering  from 
the  eifects  of  that  battle,  won  more  than  they  had  lost  by  it.  But  even 
after  the  marriage  of  his  grandson  Thomas  Fitz  Maurice  Fitz  Gerald  with 
"  Margaret  the  king's  cousin,"  as  she  is  styled  in  the  Charter  of  Desmond 
to  husband  and  wife,  calendared  by  Mr.  Sweetman,  under  February  6th, 
1292  (v.  Calendar,  vol.  iii.,  p.  464),  and.  the  creation  of  the  Earldom  of 
Desmond  in  1329,  for  their  eldest  surviving  son,  the  Desmond  Geraldines 
found  it  well  nigh  impossible  to  maintain  even  a  nominal  supremacy,  over 
their  cousins  and  rivals  the  Fitz  Maurices  in  Clanmaurice.  The  old 
Lords  of  Kerry  and  their  descendants  were  still  supreme  in  that  portion 
of  their  inheritance,  and  held  it  in  spite  of  all  opponents  by  their  here- 
ditary valour,  as  the  direct  descendants  of  William  Fitz  Gerald  (elder 
brother  of  Maurice)  and  his  sons  Fitz  Griffins  or  Carews,  and  the 
collateral  descendants  of  his  son  the  famous  Raymond  Le  Gros.  They, 
the  Fitz  Maurices,  further  strengthened  their  position  by  frequent  inter- 
marriages with  the  O'Briaiis,  princes  of  Thomond  (chief  of  the  quinyu* 
Sanguines  in  the  south),  the  Mac  Carthy  chiefs  of  Desmond,  the 
O'Connors  Kerry,  and  the  Mac  Mahons,  a  branch  of  the  O'Brians  in 
Thomond.  For  several  generations  no  Desmond  Earl  ever  married  for 
a  first  wife  a  lady  of  the  old  Irish  blood,  nor  did  the  son  of  an  Irish 


wife  succeed  to  the  Earldom.  On  the  other  hand,  twelve  out  of  the 
nineteen  Fitz  Maurice  Barons  of  Kerry,  living  between  1250  and  1660, 
married  wives  of  the  old  Irish  blood,  six  of  the  remaining  seven, 
married  Geraldines,  Roches,  or  Cauntons,  "  Hibernis  ipsis  Hiberniores " 
and  only  one  married  an  English  wife,  and  died  in  1541,  leaving  no  male 
issue  (v.  Journal,  part  1,  vol.  v.,  p.  40).  Ultimately  the  Desmond  Earls, 
in  this  fierce  struggle  for  supremacy  with  their  cousins  in  the  old 
kingdom  of  Kerry,  found  it  necessary  to  patch  up  a  temporary  peace,  by 
intermarriages  with  them,  and  their  O'Brian  connexions.  Maurice  Fitz- 
Thomas,  second  Baron  (by  tenure)  of  Kerry,  did  good  service  in  the 
Scotch  wars  of  the  English  king,  and  married,  according  to  Lodge, 
Mary,  daughter  and  heir  of  Sir  John  MacLeod  of  Galway,  whose  arms, 
one  of  the  triple  towers  of  the  Macleods  of  the  Hebrides,  were  hence- 
forth quartered  by  the  Lords  and  Earls  of  Kerry.  But  there  can  be 
no  doubt  that  the  wife  of  Maurice  Fitz  Thomas,  second  Lord  Kerry, 
was  the  descendant  of  the  Mac  Elgots,  who  were  Seneschals  of  Connaught 
in  1247,  and  that  her  father  was  owner  of  Galey  in  JSToith  Kerry,  and  of 
the  present  Chute  Hall,  and  Obrennan  near  Tralee,  before  1620.  In 
O'Donovan's  Notes  to  the  Four  Masters,  an  account  of  the  Mac  Eligots  of 
Connaught  and  Kerry  will  be  found,  vol.  iii.,  page  325. 1  It  is  highly 
probable  or  certain  that  they  were  of  the  Gall-Gael  race  of  the  Hebrides, 
and  therefore  a  branch  of  the  Dunvegan  chiefs  now  called  Mac  Leods. 
The  history  of  the  Barons  of  Kerry,  between  1250  and  1691,  is  full  of 
historic  interest  and  romantic  vicissitudes,  but  time  and  the  space  allotted 
to  me  in  these  pages  prevent  my  entering  on  it  more  fully.  I  hope,  how- 
ever to  be  able  to  say  more  on  the  subject  of  the  Mac  Eligots,  De 
Courcys,  Walshes,  De  Clahulls  and  Hices  hereafter,  and  to  give  engrav- 
ings of  the  admirable  sketches  of  the  interior  and  exterior  of  the  curious 
old  round  castle  of  the  De  Clahulls,  or  De  Courcys,  on  Barrow  Head, 
close  to  Fenit,  which  were  taken  for  me  by  Mr.  Wakeman  in  1894. 

1  There  is  a  Car  (Caer  or  Cahir]  Elgi  on  the  Scottish  horders  (see  "Veitch," 
vol.  i.,  p.  36). 

(     243     ) 

Observations  of  the  History  of  "Holed  Stones"  in  France  and 
Ireland,  by  Mons.  P.  Joly,  Lodeve  (taken  from  a  communication  sent  to 
Dr.  Frazer,  Vice-President). — The  distinction  you  make  of  the  Pierced 
Stones  of  Ireland  into  two  categories  appears  to  me  logical  and  judicious, 
for,  as  you  well  say,  the  monoliths  with  large  openings  can  be  differenti- 
ated from  those  of  small  dimensions.  Are  not  the  first  the  remnants  of 
ancient  dolmens,  and  is  not  the  "  Cultus  "  associated  with  them,  a  remi- 
niscence of  that  of  the  dead.  That  is  my  opinion,  though  it  is  not  that  of 
M.  de  Montillet.  Open  "  Prehistoric  Man "  by  Lubbock  at  page  118, 
and  suppress  all  the  other  stones  of  the  dolmen,  and  you  will  have  the 
pierced  stones  of  the  "  Haute  Saone."  There  are  observable  in  them,  it 
is  true,  only  oval  openings,  but  they  are  of  sufficient  size  to  permit,  if 
necessary,  a  man  passing  through  them.  The  stones  owe  their  preser- 
vation, I  believe,  to  the  special  "  cultus  "  of  which  they  have  for  a  long 
time  been  the  object.  As  for  the  monoliths  which  you  classify  in  your 
second  category,  and  they  are  the  most  numerous,  there  is  nothing 
analogous  to  them  in  our  regions. 

But  the  most  striking  and  interesting  fact,  it  appears  to  me,  is  that 
the  pierced  stones  have  been  in  Ireland,  as  in  France,  the  objects  of  a 
superstitious  cultus.  This  once  more  demonstrates  that  the  same  race 
spread  itself  over  both  countries.  You  are  aware  of  the  legend  which 
peoples  Hibernia  with  a  colony  from  Iberia,  whence  it  follows  that  tho 
nations  who  inhabited  that  region,  or  at  least  a  great  part,  were  of  the 
same  family ;  but  what  is  this  race  ?  Allow  me  to  place  before  you  my 
ideas  on  this  point.  As  you  are  occupied  with  the  study  of  Archae- 
ology? you  will  perhaps  find  in  them  something  that  may  interest  you. 

What  principally  struck  me  in  ancient  and  even  modern  geographical 
names  is  the  frequent  occurrence  of  the  root  "  Seek"  and  "  Sick,"  some- 
times a  little  modified,  but  perfectly  recognisable,  and  almost  always 
associated  with  another  substantive  which  completes  and  defines  it.  For 
instance,  in  Southern  Germany  I  have  met  with  more  than  100  names  of 
localities  commencing  with  the  root  "  Seek"  or  "  Sick"  e.g.  Seckingen  ; 
Seckendorf,  the  village  of  the  Seeks  ;  Seckhof,  the  house  of  the  Seeks  ; 
Sickengen,  the  field  of  the  Sicks ;  Sickenkirch,  the  church  or  temple  of 
the  Sicks.  From  which  fact  I  have  been  led  to  think  that  this  root,  so 
often  repeated,  and  with  the  suffixes  which  give  it  a  meaning,  may  be 
that  which  represents  the  people  whom  the  ancient  authors  call  Celts, 
and  which  scholars  of  the  present  day  have  nowhere  found.  This  name 
of  "  Seek"  is  generally  applied  to  the  "Sequanes"  alone  (Seck-an)  whose 


primitive  name  would  have  been  altered  by  the  Romans,  who,  not  possess- 
ing the  latter  K,  replaced  it  by  Q,  which  in  Latin  is  always  followed  by 
the  vowel  u.  What  further  tends  to  confirm  this  opinion  is  that  the 
"  Seckana  "  or  Seck-na  has  been  changed  into  "  Seine."  If  the  root 
"  Seek  "  appears  to  belong,  as  has  often  been  said,  to  the  "  Sequanes,"  that 
of  "  Sick  "  seems  to  have  been  borne  by  the  "  Sickules"  (Sick-ur),  the 
primitive  Sicks,  who  had,  from  their  arrival  in  Central  Gaul,  occupied 
Italy.  If  we  are  to  believe  scholars,  "Sick"  ought  to  be  pronounced 
"  Seuk,"  which  would  bring  it  still  nearer  "  Seek,"  of  which  it  appears 
to  me  to  be  only  a  slight  modification.  The  two  peoples  "  Seck-an  "  and 
"  Sick-ur"  would  then  be  but  two  branches  of  the  Aryan  family  of 
"Seeks"  derived  from  Asia  (cf.  Seeks  and  Celts).  In  France  we  find 
the  same  root  under  the  Roman  form  of  Segondi,  Sig  more  often.  Thus 
in  the  valley  of  the  Rhone  we  meet  with  the  "  Secusiani  liberi  "  of  Pliny, 
the  Segalanni,  the  Segobriges,  upon  whose  territory  Marseilles  was 
founded,  and  at  the  mouths  of  the  Rhone,  the  Secoani.  All  these 
people's  names  seem  to  me  to  have  a  peculiar  analogy  with  that  of  the 
Sequanes  (Seckan)  and  especially  of  the  Seeks  (cf.  Sequani  and  Secoani). 

Between  the  Rhone  and  Alps  we  meet  again  with  Segovii  (Seek  and 
Gau,  district),  the  Siconii,  and  towards  the  source  of  the  Po  the  Segusini, 
with  Segusio  (Sux)  as  their  capital  (cf.  Segusini  and  Segusiani).  Amongst 
the  towns,  let  us  mention  Segobodium  (Seveux),  Segessera  (Bar  sur  Aube), 
Segustero  (Sesteron),  Segodunum  (Rhodes),  Segora  (Bressiere),  SecorPon- 
tus  (les  Sablons  d'  Olonne),  &c. 

In  Spain,  the  ancient  Iberia,  we  find  Sigobriga  (cf.  the  Segobriges), 
Segovia  (cf.  the  Segovii),  Segontio,  and  a  dozen  localities  with  the  name 
Segouria  (Seek  and  Gour).  Let  us  mention  further  a  river  named 
"  Sicanus,"  which  reminds  us  of  the  Scianes,  who  seem  to  approach  near 
to  the  Sequanes. 

In  England  we  have  the  Segonciaci  (cf.  Segontio),  the  Selgovii 
(cf.  Segovii  and  Segoveas),  Segedunum  (cf.  Segodunum),  Seguntium  (cf. 
Segontio),  Segonciaci,  and  even  Seckington. 

I  have  passed  by  perhaps  better  examples,  but  the  facts  which  I  have 
placed  before  you  seem  a  confirmation  that  the  customs  which  are  found 
alike  iu  Gaul  and  Ireland,  support  the  idea  that  a  single  race  once  peopled 
the  whole  of  Central  and  Western  Europe.  I  am  led  to  conclude  from 
them  that  this  great  and  ancient  race  is  that  of  the  Seeks  which  came 
there,  says  Henri  Martin,  in  a  condition  of  social  infancy,  of  which  no 
recollection  is  written  in  human  memory.  The  proof  of  the  high  anti- 
quity of  the  Seeks  in  our  regions  is  not  difficult  to  find ;  the  ploughshare 
(soc  de  la  charrue)  has  retained  in  German  their  name.  "  Seek  "  is  yet  the 
name  they  give  in  their  language  to  this  implement,  and  sickel  is  also 
applied  to  the  scythe  and  the  sickle.  There  is  a  strong  probability 
that  they  were  the  inventors  of  them,  or  at  least  the  importers.  Let 
me  add  that  Secale,  the  Latin  name  for  Rye,  may  be  analysed  into 


Seck-cal.  Now  Cal  is  a  root  found  in  French  words,  and  which,  signi- 
fies grain  in  general,  from  whence  Seck-cal  would  be  the  grain  of  the 
Seeks.  I  shall  stop  here,  for  the  path  is  slippery,  and  from  Cal  to- 
Gal  or  Gall  is  hut  a  step  ;  to-day  I  should  not  dare  to  make  it. 

Monumental  Inscriptions  from  the  Cathedral,  Jamaica. — The  arm& 
given  in  the  Quarterly  Part  of  the  Journal  for  March,  1 897,  from  the 
monument  of."  Mr.  Gerald  Bermingham,  of  the  nohle  and  ancient  house 
of  Athunry,"  are  different  from  any  arms  of  that  family  which  I  have 
ever  seen,  which  are,  party  per  pale  indented,  or  and  gu.  The  two  spears* 
heads  in  the  arms  on  the  monument  must  he  an  addition  or  augmen- 
tation of  some  kind.  It  would  he  very  interesting  to  know  something 
of  this  Gerald  Bermingham,  to  what  branch  of  the  family  he  belonged,, 
and  how  the  spears'  heads  came  to  be  on  his  arms.  The  old  Barony 
of  Athenry  was  in  existence  in  1742,  the  date  of  the  monument,  being 
then  held  by  Francis,  21st  Baron,  the  first  who  conformed,  whose  son 
and  successor,  Thomas,  was  created  Earl  of  Louth  in  1750,  on  whose 
death,  in  1799,  the  earldom  became  extinct,  and  the  barony  went  into 
abeyance.  It  has  been  claimed,  I  believe,  more  than  once  since,  though 
never  successfully.  I  hope  that  this  note  may  draw  out  some  informa- 
tion on  the  subject  of  the  branch  of  the  Berminghams  of  which  the 
Gerald  Bermingham,  who  died  at  Jamaica,  in  1742,  was  a  member. 
There  were  several  branches  of  the  family  in  existence  then,  which  have 
since  become  extinct  in  the  male  line.  Lord  Leitrim  represents  one  of 
them,  and  quarters  the  arms. 

The  arms  given  as  being  on  the  monument  of  Andrew  Arcedeckne 
must  be  wrong;  they  are  "  Argent,  three  chevronels  or";  metal  on 
metal.  I  think,  though  of  course  I  cannot  be  sure,  that  it  should  be 
argent  three  chevronels  sable;  and  that  the  mistake  was  caused  by 
the  colour  being  shown  on  the  stone  by  cross  lines  for  sable,  which, 
perhaps  being  worn  and  in  a  bad  light,  may  have  been  mistaken  for  the 
dots  representing  or. — GEORGE  J.  HEWSO^,  Fellow. 

High  Cross,  Downpatrick. — The  old  Celtic  cross  at  Downpatrick  has 
been  re-erected  there  in  June  this  year.  The  gathering  together  of  the 
scattered  pieces  and  their  re-erection  is  due  to  some  of  the  antiquarian 
members  of  the  Belfast  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  assisted  by  Major 
Wallace  (Member),  and  the  Yery  Rev.  P,  O'Kane,  who  had  possession  of 
different  fragments. 

This  cross  formerly  stood  opposite  De  Courcey's  Castle — where  the 
post-office  now  is,  at  the  cross-roads,  in  the  centre  of  the  town;  and 
tradition  says  it  .was  brought  at  a  remote  time  from  the  Dun,  where  it 
had  been  erected  to  the  memory  of  Celtchair,  an  Irish  chieftain.  The 
old  site  is  now  the  centre  of  traffic,  and  in  consequence  unsuitable  as  a 


site  for  its  re-erection.  The  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Down  Cathedral 
have  given  a  site  for  the  cross,  and  it  now  stands  erected  on  the  grass 
triangular  plot  at  the  east  end  of  the  Cathedral,  facing  the  road  leading 
up  from  the  town. 

The  stones  of  the  cross  consist  of  the  base,  the  shaft,  and  the  arms 
and  circle  ;  the  coping  or  cap-stone  being  still  undiscovered.  These  three 
stones,  with  an  additional  base-stone,  which  was  a  necessary  insertion 
owing  to  some  injuries  in  the  base  proper,  are  now  fitted  together  with 
care  and  precision,  and  form  a  cross  eleven  feet  high.  No  attempt  of 
any  kind  has  been  made  to  restore  the  ornament. 

The  base  stone  has  no  trace  of  ornament  left.  The  shaft  on  its  east 
face  has  four  panels,  the  two  centre  ones  each  containing  three  full- 
length  figures,  and  the  upper  and  lower  panels,  which  are  only  half 
the  size  of  the  centre  ones,  contain  half-length  figures,  all  evidently  being 
Scriptural  subjects,  but  now  so  worn  as  to  be  beyond  recognition.  The 
south  side  of  the  shaft  has  one  panel  its  full  length,  containing  a  rich 
interlacing  Celtic  pattern  closely  worked  at  each  end,  and  expanding  to 
greater  freedom  in  the  centre.  This  is  the  most  legible  ornament  on  the 
cross.  The  stone  above  the  shaft  which  extends  into  the  arms  bears  in 
the  centre  the  crucifixion  dimly  visible  on  its  weatherworn  face.  The 
angles  of  the  cross  bear  evidence  of  having  once  had  a  round,  possibly  a 
rope  moulding.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  good  feeling  which  prompted 
the  possessors  to  give  up  the  stones,  and  the  generosity  of  those  who 
contributed  to  the  restoration,  will  prevail  to  preserve  this  cross  as  a 
special  attraction  to  the  place  where  the  national  saint  sleeps  after  many 
years  spent  amidst  the  surrounding  hills  and  vales. 

The  work  of  re-erection  lias  been  carefully  carried  out  by  Mr.  Wm. 
Hastings,  under  the  supervision  of  Mr.  Wm.  J.  Fennell,  Members  of  the 
Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Ireland. 

The  Baginbun  Stone. — As  Colonel  Vigors,  in  his  digest  of  the 
Academy  correspondence  on  this  monument  (ante,  pages  150-163),  has 
found  fault  with  me  for  describing  it  as  a  "hopeless  puzzle,"  perhaps  I 
may  be  allowed  to  make  a  brief  personal  explanation  in  this  matter,  and 
to  give  a  short  account  of  my  present  views  concerning  the  stone. 

If  Colonel  Vigors  will  turn  again  to  my  Academy  letter  of  22nd 
September,  1894  (Academy,  vol.  xlvi.,  p.  216),  which  opened  the  dis- 
cussion on  the  inscription,  he  will  find  that  I  did  not  use  the  expression 
referred  to  without  some  qualification.  I  said  that  the  inscription,  so 
far  as  I  could  see,  was  a  hopeless  puzzle  ;  which  simply  means  that  I 
had  exhausted  all  my  resources  in  the  vain  endeavour  to  interpret  it,  but 
does  not  imply  that  others  might  not  be  more  fortunate. 

As  a  matter  of  fact  there  is  no  reasonable  doubt  that  the  inscription 
has  actually  been  deciphered.  Though  the  Academy  correspondence, 


like  most  newspaper  discussions,  was  somewhat  desultory,  and  though 
some  very  unlucky  shots  were  made  during  its  course,  it  led  to  definite 
results,  thanks  principally  to  the  insight  and  epigraphic  skill  of  Mr. 
Romilly  Allen.  It  may  now  be  regarded  as  settled  that  the  Baginhun 
inscription  is  an  unintelligent  copy  of  the  Fethard  Castle  legend,  and 
the  latter,  in  its  turn,  of  the  writing  on  the  cross  at  Carew.  A  further 
point  has  heen  noticed  by  my  brother-in-law,  Dr.  D.  Mac  Alister,  namely, 
a  gradual  rounding  of  the  characters,  and  an  approximation  to  cursiveness 
as  we  advance  from  the  Carew  to  the  Baginbun  stone.  This  indicates 
that  a  pen-and-ink  transcript  was  taken  of  each  inscription  copied,  and 
slavishly  transferred  to  the  next  stone  of  the  series.  As  it  happens,  the 
Baginbun  stone,  when  I  last  visited  it,  had  in  itself  the  means  of  study- 
ing the  degeneration  in  the  form  of  unknown  letters  resulting  from 
unintelligent  copying  :  for  some  idle  person  had  shortly  before  been 
amusing  himself  by  scratching,  on  the  blank  part  of  the  stone,  a  fairly 
accurate,  though  excessively  rude  copy  of  the  mysterious  writing — 
satisfactorily  characterising  his  own  mental  condition  by  adding  the 
letters  ASS  to  his  work. 

It  follows  that  to  interpret  the  inscription  we  must  go  back  to  the 
Carew  cross  :  and  if  we  did  not  possess  that  fine  monument,  I  still  hold 
that  the  Fethard  Castle  stone  would  probably,  and  the  Baginbun  stone 
certainly,  present  a  ''hopeless  puzzle."  I  have  no  hesitation  in  accept- 
ing Professor  llhys'  reading  of  the  Carew  inscription  so  far  as  the  names 
MAHGITEUT  EECETT — Meredydd  of  Rheged — is  concerned  :  I  prefer  to 
keep  an  open  mind  about  the  interpretation  of  the  concluding  characters 
as  any  form  of  FECIT,  though  some  such  sense  must  be  intended. 

The  decipherment  is,  however,  only  half  the  enigma.  When,  by 
whom,  and,  above  all,  for  what  purpose  the  Irish  copies  were  made  are 
problems  which  still  confront  us.  For  the  credit  of  my  country,  I 
heartily  echo  Colonel  Yigors'  hope  that  these  questions  (still  "hopeless 
puzzles"  to  me)  will  be  attacked,  and  satisfactorily  solved,  on  the  Irish 
side  of  the  channel. — 11.  A.  S.  MACALISTER. 

"  The  Dolmens  of  Ireland,"  by  Mr.  Borlase,  F.S.A.— At  page  841 
of  the  third  volume  of  his  new  and  deeply  interesting  work,  Mr.  Borlase, 
through  an  excusable  want  of  time  to  examine  for  himself  each  Irish  dis- 
trict's prehistoric  remains,  has  fallen  into  a  great  error  as  regards  Glenfas, 
in  AVest  Kerry.  Writing  of  the  prehistoric  cists  and  menhirs  in  the  glen, 
he  says,  there  "  is  no  ruined  church  near  them."  Now  there  is  at  least 
one  very  remarkable  fifth-  or  sixth-century  ruined  church,  with  a  stone 
circle,  pillar- stone  with  incised  cross  on  it,  and  bee-hive  huts  at  Kilelton, 
still  very  near  the  modern  Glenfas;  but  that  this  primitive  church 
stands  within  the  bounds  of  the  ancient  Glenfas  is  as  certain  as  anything 
can  be,  for  more  than  one  reason  already  given  by  me  in  this  Journal. 
The  main  and  all-convincing  reason  of  this  is,  that,  from  time  immemorial, 

248          ROYAL    SOCIETY    OF    ANTIQUARIES    OF    IRELAND. 

the  tradition  of  the  old  Irish -speaking  people  of  the  district  (familiar  to 
me  from  childhood)  has  been  that  on  the  very  grave  of  the  pagan 
legendary  princess  Fas,  who  still  gives  a  name  to  Glenfas,  stands  this 
little  primitive  church,  now  known  as  Kilelton.  In  his. account  of  his 
ascent  of  Cahirconrigh  fifty- six  years  ago,  published  in  the  Ulster  Journal 
of  Archeology,  Windele  tells  us  that  the  Irish-speaking  people  of 
Kilelton,  and  around  it,  told  him  that  the  church  stood  over  the  grave 
of  Fas.  The  remains  of  the  low  tumulus,  and  the  western  side  of  the 
stone  circle  around  it,  are  still  distinctly  visible,  and  on  the  apex  is  the 
ruined  church.  ISTot  examining  it  for  himself,  Mr.  Borlase  has  missed 
the  most  striking  illustration,  perhaps,  in  Ireland,  of  the  correctness  of 
his  judgment,  that  the  earliest  Christian  churches  in  the  island  were 
erected  over  graves  of  pagans,  venerated  by  a  prehistoric  race,  where 
pagan  sacrifices  had  been  offered. — MARY  AGNKS  HICKSON,  Hon.  Local 
Secretary  for  Kerry. 

Note  on  the  Derivation  of  the  New  Grange  Spirals.— At  the 
Meeting  of  the  British  Association,  Liverpool,  1896,  Mr.  A.  J.  Evans, 
in  his  Address  as  President  of  the  Anthropological  Section,  briefly 
reviewed  the  argument  I  have  developed  regarding  the  derivation  of 
the  JSTew  Grange  Spirals.  Mr.  Evans  accepts  the  evidence  of  "a  direct 
connexion  between  Great  Britain  and  Scandinavia  from  the  end  of  the 
Stone  Age  onwards";  but  asks  the  question:  Ought  the  prolongation  of 
the  Bronze  Age  trade-route  from  Scandinavia  to  Ireland  "to  be  regarded 
as  the  historic  clue  to  the  contemporary  appearance  of  the  spiral  motive 
in  the  British  Islands  ?  Is  it  to  this  earlier  intercourse  with  the  land  of 
the  Yikings  that  we  must  ascribe  the  spiral  scrolls  on  the  slabs  of  the 
great  chambered  barrows  of  the  Irish  Bronze  Age,  best  seen  in  the  most 
imposing  of  them  all,  before  the  portal  and  on  the  inner  chambers  of 
New  Grange?" 

"The  possibility  of  such  connexion,"  Mr.  Evans  says,  "must  be 
admitted."  "  The  probability,"  he  adds,  "  is  great  that  the  contemporary 
appearance  of  the  spiraliform  ornament  in  Ireland  and  on  the  continent 
of  Europe  is  due  to  direct  derivation."  But,  he  suggests,  "it  does  not 
follow  that  the  only  alternative  is  to  believe  that  the  spiral  decoration  of 
the  Irish  monuments  necessarily  connects  itself  with  the  ancient  stream 
of  intercourse  flowing  from  Scandinavia."  * 

The  following  is  a  summary  of  the  leading  points  of  Mr.  Evans' 
argument  in  favour  of  a  "West  Mediterranean  route  : — If  the  spiral  had 
been  a  feature  of  the  Scandinavian  rock-carvings,  the  argument  for 
derivation  from  that  side  would  have  been  strong.  But  they  are  not 

1  In  addition  to  the  references  to  amber  "beads  found  in  Ireland,  in  section  vin., 
i-hould  be  mentioned  twenty -seven  amber  beads  found  in  a  tumulus  at  liella  Hill, 
Carricki'ergus,  county  Antrim. —  Ulster  Journal  of  Archeology,  vol.  vi.,  p.  171. 


found  in  them;  and,  on  the  other  hand,  the  sculptures  on  the  dolmens  of 
the  Morbihan  equally  show  certain  features  common  to  the  Irish  stone 
chambers,  including  the  primitive  ship-figure.  The  prehistoric  stone 
buildings  of  Malta,  which  show  in  their  primitive  conception  a  great 
affinity  to  the  megalithic  chambers  of  the  earliest  British  barrows,  bear 
witness  on  this  side  to  the  extension  of  the  -3£gean  spiral  system  in  a 
somewhat  advanced  stage,  and  accompanied,  as  at  New  Grange,  with 
intermediate  lozenges.  In  Sardinia  there  is  evidence  of  the  former 
existence  of  monuments  of  Mycenaean  architecture  in  which  the  chevron, 
the  lozenge,  and  the  spiral  might  have  been  associated  as  in  Ireland.  It 
is  on  this  line,  rather  than  on  the  Danube  and  the  Elbe,  that  we  find  in 
a  continuous  zone  that  Cyclopean  tradition  of  domed  chambers  which  is 
equally  illustrated  at  Mycenae  and  at  New  Grange.  These  indications, 
Mr.  Evans  adds,  gain  additional  force  from  a  remarkable  find  in  a  British 
barrow  excavated  by  Canon  Greenwell  on  Folkton  Wold,  Yorkshire, 
consisting  of  three  chalk  objects,  resembling  round  boxes  with  bossed 
lids,  The  ornaments  on  the  lids  show  concentric  circles  of  degenerate 
spiral  form,  and  upon  the  sides  of  two  of  these  chalk  objects,  associated 
with  chevrons,  saltires,  and  lozenges,  are  indications  of  faces  recalling 
the  early  JEgean  and  Trojan  types  of  Dr.  Schliemann  ;  also  some  other 
forms,  which  Mr.  Evans  regards  as  Mycenaean  ("  Address,"  pp.  8  and  9). 

With  every  wish  to  defer  to  Mr.  Evans'  judgment  on  a  subject  which 
he  has  made  in  an  especial  degree  his  own,  I  am  unable  to  accept 
the  conclusion  he  has  reached.  It  may  be  at  once  conceded  that  it  is 
possible,  not  to  say  probable,  that  .ZEgean  influence  reached  the  west 
coast  of  Europe,  but  the  gaps  in  the  evidence  for  the  derivation  of  the 
New  Grange  spirals  appear  to  me  to  be  greater  on  the  west  coast  route 
than  on  the  Scandinavian  side.  That  the  spiral  motive,  which  Mr.  Evans 
has  shown  can  be  put  back  in  the  JEgean  to  a  period  contemporary  with 
the  XII.  Dynasty  of  Egypt,  should  be  found  at  various  points  of  the 
Mediterranean  area  is  to  be  expected.  The  spirals  at  Malta  are  in  relief, 
but  we  may  assume  them  to  belong  to  the  same  system  as  those  under 
consideration.  The  remarkable  fact  is  not  that  an  occasional  example 
should  be  found  at  Malta,  but  that  examples  should  be  so  rare  in  the 
western  basin  of  the  Mediterranean. 

The  influence  of  the  JEgean  spiral  possibly  extended  beyond  the 
Mediterranean  to  the  west.  Incised  markings  have  been  figured  from 
the  Canary  Islands  ("  Materiaux,"  1878,  pi.  vii.)  which  would  be 
absolutely  in  place  at  Dowth.  They  include  spirals  and  zigzags,  and 
a  boat-form.  Other  examples,  also  including  spirals,  resemble  in 
general  character  rock-markings  in  America,  and  are  compared  by 
Mallery  -with  examples  in  California  and  Brazil  ("Mallery,"  pp.  58, 
59,  figs.  144  and  145).  But  proceeding  northward  we  have  no  station 
for  the  spiral  till  we  come  to  Gavrinis  in  Brittany. 

The  chalk  objects  from  Folkton  are  a  strong  point.      The  face-type 

250         ROYAL    SOCIETY    OF    ANTIQUARIES    OF    IRELAND. 

on  these  "  boxes"  has  been  compared  with  the  face-type  of  sculptured 
representations  of  a  female  divinity  on  dolmens  in  the  south  of  France 
(Gard),  and  found  as  far  north  as  Marne.  Cartailhac  refers  the  type  to 
Sardinia,  and  further  to  Hissarlik  ("1'Anthropologie,"  1894,  p.  155). 
But  though  a  line  of  communication  is  thus  provisionally  established 
through  France  to  the  eastern  basin  of  the  Mediterranean,  the  possi- 
bility of  such  connexions  throws  into  relief  the  fact  that  the  spiral  is  not 
carried  on  the  dolmens  with  sculptures  of  a  female  divinity  ;  it  is  not 
found  on  them,  and  renders  all  the  more  significant  the  failure  of  the 
spiral  in  the  West.  The  exceptional  nature  of  the  Folkton  objects,  coupled 
with  the  fact  that  the  Hissarlik  face-type  has  been  found  on  urns  in  the 
north  of  Germany  ("Zeitschrift  fiir  Ethnologic,"  1894,  p.  53),  also  the 
wide  distribution  of  saltire  and  lozenge  patterns,  renders  it,  I  think, 
doubtful  that  these  chalk  objects  can  be  regarded  as  evidence  for  a 
west-coast  route,  to  the  exclusion  of  more  central  lines  of  communica- 
tion. That  there  are  elements  in  the  ornament  of  New  Grange  not  to 
be  attributed  to  northern  influence  may  be  readily  conceded.  The 
saltire  and  lozenge  are  rare  in  Scandinavia,  and  these  forms  at  New 
Grange,  no  doubt,  represent  the  general  extension  of  such  ornaments  to 
the  west  in  the  Bronze  Age,  possibly  entering  Ireland  from  the  south. 
I  have  indicated  so  much  when  discussing  the  saltire  and  the  lozenge.1 
But  here,  again,  as  in  the  case  of  the  face-type,  the  spiral  fails  to  follow 
these  patterns  westward. 

It  is  true,  as  Mr.  Evans  points  out,  that  it  is  on  the  western  line, 
"  rather  than  on  the  Danube  and  the  Elbe,  that  we  find  in  a  continuous 
zone  that  Cyclopean  tradition  of  domed  chambers  which  is  equally 
illustrated  at  Myceme  and  at  New  Grange."  But  we  must  remember 
that  this  series,  if  it  be  a  series,  is  carried  up  to  Scandinavia.  Chamber 
graves,  with  passages  and  encircling  stones,  are  numerous  in  Scandinavia. 
But  the  spiral  has  not  been  carried  on  these  monuments  to  Scandinavia. 
There  are  differences  of  types  on  the  way,  and  it  is  remarkable  that  the 
examples  most  closely  resembling  those  at  Mycenae  and  in  Caria  should 
be  found  so  far  away  as  Ireland  and  the  Orkneys.  If  the  form  of  this 
class  of  monuments  represents  a  primitive  and  widely  spread  hut-type, 
it  is  possible  that  the  connexions  between  the  sepulchral  monuments 
are  not  so  direct  as  has  been  generally  assumed.  That  there  is  evidence 
of  intercourse  between  the  Iberian  West  and  Britain  and  Ireland  in  the 
Stone  and  Bronze  Ages,  is  generally  accepted.  But  the  difficulty  I  find 
in  regarding  the  New  Grange  spirals  as  having  been  carried  on  stone  by 
the  West  Mediterranean  route  is,  that  the  examples  in  the  Canary  Islands, 
if  we  venture  to  include  the  latter  in  the  group,  as  also  those  at  Gavrinis, 

1  The  ornament  on  an  urn  of  late  form  found  near  Joppa,  Edinburgh,  strongly 
recalls  the  painted  geometric  patterns  of  Cypriote  pottery.— Proc.  Soc.  Ant.  Scot., 
vol.  xvi.,  p.  423. 


show  the  exhaustion  of  the  motive,  and  we  are  compelled,  if  we  take 
Gavrinis  as  an  intermediate  station,  to  look  on  the  spirals  at  New  Grange 
as  an  ascending  series — in  fact,  a  local  development  reascending  the 
higher  forms  of  the  motive.  It  seems  to  me  to  be  more  reasonable  to 
regard  the  higher  forms  of  spirals  at  New  Grange  as  an  extension  of  the 
higher  forms  of  the  series  so  widely  distributed  in  the  Scandinavian 

Mr.  Evans  is  clearly  influenced  by  the  consideration  that  the  spiral 
first  appears  on  stone.  As  he  remarks,  "  the  important  feature  to  observe 
is  that  here  (Egypt),  as  in  the  case  of  the  early  ^iEgean  examples,  the 
original  material  on  which  the  spiral  ornament  appears  is  stone,  and  that 
so  far  from  being  derived  from  an  advanced  type  of  metal  work,  it  goes 
back  in  Egypt  to  a  time  when  metal  was  hardly  known."  I  have 
already  expressed  dissent  from  the  inference  that  the  spiral  is  therefore 
original  on  stone.  Professor  Petrie's  discoveries  at  Naquada  show  that 
between  the  VI.  and  XI.  Dynasties,  the  spiral  was  a  frequent  form  of 
decoration  on  the  pottery  of  the  non-Egyptian  race.  Professor  Petrie 
attributes  the  spiral  in  this  instance  to  a  conventional  representation  of 
blotched  limestone  breccia  used  for  stone  vases.  But  however  the  case 
may  be  for  the  earlier  ^Egean  spiral,  it  appears  to  me  that  the  main 
impulse  of  the  Mycenae  spirals  is  derived  from  the  painted  decorations  of 
the  XVIIL-XIX.  Dynasties  of  Egypt.  But  even  if  this  be  not 
accepted,  it  is  pretty  generally  agreed  that  the  main  body  of  the  spiral 
decoration  of  Mycenae  is  to  be  placed  between  the  15th  and  the  12th 
centuries  B.C.,  and  that  it  is  from  the  spiral  ornament  of  that  period 
that  the  spirals  of  Scandinavia  have  been  derived.1  Now,  the  fact 
that  the  zone  of  Cyclopean  domed  chambers  extends  to  Scandinavia, 
and  that  the  spiral  has  not  been  carried  to  the  north  on  these 
monuments,  together  with  the  fact  that  the  monuments  inscribed 
with  the  spiral  form  numerically  a  small  minority,  and,  further, 
that  the  spiral  and  other  ornaments  are  placed  on  the  stones  of  such 
monuments  as  have  them  in  a  most  haphazard  way,  strongly  suggest  the 
idea,  I  think,  that  the  incised  ornaments  have  not  been  developed  on  the 
monuments  or  carried  on  them  as  a  tradition,  but,  on  the  contrary,  have 
been  transferred  to  the  monuments  from  other  objects. 

The  question  has  now  to  be  faced  of  the  transference  of  the  Scandi- 
navian spirals  in  metal,  to  stone  in  Ireland.  I  have  dealt  partly  with 
this  difficulty  in  section  vin.  of  my  Paper  in  this  Journal^  1896,  Part  i. 

In  architecture  the  transference  of  painted  and  textile  patterns  to 
stone  is  a  commonplace.  But  we  can  give  a  particular  answer  from 
Scandinavia.  The  carvings  of  ships  so  numerous  on  the  rock- surf  aces  of 

1  The  Scandinavian  spirals,  in  several  instances,  appear  to  be  closer  to  the  Mycenae 
spirals  than  those  of  the  Hungarian  area.  It  is  possible  that  excavations  along  the 
eastern  slopes  of  the  Carpathians  would  throw  some  additional  light  on  the  subject. 


Sweden  are  rarely  found  on  stone  in  Denmark.  Rock -surf  aces  do  not, 
it  is  true,  crop  up  in  the  latter  country,  but  the  ship  motive  is  frequent 
on  bronze  in  Denmark.  It  is  from  the  examples  in  bronze  that  rock- 
carvings  in  Sweden  are  decided  to  be  Bronze  Age.  Again,  it  is  an 
over- statement  to  say  that  the  spiral  is  not  found  in  the  Scandinavian 
rock-carvings.  It  is  no  doubt  relatively  rare,  but  its  occurrence  is 
sufficiently  marked  to  be  included  in  the  following  general  description  of 
rock-carvings  near  Norrkoping  in  Sweden — "  Ces  figures  representant 
des  homines,  des  chevaux,  des  epees,  des  boucliers,  des  na vires,  des 
ecuelles,  des  spirales  simples  et  doubles  etc.,"  and  to  be  used  as  an 
argument  for  the  age  of  the  sculptures — "  les  epees,  les  boucliers  et  les 
spirales  rapellent  tellement  1'age  du  bronze,  que  M.  Hildebrand  croit 
avec  beaucoup  de  raison  que  les  sculptures  en  question  appartiennent  a 
cet  age"  (Bmzelius,  Cong.  Prehist.  Stockholm,  vol.  i.  p.  475).  More- 
over, if  the  spiral  is  rare  on  the  Swedish  rocks,  concentric  circles  are 
numerous.  The  concentric  circles  cannot  here  be  regarded  as  the  de- 
generation of  the  comparatively  rare  spiral  on  the  rocks.  It  must  be 
considered  to  represent  the  degeneration  of  the  bronze  spiral  which, 
towards  the  close  of  the  early  Bronze  Period  in  Scandinavia  is  constantly 
replaced  by  concentric  circles,  and  it  is  to  this  period  that  the  general 
evidence  of  the  rock-carvings  is  related. 

This  argument  gains  greatly  in  force  when  we  take  into  consideration 
the  positive  evidence  concerning  the  British  and  Irish  monuments.  The 
carving  at  New  Grange  will,  I  think,  be  generally  conceded  to  be  Bronze 
Age.  It  is  not  merely  a  question  of  the  spiral.  The  manner  in  which 
the  lozenges  are  in  several  instances  halved  and  quartered,  the  parts 
being  contrasted  by  the  picking  out  of  alternate  triangles  is  characteris- 
tically Bronze  Age,  and  represents  in  stone  the  contrasting  of  triangular 
spaces  by  hatching,  so  general  in  bronze  ornament.  Now,  this  feature  is 
not  a  stone  tradition,  it  cannot  be  traced  on  the  monuments.  On  the 
contrary,  it  seems  to  be  a  direct  translation  from  bronze  and  pottery. 
In  fact,  chevron,  triangle,  lozenge,  and  saltire  patterns  represent  the 
common  stock  of  Bronze  Age  ornament  in  the  west  of  Europe.  These 
forms  have  not  been  carried  on  stone,  but  have  clearly  been  transferred 
to  stone  at  New  Grange  from  bronze,  pottery,  and,  no  doubt,  wood- 
carving.  But  the  attribution  of  the  British  and  Irish  monuments  to  the 
Bronze  Period  does  not  rest  on  the  character  of  the  ornament  alone. 
The  abundant  evidence  of  cremation  at  Loughcrew,  the  Calder  circle,  a 
Bronze  Age  type,  the  discovery  of  Bronze  Age  urns  in  incised  cists  (as 
at  Cunninghar)  all  point  to  the  same  conclusion. 

If,  then,  the  spiral  in  Ireland  and  Britain  is  Bronze  Age,  I  do  not 
see  that  it  is  possible  to  dissociate  it  from  the  body  of  Bronze  Age  spiral 
ornament,  and  to  refer  it  to  the  West  Mediterranean  route  along  which 
the  spiral  is  a  failing  quantity.  Such  reference  introduces  the  difficulty, 
as  I  have  already  said,  of  having  to  consider  the  New  Grange  spirals  as 


an  ascending  series.  On  the  contrary,  the  spiral  series  in  Ireland  is  a 
descending  series;  the  spiral  is  going  out  at  Dowth,  Loughcrew,  and 

The  absence  of  the  spiral  in  bronze  in  Ireland  is  certainly  a  gap  in 
the  evidence.  But  we  must  recollect  that  the  bronze  remains  in  our 
museums  are  but  the  merest  fraction  of  what  once  existed.  It  would  not 
be  possible  from  the  great  collection  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy  to  equip 
one  hundred  men  with  a  full  complement  of  swords  and  spears,  although 
the  collection  represents  many  centuries  of  bronze  manufacture.  I  have 
already  drawn  attention  to  the  fact  that  but  for  the  exception  of  a 
solitary  example  to  the  contrary,  we  might  argue  that  incised  concentric 
circle  ornament  was  unknown  on  Irish  gold  objects.  Yet  the  richness  of 
the  decoration  of  concentric  circles  of  this  solitary  Irish  example  (charac- 
teristically Irish  in  form)  is  such  that  we  may  fairly  infer  that  incised 
concentric  circle  ornament  was  frequently  applied  to  Irish  gold  objects. 

The  conclusive  argument  for  derivation  from  the  Scandinavian  side 
does  not,  however,  rest  on  conjectural  or  negative  evidence.  It  must  be 
insisted  on  that  the  argument  does  not  rest  solely,  or  now  mainly,  on  the 
spiral.  It  cannot  be  merely  a  coincidence  that  the  forms  outside  of  the 
spiral  to  which  I  have  drawn  attention  at  New  Grange  (figs.  60  and  62, 
Journal,  1896,  pp.  47,  49)  cannot  be  traced  on  the  Mediterranean  route, 
but  are  fully  in  place  on  the  Scandinavian  side.  ^Moreover,  the  manner 
in  which  the  spiral  gives  way  at  Loughcrew  simultaneously  with  the 
appearance  of  rayed  concentric  circles  and  wheel  forms  (which  likewise 
cannot  be  traced  on  the  Mediterranean  route)  furnishes  too  close  a 
parallel  to  the  change  in  ornament  from  the  earlier  to  the  later  Bronze 
Ages  of  Scandinavia  to  be  explained  on  other  grounds  than  that  of 
influence  from  the  Scandinavian  side. — GEORGE  COFFEY,  M.E.I. A. 

Battle  of  Dysert  O'Dea. — Can  any  of  our  Members  suggest  a  source 
for  the  legend  of  the  battle  of  Dysert  O'Dea,  Co.  Clare,  which  recently 
appeared  in  the  Illustrograph  ?  The  Irish  are  said  to  have  planted  bul- 
rushes in  the  marsh  to  lure  the  Normans  into  the  quagmire,  under  the 
belief  that  these  plants  only  grew  in  firm  ground.  This  legend  was  not 
found  by  O'Donovan  and  0' Curry  when  they  so  carefully  examined  the 
district  and  peasantry  in  1839  ;;jior  by  me  in  1891,  though  I  took  much 
pains  to  sift  the  legends  of  the  battle.  It  does  not  occur  in  the  written 
accounts,  and  is  precluded  by  the  unexpected  appearance  of  De  Clare 
before  Dysert,  as  recorded  in  "  The  Wars  of  Torlough." 

There  is  a  steady  growth  of  sham  legends,  stimulated  by  tourists  and 
by  the  inquiries  made  for  the  recent  Ordnance  Survey.  The  results 
ought  to  be  carefully  guarded  against  by  the  antiquary  and  collector  of 
folk-lore,  and  if  the  "bulrush"  legend  is  a  mere  modern  invention  (as 
seems  probable),  it  ought  to  be  so  noted. — T.  J.  W. 

JOUR.  R.S.A.I.,  VOL.  VII.,  PT.  III.,  5TH  SER.  T 


Currin  Crannog,  Co.  Tyrone. — In  the  townland  of  Currin,  between 
Eglish  and  Benburb,  is  a  small  lough  less  than  a  mile  in  circumference. 
It  contains  an  island  which,  for  some  time,  I  have  believed  to  be  a 
erannog.  -  To  test  the  truth  of  my  supposition  I  lately  paid  it  a  visit,  in 
company  with  Mr.  Christopher  I.  Hobson  (Member}.  The  island  is 
circular,  and  is  about  45  yards  in  circumference.  It  stands  in  the 
centre  of  the  lough,  and  it  rises  almost  perpendicularly  from  the  bottom, 
as  the  water  all  around  is  exceedingly  deep.  Here  and  there  the  soil 
has  been  washed  away  by  the  action  of  the  waves,  and  this  enabled  us 
to  see  plainly  several  horizontal  logs,  which  evidently  form  part  of  a 
number  that  go  all  round  the  outside  of  the  structure,  and  prove  it  to 
be  a  crannog.  The  island  is  covered  with  small  trees  and  brambles,  and 
its  surface  is  less  than  three  feet  higher  than  the  level  of  the  lough. 
But  the  lough  was  once  higher  than  at  present,  as  a  drain,  which  forms 
the  outlet,  has  evidently  been  deepened. 

A  neighbouring  farmer  states  that,  some  time  ago,  a  considerable 
number  of  logs  were  removed  from  the  island.  Besides  this,  a  quantity 
of  bones  were  found  there,  among  which  was  a  skull  with  long  hair 
attached.  Moreover,  a  small  quern  was  discovered  in  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  the  lake. 

We  had  no  means  of  digging,  and  were,  therefore,  unable  to  make  a 
satisfactory  examination  ;  but  the  horizontal  logs  and  a  number  of  stakes 
that  we  found,  which  were  pointed  with  a  metal  instrument,  were 
enough  to  satisfy  us  that  the  island  once  contained  a  lake-dwelling. 
We  hope,  on  a  future  occasion,  by  favour  of  Mr.  James  Bruce,  D.L.,  the 
proprietor,  to  explore  the  place  more  thoroughly. — W.  T.  LATIMER, 
Fellow,  Hon.  Local  Secretary,  East  Tyrone. 

Baginbun  Inscribed  Stone. — About  the  beginning  of  September  I 
visited  Fethard  and  Baginbun.  The  inscribed  stone  at  Baginbun  shows 
marks  of  recent  blows  of  a  heavy  hammer,  and  pieces  are  broken  off  two 
corners.  The  earth  round  it  had  been  dug  away  and  put  back  again. 
Apparently  the  owner  of  the  field  wishes  to  get  rid  of  it.  If  the  stone 
is  of  any  real  value  to  antiquaries,  something  should  be  done  to  prevent 
its  destruction. — W.  WARING. 

"The  Kilkenny  Museum.' ' — The  following  letter  has  appeared  in 
The  Irish  Builder  addressed  to  the  Editor  of  that  paper  : — 

"  SIR, — I  recently  read,  while  abroad,  in  the  Journal  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Anti- 
quaries, an  extract  from  The  Irish  Builder,  under  the  above  heading,  stating — (1)  That 
it  had  been  proposed  to  *  divert'  from  charitable  purposes  the  small  Elizabethan  build- 
ing known  as  The  Shee  Alms- House,  for  the  purpose  of  housing  therein  the  Kilkenny 
Archaeological  Collection ;  (2)  that  the  building  was  in  bad  repair,  dark,  and  other- 
wise unfitted  for  such  purposes. 


"As  its  owner,  and  a  thirty-seven  years'  Member  of  the  Society  and  of  its  prede- 
cessors, I  beg  permission  to  reply.  (1)  It  was  never  proposed  either  by  myself  or  by 
the  Museum  Committee— well-known  gentlemen  of  Kilkenny  county  and  city,  under 
the  chairmanship  of  the  Marquis  of  Ormonde  (styled  by  your  contributor  '  some  local 
persons ') — to  divert  that  building  from  charitable  uses.  It  was,  when  in  ruins,  about 
twenty  years  ago,  newly  rebuilt  (all  but  the  walls)  by  me.  It  was  then  given,  at  a 
nominal  rent  of  one  shilling  a-year  for  the  use  of  the  Lay  Ladies'  Charitable  Associa- 
tion, and  for  the  employment  in  it  of  distressed  needlewomen.  In  1885  the  manage- 
ment was  changed.  About  the  same  time  the.  workwomen  ceased  to  be  employed,  an